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To the latter of these passages the editor bas money, by their relatives." If so, the people living attached a note thus : " Fray-bug or fray-hnggard in College Road must be singularly unfortunate in (first edition), an imaginary monster.". Though their relatives. the martyrologist is, to use a word employed by a I myself have lived in the immediate neighvery dear friend, á most "undepend-uponable" bourhood of College Road for a great many years, historian, yet there is imbedded in his pages a but I had heard nothing of this telepathic obsession mass of information of considerable value. He is until a friend drew my attention to this notice. also a typical specimen of that class, by no means If I write about the matter, it is not that I myself extinct in our own day, which sees no harm in have any belief in it, it is merely to show that a, perverting the facts of history for the sake of en- tendency to a belief in witchcraft--for what else forcing its own opinions.

is this telepathic obsession ?- seems to be as rame When are we to have a scholarlike edition of pant or as ready to start up now as it was centuries the Acts and Monuments,' showing the variations ago, and that among educated people. between the several issues, and supplied with a A local chemist and druggist seems to have hit body of notes correcting obvious errors, and ex. the right pail on the head, for in the number of plaining the names of men and places which are March 18 be inserted the following advertiseoften disguised so as to be far beyond interpre- ment :tation by any save an expert.

" Telepathic Obsession.- Perfect immunity from this How Foxe ought not to be edited may be insidious complaint guaranteed by taking Fluide-Coca learned from the pamphlets written on this subject Nerve Tonic, post free, with Medical Reports and Testi by the late Rev. S. R. Maitland, D.D. There is monials

, 20., 3. 6d., and 10s. 6d., from," &c. a set of them in the London Library. They are At any rate, it is not precisely telepathic among the most instructive examples of criticism obsession that one would Buffer from if one followed that I ever encountered.

ASTARTE.

this advice, and swallowed the medical reports and

testimonials as well as the medicine, even though “ TELEPATHIC OBSESSION."— The following no postal fee were exacted for their transmission appeared, as an advertisement, in the Norwood downwards to the stomach. F. CHANCE. Review of March 11 and 18, and I am not sure

P.S.-Since the above was written another that it had not appeared once before these dates : Suicide has taken place in College Road, being the

"Notice.-College Road, Dulwich. There is evidence second in the same family in the last six months. of divers inhabitants of this road baviog been submitted during the last few years to telepathic obsession. Cer

" ENGENDRURE."-Thanks to Mr. E. H. Mar. tain people are suspected who have used this form of injury, and more evidence is required against them for shall, M.A., of Hastings, I have been enabled to their

conviction. More than twenty cases of lunacy have correct my culpablo ignorance of this word. I occurred in this road, extending from the Fire Brigade asked what English author besides Mr. Sala had of the Crystal Palace to North Dulwich. Of these cases used it, and in what English dictionary it was to seven have been self-murders. Any information relating be found. The latter part of the query was warto these practices will be gladly received at the office of ranted by the fact that engendrare" is not to be the Norwood Review, addressed L."

In the number of March 18, in addition to this found in Coles, Phillips, Bailey, Johnson, nor notice, there was a long letter addressed by L. to in a Chaucer

lexicon ; and it is to be read three or

Webster. Mr. Marshall turned it up, however, the editor and headed " Telepathic Obsessions." The pith of this letter lies in the last few lines, in four times in almost as few lines in the 'Wife of which L. endeavours to point out how “telepathic

Bath's Prologue.'

W. F. WALLER obsession" may be distinguished from the in

Old PROVERBS REWRIT.--Speaking of Newnsidious advances of insanity. He says :

ham, the Brighton apothecary, Dr. Gordon Hake "The person is at first strong in body and temperate ;

says: he is at first startled at night or in the morning by something relevant to his personality being apparently

"I think often of the advice he tendorod me as a young shouted; it may be he is urged to cut his throat, and if physician: 'Never dine with a pationt. Such has been he is foolish enough, he does it; should he boar his my rule through life; for if you do, sooner or later you obsession and complain of it, his morale breaks down, and are sure to let out the fool,'"-Memoirs of Eighty Years," he is incarcerated. It is not shouting which he hears, 1892, p. 109. but telepathic vocalization, with all that it implies, and Is not this advice as old as Solomon! Cf. his voices are not spiritual, nothing so supernel. They

“When thou sittest to eat with a ruler, consider dilivary, however, from ribulous (bibulous ?} whispers to definite shouts

, urging him on to death or to complain. gently what is before thee : And put a knife to thy They may be known by being always associated with throat, if thou be a man given

to appetite." — Proverbs

xxiii. 1, 2. human beings, and not with the noises of animals and natural sounds."

WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK.

Glasgow. In another part of his letter he quotes a friend who says that this telepathic obsession is practised “SUUM CUIQUE.”—The present Chancellor of “ with the object of incarcerating people with the oldest English University, in a suggestivo

scientific address he gave in the Sheldonian oak which bears an edible fruit, and is derived Theatre on March 1, seems to have over from esca, food or nourishment," and then goes on looked one important point regarding the genesis to assign it to the natural order Sapindace and and history of modern bacteriology, which may not to describe the horse-chestnut. be out of place to be merely touched upon among Dryden, in translating Virgil, is, as might be your “ Notes." The fact is the great discoveries expected on a point of this kind, somewhat loose. of those invisible active germs of various diseases In Georg.,' ii. 16, he renders æsculus "beecb," Dow called bacilli or bacteria, which science attri- wbilst in ii, 291 be calls it simply "Jovo's own butes chiefly to men like Pasteur or Koch of our tree," apparently because Virgil, in the former days, bave not been made all upon a sudden place, speaks of it as "nemorumque Jovi quæ towards the end of this scientific century, but they maxima frondet." were preceded-to refer to but one predecessor- The diphthong in æsculus seems to make the by one of the foremost pioneers of pbysical and derivation from esca doubtful. The word is promedical science, who flourished and worked already bably connected with the Greek ärvdos, itself of before the middle of the century. It was Ehren- uncertain origin.

W. T. Lynn. berg who disclosed, by means of his meritorious Blackheath. microscopic researches, the hidden world of Infusoria, and laid down the results of bis investiga-vincialisms (with which visits north bave long

“ WEEK-END": "TRIPPERS.”—These two protions in a work that appeared as long ago as familiarized my ear) seem, to judge from the fre1838 at Leipzig. It is true that Ebrenberg did not yet discern between Infusoria and Bacteria, and quency of their occurrence in London newspapers consequently did not use the modern

dame of a -although, as yet, rarely attered by polite southBacillas in its present sense ; bat to his labour, on ern lips-likely to obtain general correnoy. As may fairly acknowledge, is due the foundation of they are useful terms of native origin, it is not pros modern bacteriology. A noteworthy record of the bable that they are destined to enjoy a merely life and work of Ehrenberg, which was closed at

ephemeral popularity. HENRY ATTWELL.

Barnes. Berlin in 1876, may be found in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie' (vol. v.), published at Leip- INSCRIPTION IN AN OLD Book. --In an old zig in 1877.

X.

volume of Oxford Latin poems, printed in 1703, I

find written in MS. the following couplet :PRONE. -One would have thought that Mr. Hunc tenet Edvardus Pilkington jure libellum : Henry W. Lucy must know the meaning of this Errantem cernia si modo, redde mihi. little word ; and yet be tells us in Settled Down,'

E. WALFORD, M.A. . in the Graphic, April 8, p. 367, of Mr.

Ventnor. James Lowther, "Before half an hour had sped he was (in a Parliamentary sense, of course) prone on

THE CARDINAL VIRTUES. (Seo 2nd S. viii. 42.) bis back." The authors of The Dynamiter' (p. 18) -The four cardinal virtues, how early were they are more discriminating : "They lay some upon recognized as such ? --- was a question early asked their backs, some prone, and not one stirring.' in ‘N. & Q.,' but which seems to have remained

Sr. SWITAIN. unangwered. The inquirer thought they might

not have come in earlier than the tbree Christian THE HORSE-CHESTNUT.-Whilst admiring the beantiful avenue of horse-chestnut trees in Bushey graces, Faith, Hope, and Charity. In fact, they Park recently, I could not help wondering wby.

are far older. Thus, Cicero (“Ad Herenniam,' iii. 2) botanists had given the genus (which is of the Fortitudinem, Modestiam," equivalent to our Pru,

says, " Rectum dividitur in Prudentiam, Justitiam, order Sapindaceæ, a word derived from Sapoindicus, dence,

Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance. Should owing to the use of the fruit of some species, in doubts arise whether "Modestia" means Temper: making a kind of soap) the name of Æsculus. For

ance, they will vanish when we see

Modestia" it is certainly a very different tree from the esculus defined

by Cicero as "continens in animo moderatio of Virgil (“Georgics,' ii. 16, 291), which seems to cupiditatum.” But the fourfold division of virtues bave been a species of oak, a broad-leaved variety,

was well known to Plato several centuries before according to Prof. Tenore, of the Quercus sessili. Cicero. In planning his ideal republic, modelled flora. The acorns of this variety are sweet and after a perfect mad, be would have it wise, and eaten like chestnuts, whence probably the ancient valiant, and temperate, and just (iv. § 6, E.). Some name. But the puts of the horse-chestnut are Grecian I trust will trace for •Ň. & Q.' the not esculent, although it is said that the name horse "-chestnut is derived from their being genealogy of the grand foar up to an earlier era.

JAMES D. BUTLER, sometimes ground and given to horses medicinally

Madison, Wis., U.S. in the East. Paxton confuses the ancient and modern Æsculus in his 'Botanical Dictionary, HULL Guilds. — Dr. Lambert, in his 'THO where he says it is the name "given to a kind of Thousand Years of Gild Life'(Hall, 1891), prints in English translation the text of the deed of ever, the woodpecker taps the beech, not the elm. foundation of the Holy Trinity Guild of Hull, in The line concludes the second of the four stanzas which the date of its origin is given as 1369. But composing the lyric. In English song-books the probably this is a transcriber's error, as on refer- version set to music by Kelly as The Woodpecker' once to Frost's 'History of Hull' I find that omits the first two lines of the second stanza, the Robert de Selby, the mayor, and William de other two lines being used as a chorus or refrain to Cave (misprinted Cane in Dr. Lambert's book) the first and third stanzas, which embody the attiand William de Bubwith, the bailiffs, who signed tude and the aspiration of a youthful sentimentalist. the document, held office in 1371, and not in 1369, The poetical reading is as follows :in wbich year John Lambard was mayor (the It was noon, and on floxers that languish'd around dames of the bailiffs are not given for that year). In silence reposed the voluptuous bee; With Roman numerals 71 can easily be trans- Every leaf was at rest, and I heard not a sound formed into 69. The certificate of this guild is

But the woodpecker tapping the hollow beech-tree. not in the Public Record Office—at least, it is not

THOMAS BAYNE.

. included in Mr. Selby's MS. index of Guild Certi- Helensburgh, N.B. ficates. As regards the Guild of St. John the Baptist of

CLARK'S ALLEY.- In the course of a ramble Hull

, Dr. Lambert prints a translation of its along the Bankside the other day, I came across original deed of foundation too (p. 111), and con- a mural tablet with the following inscription:jectures (it is not stated on what grounds) that the “This ancient way, known as Clarks Alley, and leadguild was founded about 1350 (p. 233). The date ing from Willow Street to the River Thames, being a is destroyed in the original certificate in the Public free passager, is closed by order of the Clink Commis

sioners, 1796." Record Office, and I presume no copy of the document is to be found among the town records. The days this ancient landmark

will be removed and

This is worth making a note of, for one of these list of mayors compiled by Frost, however, again perhaps lost. It would be interesting if those of enables one to fix the date. The certificate was your readers who know of similar tablets would sent up from Hall in response

to the king's writ | point them out. HENRY R. PLOMER. of 1388, consequently the member of the guild who sigos himself “William, domestic tailor to GREY FRIARS' CAURCH, ABERDEEN.-In conthe Lord William de la Pole," must have been in nexion with the extension of the University of that employment before 1366, in which year Aberdeen it is proposed to demolish the ancient William, son of the oldest koown William de la church of the Grey Friars, which, with the excepPole, died, and the will of the other William, son tion of the north transept and crypt of the East of Richard, was proved. The deed of foundation Church, is the only pre-Reformation building in is signed, according to Dr. Lambert, by William the city. The church was built between 1518 and Transale as mayor, and by Nicholas de la More 1532 by the famous Bishop Danbar, the architect and William Bate as bailiffs. One William de being Alexander Galloway, rector of Kinkell

, a wellStransale was one of the chamberlains of Hull in kdown personage in Sootch ecclesiology. It is 1352, and Nicholas del More one of the bailiffs in built in the earlier and more refined (Scottish) 1363 ; but neither Transale's nor Stransale's name Gothic style, and possesses a fine battressed side occurs in Frost's list of mayors. But there is a and a magnificent Gothic window, which is beautiblank in the list, and only one, before 1366, and fully emblematic of the Trinity. The date of consequently we may fairly assume that the Guild its erection and of every alteration in it being of St. John the Baptist of Holl was founded in that known, it is an important landmark in the somewhat very year, namely, in 1357, and we may also fill up obscure history of Scottish Gothic architecture. the blank left by Frost with the name of William Besides these ecclesiological considerations it posTransale, or probably more correctly Stransale, as

segges various interesting historical associations mayor and the other two dames as bailiffs. Stran connected with the bistory of Scotland and of the salo's colleague as chamberlain of the town, Thomas city of Aberdeen. Unfortunately, it has been de Santon, held the office of mayor in 1355 and completely hidden by buildings all round it except again in 1356.

on one side, where there projects a hideous lastAccording to the will of John Schayl, a burgess century addition to the church. The result of this of Hull, one of his houses was occupied by a is that it is never shown to visitors and very fow Robert de Stransale in 1303.

L. L. K.

citizens know its value or its beauty. The Uni

versity authorities wish to keep the church, as it *THE WOODPECKER.!-A writer in the Decem would make the best possible front to their new ber Good Words, p. 804, likens himself to buildings, but the Town Council, who have con

The woodpecker tapping the hollow elm-tree. tributed to the University extension scheme, The reference, no doubt, is to Moore's 'Ballad insist on a front completely granite (the church is Stanzas : I knew by the Smoke,' in which, how. built of free-stone). This granite fad is no now thing in Aberdeen. Every ancient building in the sente to smell a feaste as euer man sawe. Pasquill met city, with the exception of those mentioned above, him betweene Bifield and Fawseley, with a little Hatte has been destroyed in order to erect a granite like a Sawcer vpon his crowno, a Filchman in his hande, structure in its stead, e.g., the ancient Cathedral mation, some two or three pounds of yron in the bylts Church of St. Nicholas, demolished in 1837. A and chape, and a Ban-dogge by his side to command vigorous action on the part of some of the anti- fortie foote of grounde wheresoeuer hee goes, that neuer quarian societies might yet save the church, which, a Begger come neere him to craue an Almea."-P.6. on both ecclesiological and historical grounds, is The meaning of "ban-dogge" appears plain enough, well worth such an effort. R. S. Rait. and "filchman” is probably a beggar's staff; but Aberdeen.

what is an "ale-dagger ” ? Surely it can have no

connexion with dagger ale ! JOHN TAYLOR Queries

Northampton. We must request correspondents desiring information BRAINS IN ONE'S BELLY.-Where did Cavenon family matters of only privato interest

to affix their dish get this idea from? In describing Henry names and addresses to their queries, in order that the VIII.'s gorgeous entertainment of the French answers may be addressed to them direct.

Embassy at Greenwicb, p. 107 of Mr. F. S. Ellis's INSCRIPTION ON Brass, OXTED CHURCH, SURRE!. Life of Wolsey, the cardinal's old gentleman

beautiful Kelmscott Press edition of Cavendish's -On a stone on the floor of the chancel of this

usher says :church are two effigies of children in brass (the head of one is gone), habited in long, full robes straynge devysis, & order in the same, I do both lake

“But to discrybe the disshes, the subtylltes, the many down to their feet, with full sleeves, their shoes wytt in my grosse old hod, & cunnyng in my bowells, showing, the hands clasped in prayer. Under- to declare the wonderfull and curious imagynacions in neath is this inscription, relating to the elder one, the same invented and devysed." on the dexter side, in capitals :

F. J. F. “ Here lyeth enterred the body of Thomas Hoskins Rev. HENRY ADAMS, M.A. (1764–1839).-Can Gent. second sonne of St Thomas Hoskins Knight who any one acquaint me of any publications by this deceased ye lòth day of Aprill Ao Dni 1611 att yo age of clergyman

? He was from 1798 till his death 5 years who abouto a quarter of an houre before his Rector of Hatch Beauchamp, Somerset, but thos wordes : and leade us not into temptatio' but deliver officiated for forty-nine years as pastor of his nativo us from all evill, being ye last words he spake."

parish of Beaulieu, in the New Forest. I shall be The brass is exceedingly interesting in its details, glad of any notes about him; also dates of and in the matter of costume, but the inscription, degrees. I know he was a Fellow Commoner of recording as it does the last words of the deceased, Wadham College, Oxford, 1785-94. is specially noteworthy. Can any of your readers

BEAULIEU. supply like instances from brasses or monumental SELF-EDUCATION.-In the first volume of Sir inscriptions? In the churchyard of Peasmarsb, Benjamin Brodie's Psychological Inquiries,' 1855, Sussex, is a stone to William Edward, son of p. 251,

he quotes “from Dr. Newman's Lectares William and Sarah Bannister, died Nov. 17, 1871, as telling against a system of over-pressure in aged eight, and on it, “ Nearly his last words education, the case of wero, Don't cry, Ma; I am going to Jesus.'” The “ the poor boy in the poem,-a poem, whether in concepwords " from all evill,” on the brass, are curious. tion of execution, one of the most touching in our lan. Do they occur in the Lord's Prayer in any version guage, -who, not in the

wide world, but ranging day by of the Bible of about this date ? G. L. G. day round his widowed mother's home, & dexterous

gleaner in a narrow field, and with only such slender MONASTIC RULES.—Will some one kindly inform outfit me whether, in the Middle Ages, the monks in a

As the village school and books a few supplied, Cistercian monastery (such as Fountains, in York.contrived from the beach, and the quay, and the fisher' shire) were allowed indiscriminately to go into the and the shepherd's walk, and the smuggler's hut, and surrounding hamlets to visit the sick and dying the mossy moor, and the screaming gulls, and the restpoor ; or whether this duty was allotted to some less waves, to fashion to himself a philosopby and poetry particular monk or monks? I have sought in of his own." several quarters for definite information on this What is the poem alleded to ?

JAYDEE. point, but without success. HERONDAS. Cambridge.

SILVER SWAN.-Was there an order called the

Silver Swan, instituted by Richard II. ? Or was "ALE-DAGGER.”—In Nash's 'Countercuffo giuen it only a badge adopted by that monarch; and to Martin Iunior,' written in reply to one of the where may I read an account of it ? S. M. O. Martin Mar-Prelate Tracts, occurs the following :

" I will leape ouer one of your brother Preachers in MASSACRE OF Scio. — Where can a really North-hampton shire, which is as good a Hownde for his authentic account of this massacre be found 1

for it seems almost incredible that the Tarks Dr. Wilhelm Freund in his "Latin-German Lexicould have put to the sword so great a num con' is, I understand, erroneous. Dr. Freund is, beras forty thousand people, as stated. Pre- I believe, the accepted authority; but the etymology sumably they slew "man and woman, infant and of the word is given differently by Georges, White, suckling." Another account says that out of a and Riddell.

J. COLLINSON. population of a hundred thousand only ten Wolsingham, co. Durham, thousand escaped. This occurred on April 11, 1822. (In the Century Dictionary' it is derived from Lat. Is the massacre in any way referred to or noticed crudelis, and is spelt "crewel," "crewell.”] by Lord Byron, who died at Missolonghi in 1824? Scio claims the honour of having been the birth- CONSTANTIUS II., EMPEROR OF ROME.-Had place of Homer, as do several other places, and is be any descendants ; if so, who were they? I alluded to in the hymn to the Delian Apollo, know, from Gibbon, that he may have had one quoted by Thucydides, 'Ev ois kai avrov born after his death in 361. AMERICAN. ereproon (bk. iii. cap. civ.):

SIR CHRISTOPHER MILTON : ARMS, &c.-Did Υμείς δ' ευ μάλα πασαι υποκρίνεσθ' ευφήμως Sir Christopher Milton bear arms ; if so, wbat Τυφλός ανήρ, οικεί δε Χίω ένα παιπαλοέσση.

were they ; and did he bear a motto? John PickrORD, M.A.

EDWARD W. GEORGE. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

The Woodlands, Stratford, E. LINDSAY AND CRAWFORD.—John, sixth Earl of ISLEHAM, CAMB3.-Can any one identify the Crawford, succeeded his father David, Duke of arms borne on & shield on the magnificent Montrose, who died in 1495–s.p., says Mr. Solly; medieval brass eagle lectern now in Islebam but there was this son John, who survived till 1513, Church : A chevron, itself bearing a roundel, bebut did not claim the dukedom. Under the same tween three groups of five roundels each! Groups head I find that Walter, younger son of John, first of five and eight roundels appear alternately at Lord Lindsay, living 1455, is styled Lord St. John intervals round the moulding of the lectern. of Jerusalem. What is known of this last title ?

Hawkes Mason. A. H. Barton Mills, Mildenhall. "ENGINES WITH PADDLES," A.D. 1699.-Can any of your readers give mo information as to Can any one inform me where the following col

BARTHOLOMEW HOWLETT, THE ENGRAVER what engines were meant by the following, which lection now is, and whether the seals have been I have extracted from the original minute-book "At a Court of Directors of the English East India

engraved ?Company held at Skinners' Hall on Wednesday, April 19; F.S.A., Keeper of the Records in the Augmentation

"By the friendly liberality of John Caley, Esq., with paddles to move ships when they are becalmed, and Office, I am enabled to illustrate these notes with an it was moved that one might be sent at the Company's engraving, from a drawing by the lato Bartholomew charges by the Los fridight

or the Rock. Ordered, that Howlett, of the seal of Tavistock Abbey. It is one of the one of said engines be provided by Mr. Shepherd upon astic seals, made for Mr. Caley by that ingenious artist."

extensive and valuable collection of drawings after mon. the Company's Account." In the King's Library, Brit. Mus., case xviii.,

- Genlleman's Magazine, 1830, pt. i. there is shown the title-page and plate of a small I should much like to be informed where I can see

If this collection of drawings has been engraved, book. The title-page reads :

them, and where Howlett s drawings now are. "A discription and draft of a new invented Machine

LEO. for Carrying Vessels or Ships out of or in to any Harbour Port or River against Wind or Tide or in a Calm, By " AS PROUD AS A LOUSE."-Is this a common Jonathan Hulls. London, 1737. Price 6d."

expression in any part of England besides the The plate shows a stern-wheeled steam-barge West Riding of Yorkshire ? I often heard it in towing a man-of-war. This seems probably a Bradford and the neighbourhood some twenty successor to the engine about which I inquire. years ago; and it was recalled to my mind the

H. B. HYDES. other day in a letter in which it was stated that 5, Eaton Rise, Ealing, W.

Mre. So-and-so was “as proud as a louse of her Joan or ARC AND WILLIAN TELL.-Can any

little girl.”

PAUL BIERLEY. one inform me of any books or magazines (with references) which treat the stories told of the above Steele, in a letter to Pope, dated June 1, 1712,

SIR CHARLES SEDLEY. - Where did he die? personages as mythological tales ? EDWARD W. GEORGE.

which is quoted by Howitt in his 'Northern Stratford, E.

Heights of London,' p. 219, says that he was then

writing in a house, between Hampstead and Lon“CRUELTY."—What is the mediævaletymology don, and, indeed, in the very room, in which Sir of the word cruelty? The etymology as given by Charles Sedley breathed his last. This house on

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