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tured in Aberdeen. Round the staff is inscribed 2. Thomas Green, or Greene, the hero of Chet“ Walterus McEvie fecit anno 1650." On the wood's spurious anecdote, was also a clown, famous top, under the crown and emblems of_royalty, for his impersonation of Bubble in the City are the arms, Quarterly, of Scotland, England, Gallant'; this play, written by John Cooke, is Ireland, and Scotland (again), within the garter ; printed as Green's Tu Quoque”; author and actor above, the Scotch motto, “In defence"; under, were both dead before 1614, the date of the first " God save the King." On the sides are the known edition. The name of Thomas Green does arms of Elphinstone—a chevron between, three not appear in the Dictionary of National Bioboars' heads—and the cognizance of the university, graphy. the pot of lilies (the emblem of the Virgin), but 3. Chetwood's quotation sounds genuine, what. without the three fishes. The royal arms, with ever may be its origin. It is said that his anecdotes the date 1650, suggest that it must bave been were green room traditions, derived through provided to do honour to the visit which Charles II. Downes from Joseph Taylor, who survived till made to Aberdeen July 7, 1650, or on Feb. 25 1652; and it seems probable that some actor may following, while he was still king in Scotland have personated Green upon the stage and intro( Fasti Aberdonenses, Spalding Club, lxiii., Cosmo duced the lines as a gag, but after his identity Inpes).
was lost. The term "Swan of Avon " can hardly be It is certain that the College of Edinburgh older than the date of Ben Jonson's verses, prepossessed a mace of its own in 1640. On the fixed to the folio of 1623. Tbere was another night betwixt the 29th and 30th of October, 1787, Thomas Green, Town Clerk of Stratford, a reputed the door of the library was broken open by thieves, cousin of Shakspere's, his companion in early boyand the mace stolen from the press where it was bood; he survived the clown, and thus endorses the usually kopt. Mr. Creech, the college bailie, pre- bathing in " Avon's Streams"; while, as Green the sented a new silver mace, decorated with the royal clown wrote ‘A Poet's Vision and a Prince's Glory,' ensigns of King James VI., the founder of the 1603, he may have “prattled Poesie" from an college, and with the arms of the city and uni- early date; but this compound does not make a versity beautifully enchased, and having the fol- valid whole.
A. HALL. lowing inscription engraved on one of the compartments under the crown : "Nova Hac Clava
SCAOLA VERLUCIANA (8th S. iii. 148, 272). — Argentea Academiam Suam Donavit Senatus
I made my query brief in order to save the valuable Edinburgensis Consule Tho. Elder Prætore Aca- space of ‘N. & Q.'; but I hope I have not given domico Gul. Creecb A.D. 1789.” The shaft of the any unnecessary trouble. I am mucb obliged to first mace was attributed to the notorious Deacon MR. ADAMs. His alternative, Warminster, may Brodie, who was executed on Aug. 29, 1788, for be the right renderiog. I was anxious to fix the robbing the Excise Office ("The Story of the whereabouts of Thomas Martin, B.A., formerly
scholar of Balliol, University of Edinburgh,' by Principal Sir Alex.
DUDC Scholæ Verlucianæ Grantu, vol. i. p. 250). J. F. S. GORDON.
magister,” who edited_Theocritus' in 1760. The
book is dedicated to Tbomas (Thynne), Viscount SCOTTISH COUNTIES (8th S. iii. 229). — Astarte, Weymouth, patron of the school, to whose family as “an English student of Scottish bistory,” should Martin expresses himself indebted for "quicquid scarcely be ignorant of Robertson's Historical babeo...... victum......Vestitum......tectum.” There Essays in connexion with the Land, the Church, is a list of subscribers, mostly of the West country. &c.,' 1872. Pp. 112-132 deal with the shire. See In the few books I have at hand, Verlucio is also the same author's 'Scotland under her Early identified not only with Warminster, but also Kings,' 2 vols., 1862.
with Devizes, Westbury, Leckham, and HighWILLIAM GEORGE BLACK. field.
W. O. B. Glasgow.
TôE LETTERS OF JUNIUS (8th S. ii. 481; iii. SHAKSPEARE AND GREEN (86b S. iii. 227).-It 49, 111, 189).–With great force DR. DRAKE seems that Chetwood was a regular gaol-bird, and unfolds his conviction that none other than the if, as suggested, his books really were compiled Great Commoner was the writer of Junius, and he while in “durance vile,” he might, under stress also contrives to invest his note with considerable for material, draw largely upon a teacherous interest. But of evidence capable of being poised memory supplomented by pure imagination. in the judicial scales there is not a scintilla, save
1. The Two Maids of More-Clack' was written the coincidence of a single piece of phrasing, which by Robert Armin, acted in 1609, and the printed may be found among all authors and in all ages. version fails to support Chetwood's statements ; Moreover, he does not tell us whether the letter the aathor was a pupil of Tarlton, himself a famous in which it occurs succeeded the speech, or the clown and included in the patent conferred by speech the letter. In the former case it would James I. in 1603; he was living till 1611, and seem to be an additional piece of evidence in the date of his death is not recorded.
favour of Francis, who, reporting in the House
of Lords, would be likely to jot down a happy WEDDING WREATHS (8th S. iii. 229).—Edward pbrase, and might accidentally, or purposely, Wood, in his Wedding Day in all Ages and reproduce it in one of his letters. Some writers Countries,' says that the custom of crowning the on this subject appear to forget that there has parties at marriages with garlands descended from been collected in support of Francis (and of no the Jews and the pagans of Greece and Rome to one else) a great mass of presumptive evidence, the first Christians, and from them to the Angloa masterly analysis of which, by Mr. Leslie Stephen, Saxons. There was a particular service on the may be found in his life in the 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' occasion of crowning, and in the ceremonial the which is about as convincing as the nature of the marriage of Cana was mentioned several times. case permits. His position can never be under- Probably on this account, all the early paintings mined by the hearsay evidence of a steward upon of that marriage represent the parties crowned, the contents of a paper which, if it existed, had Among the Anglo-Saxons, after the marriage and never been opened, or, if opened, had never been benediction, both the bride and the bridegroom rovealed; nor by the suggestion of motives, which were adorned with a chaplet of flowers or a crown are often inscrutable, and which our courts of law of myrtle, which was kept in the church for the are wisely careful to leave alone. As well may purpose. the wedding present of a copy of Junius by Francis The following extract from the Daily News, of be considered valuable evidence, or the bequest of the marriage in the Russian Greek Church of the & copy of "Junius Identified to his wife con- Duke of Edinburgh and the Grand Duchess Marie, clusive. Nor, to my mind, is the mere statement in January, 1874, is a recent instance of the use of a person, however distinguished, that he knew of crowns in the marriage ceremony:who Junius was, of any value, unless the evidence is disclosed upon which the statement is based. number of prayers are said ; then two crowns are brought
“The benediction is followed by the Ectinia, and a Other people, of more or less note, have made on a tray, and the priest takes one, and, making the sign similar statements ; but having unwisely revealed of the cross with it over the head of the bridegroom, their nominee, their statements have been put to says, "The servant of God, A, B-, is crowned for the the proof and negatived.
handmaid of God, Y- Z-, in the name of the Father, As I pointed out in a previous note, it is not bridegroom, and is then placed on his head, or is held
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' It is kissed by the necessary to go beyond the threshold of the letters over him during the ceremony. The same takes place to disestablish the claims put forward on behalf with the bride and the other crown. These crowns have of Chatham. The first of the miscellaneous letters no relation to the rank of the couple, but are used at the (written, be it noted, when Chatham was perfectly the crown of the bridegroom there is the figure of Christ,
marriage of a peasant as well as that of a prince. On prostrate) is so thoroughly characteristic of Junius, and on that of the bride is the Virgin. A benediction is both in style and matter, that I should be surprised given- O Lord our God ! Crown them in like manner to find any one venturing to deny the writers with glory and honour'; and then follows the ‘Proidentity. If he does so, then he creates a second kimenon – Thou hast put crowns of precious stones upon Junius, for the letter is inferior to none in the them a long’life; for Thou shalt give them the blessing
their heads; they asked life of Thee, and Thou gavest Junius series, and we are in a worse plight than of eternal life;' Thou shalt make them glad with the
But, assuming the identity, Chatham's joy of Thy countenance. Then comes the • Epistle of claims are entirely extinguished. For what man the Office,' Eph. v. 20, 33, and the Gospel, which is the in his senses would write a letter to a public paper second chapter of St. John, relating the marriage in maligning himself with a mercilessness of which Cana, ending with the eleventh verse. only a Junius is capable, in order to conceal his After the anthem and the drinking of wine from identity on account of a danger which he had not the “Common Cup," and farther prayers, and, as yet created and could not possibly have foretold ? the two are now one-inseparably bound in the The simile of the retiring cuttlefish is very pretty, ties of holy matrimony—the priest takes off the but it fails when applied to this letter; for even a bridegroom's crown, saying, 'Be thou exalted, cuttlefish does not interpose bis inky veil two O bridegroom, like unto Abraham, and blessed years before he bas discovered the necessity of like unto Isaac, and multiplied like unto Jacob. keeping out of sight.
Walk in peace, and do
all according to the comI purposely leave untouched all the manifest mandments of God.” Taking the bride's crown, improbabilities that surround Dr. Drake's in- he says, “And thou, O bride, be thou exalted like genious theory, and the mass of evidence which unto Sarah, and rejoice like unto Rebeeca, and may be cited against it. It is not necessary for multiply like unto Rachel ; rejoice with thy hasthe defendant's counsel to address the court unless band, and keep the ways of the law; and the the plaintiff has made out a case to answer. Con blessing of God be with thee." jecture, however temptingly put, is not evidence ; The Liverpool Mercury of November 3, 1873, and at present wbat evidence on the subject exists contains a report of a marriage in the Greek Church, is almost all confined to a support of the claims of Princes Road, when the ceremony of crowning with Sir Philip Francis. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY. two crowns which had been previously blessed was
performed—one being placed on the head of the long forgotten, namely, that some forty years ago bridegroom and the other appropriated in a similar the late Mr. Healey, of Ashby Decoy, a place manner to the bride. Each then takes in band a about eight miles west of Brigg, had an old and glass of common wine, during which certain much dilapidated sedan-chair near the duck-pool. prayers are repeated, and a sponsor or witness to It was used as a hiding-place for the decoy-man the union then comes forward. The rings and the while watching the wild ducks. So far as I recrowns worn by the bride and bridegroom are member it was just like the sedan-chairs which then interchanged, after which hymns are sung by appear in old prints. I think, but am not certain, the officiating priest.
that Mr. Healey procured it at York. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.
EDWARD PEACOCK. 71, Brecknock Road,
Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. The 'Catholic Dictionary' says, “In the Greek
The writer of an article on “ this particular Church the marriage service is known as å kolov- instrument of locomotion” in the Daily Telegraph Ola Tôv otepavánatos, the office of crowding...... of April 8—who, if I recognize his ine Roman The priest pats a crown on the head of each, with band, has speculated on its mysterious etymology the words, The servant of God N. crowns the before now in other columns, and who has recently servant of God N. in the name, &c.'" With bad an opportunity of making inquiries on the regard to the West, the same authority says, spot-seems to have gone very pear plucking the “Two striking ceremonies mentioned by (Popej mystery's heart out. An English "nobleman or Nicholas I. in his answer to the Bulgarians, and scholar who had made the grand tour," and who both older than Christianity itself, are now un- was familiar with the Italian" sedentina,” brought known among us [Catholics). These are the the word home with him; and so the “ sedentina” solemn veiling of the bride and the wearing of be found in London became "sedan” by corcrowns by the married couple."
GEORGE Angus, I am much obliged to MR. ADAMs for his referSt. Andrews, N.B.
ence in this matter to Ménage. Larousse does not The following lines by Keble, in his ' Hymn on introduced. If, as would now appear to be the case,
state the place from which the chaise-à-porteurs was Holy Matrimony,' in his ‘Miscellaneous Poems,' may be of interest to Avis, where the idea of they were brought into France from this country,
the origin of the term sedan-chair crowning the bridal pair occurs :
recondite than ever.
W. F. WALLER.
Some years ago you added a note to a com-
munication upon this subject that you were overThe hallowed path they trace,
whelmed with matter relating to sedan-chairs; but To cast their crowns before Theo
I hope you will be able to find room for this one. In perfect sacrifice,
I have recently boen endeavouring to find out Till to the home of gladness
when sedan.chairs were first called by that name. With Christ's own Bride they rise.
In the signet bill in connexion with Sir Saunders " It seems to me, of all his poems, the most tho. Duncombe's patent of 1634,
mentioned by a correroughly adapted as an absolute hymn for a part of spondent in 'N. & Q.,' 3rd S. ix. 138, they are worship, ranking with the old hymns of the Christian called “covered chairs," and the same expression Church, whose chime it has fully caught in the Invoca- is used in the enrolment of the patent (Patent tion of each Person of the most holy Trinity, and the Rolls, 10 Chas. I., pt. ix. No. 2), and also in the fical allusion to the custom of crowning the married Docquet Book. Bat in the MS. index to the pair, universal, except in our Church, and there only Patent Rolls at the Public Record Office the words alluded to by the bridal wreath." From "Musings over the Christian Year and The question arises, Where did the clerk who made
“ called sedaps" are added after “covered chairs." Lyra Innocentium,' by C. M. Yonge. ALICE.
the index, which is of contemporary date, get the SEDAN-CHAIR (8th S. ii. 142, 611; iii, 54, 214) word from? I referred the matter to one of the -It may be worth while to give the following officials, but he could give no explanation. Can quotation relative to sedan-chairs :
apy of your readers supply an earlier instance of “ There is in Babia (Brazil) another means of loco
the use of the word ? motion which I have never seen elsewhere. Nothing
Since writing the above I have come across a less than the good old-fashioned sedan-chair of Queen letter dated May 20, 1626, written by one Gabriel Anne's day, carried by two stout negroes. The model is Browne, living in London, to a priest in Spain, exactly that of the queer box in which our great-grand- which contains the following :mothers were wont to be carried to rout and ball.". E. F. Knight, Cruise of the Falcon,' fourth edition, the multitude here that being sickely he [the Duke of
“ You can hardlie beleeve how bitterly it has disgusted 1887, p. 36.
Buckingham) suffered himself to be carried in a covered When I read this it brought to my mind a thing chaire upon his servants' shoulders through the streets
in the daie time between Whitehall and Denmarko ii. 335, though he does not gives the lady's name House."
in full, as the worthy vicar (who was naturally The document is preserved amongst the State surprised at the use of coarse expressions by one Papers at the Public Record Office (Domestic, whom he believed to be moving in high life) tells Chas. I., 1626, vol. xxvii. No. 36), and is endorsed, us that he loved to do. " Copie of a letter written by a Papist in England That the word really is a modification of the to a priest in Spaine, intercepted at the Ports."
Basque for “God” seems by far the most proR. B. P.
bable, especially in view of the epithet “living." SIR TREVOR CORRY (8th S. iii. 167).—Trevor usually joined to it; but as to how or when it Corry, third son of Isaac Corry, Esq. (ob. 1752), of was introduced into this country it is difficult Newry, co. Down, by his wife Mrs. Cezarea even to form a probable conjecture. Your learned Montgomery, widow, the daughter of Edward correspondent MR. PEACOCK gives, in 'N. & Q.. Smyth, Esq., of Newry, was for many years Com- och s. iii, 78, a quotation from a book by John missary and British Consul to the Republic of Eachard (published first in 1670) which contains Dantzig. He was created Baron of the Kingdom the expression “High Jingo," the writer apparently of Poland by Stanislaus Augustus in 1773, and thinking, if we may judge by the rest of the knighted by King George III. on May 29, 1776. sentence, that the word " jingo" had some conSir Trevor was the first who suggested the necessity nexion with “jingle."
W. T. Lynn.
Blackheath. for a new church in his native town, towards which purpose be bequeathed 1,0001. He also left 3,0001.
“By Jingo” occurs once, and "By Gingo" to the poor of Newry. He married shortly before twice, in a comedy by Colley Cibber, entitled his death Lucy Sutherland, but died without issue The Double Gallant, or the Šick Lady's Cure,' at Pirytz, in Pomerania, on Sept. 1, 1781. The published in 1754. Curiously enough, the "mild “Corry Monument,
." in Sandys Street, Newry, bath," as Dr. Annandale terms it, is in this play was dedicated to the memory of Trevor Corry, who twice directed against a certain bullying captain, died July 22, 1838, by the inhabitants of Newry not, however, by another big bully, but by a “Sir and the neighbourhood. It may be added that the Solomon," a man of peace. In 1824, it may be name of Trevor Corry is of frequent occurrence in worth stating, according to a paragraph in John the account of Corry, of Newry, appearing in Bull for May 2 for that year, there were actually a Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' 1886, vol. i. p. 412. Mr. and Mrs. Jingo living in Demerara. They
DANIEL HIPWELL. were negroes, and had been, unhappily, separated. 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.
“It appeared they were both in fault, and after an Loops (8th S. iii. 227). - Loops were in general
hour's talking they were romarried by Mr. W.," a Use among country people in Sussex in my younger
N. E. R. missionary.
West Herrington. days, for fastening their leather spats or spatterdashes, instead of buttons. The loops commenced at THE HOLLOW SWORD-BLADE COMPANY (8th S. the bottom, passing through a hole in the spats, iii. 8).–Further details of this company, apparently the next loop, passing through the previous one, connected with “the Cutlers," will oblige. The the last being fastened to a button on the upper part epithet “hollow" may be explained by the term of the breeches. Spats thus treated were easier to “hollow-ground razors.”
A. 8. fasten than with the round leather buttons which came into use later on. Jas. B. MORRIS. THOMAS Zouco, D.D., and HENRY ZOUCR Eastbourne.
(860 S. iii. 125, 198). - It may be added that the HELL FIRE CLUB (8th $. ii. 127, 178, 211, 312). Dr. Zouch's marriage with Isabella Emerson on
parish register of Winston, co. Durham, records - The ruins of a house in which the Hell Fire July 9, 1772.
DANIEL HIPWELL. Club once held their orgies is a familiar object 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. near Kilakee, co. Dublin. It stands on the Bummit of a mountain, and can be seen from a RUBBERS (8th S. iii. 68, 173). —Your corregreat distance. This strange thing of the past is spondent at the second reference states that "rubnoticed in the Life of Fr. Tom Barke, vol. i. bers did not signify “a contact or collision of two pp. 183-215, London, Kegan Paul.
balls.'” Sir Walter Scott seems to have thought
BEELZEBUB. otherwise. In 'Redgauntlet,' C. XX., Nixon is “JINGO" (866 S. iii. 228).-It seems odd that represented as saying, “They who play at bowls MR. C. E. E. CLARK should apparently have for- mūst meet with rubbers." gotten the use of this expression by Miss Carolina
F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. Wilelmina Amelia Skeggs (or her friend the DERIVATION OF INFLUENZA (8th S. iii. 186).pseudo Lady Blarney) in the Vicar of Wakefield. There can be no doubt that the word "influenza" has This is alluded to by P. P. in ‘N. & Q.;'6th S. been applied in its modern sense, and in that only,
for at least one hundred and fifty yeare. Io 1758 a reference to contemporary French literature was published “Observations on the Air and Epi- would best settle the point. W. SYKES, F.S.A. demical Diseases by John Huxham. Translated from the Latin.” Writing of what was undoubtedly
As influenza is to catarrh in medicine, so is an epidemic of influenza in 1743, after describing Latin, fluo (influentia) to Greek Karappoos all its well-known symptoms, be continues, “This (kará+péw); so rheo=fluo. Both mean a serious fever seemed to have been exactly the same with discharge of rboum (that which flows), and comthat which in the Spring was rife all over Europe, little of influenza, but treats catarrh with all
Scientific medicine knows but termed the Influenza.' was the earliest date of the common use of the respect. No doubt the study of bacteriology may word in England (not of the introduction of the produce a difference in future text-books ; but, disease) is rendered probable by a letter from W. again, the scare of bacteria may die out. i holá Watson, M.D., to Jobn Huxham, M.D., dated that we all have them about us, innocent in themLondon, December 9, 1762 (quoted in Thompson's selves, but rendered noxious under complications. * Annals of Influenza,' Syd. Soc., edit. 1852, from
A. HALL. which nearly the whole of this information is In Millhouse's Italian Dictionary,' fourth ediderived). The writer says: “It [i.e., the epidemic tion, 1870, vol. i., Eng.-Ital., "influenza” is of 1762) is nearly the same disease which was at translated Grippo, infreddatura.” Velasquez, London in April and May, 1743, and then called 'Spanish Dict.,' 1853, gives no equivalent in that 'Influenza,' the name applied to it in Italy." tongue, but a description, “ Catarro ó fluxion epiIn previous epidemics the names given to the demica.”
W. F. WALLER. disease in England varied from the Catarrhal
Sir James Douglas, whose second wife was Fever," the Short Fever,” “the Epidemical sister of King Robert II., died in 1420. Catarrhous Fever," "the Epidemic,” “ "the Feveret," to “ the Dunkirk Rant,” &c.
“He died of a very fatal epidemic which the faculty
attributed to the badness of the seasong. It was called Your correspondent Dr. CHANCE is probably by our forefathers the Qühew. In our day it would right in some of his remarks regarding the reason have been named Influenza."--Cosmo Innes, Sketches why the name of “ “influenza was applied to this of Early Scottish History and Social Progress,' 1861, one disease and this one only. It seems to have p. 335, foot-note.
WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK. struck the eighteenth century pbysicians with
12, Sardinia Terrace, Glaegow. astonishment, and we find frequent reference to its universality and its non-infectious nature, while it Discussions have arisen' at various times in is also definitely ascribed by several writers to the 'N. & Q.! as to the history of the word "infla“influence of the air." And laborious meteoro-enza. The following extract from the correspondlogical observations were made by many observers epce of an agent of Louis XVIII. at St. Helena to find out what the special “influence of the air” during the captivity of Napoleon may be of interest. in the epidemic in question could be.
It is dated "Janvier, 1817," and is cited in the some of the Italian medical
literature prior to 1743 | La mortalité cat malheureusement à la mode depuis he would find early instances of the term “influ- quelque temps. Les inflammations sont très communes enza” in a less specialized sense, either applied to let dangereuses, car en quatre jours l'on est mort ou bors the causes of this disease or, as be suggests, to influence ; elle est causée par la sécheresse qui regne
d'affaire. C'est la maladie du moment, que l'on appelle other diseases.
depuis plusieurs mois." I should be glad if some reader of ‘N. & Q.'
T. P. ARMSTRONG. could throw light on the French synonym for influenza, la grippe. Dr. Grant, in bis essay on
[See 7th 8. xi. 446; xii. 51.) influenza, published in 1782, asserts that the A SEVENTEENTH CENTURY COMMONPLACEBOOK: French term la grippe was derived from an insect Sr. WINIFRED'S NEEDLE (86 S. iii
. 163, 212).of that name, remarkably common in France during “St. Winifred's Needle,” mentioned in the Seventhe previous spring, which the people imagined teenth Century Commonplace Book' as a test of contaminated the air. On the other hand, a writer virginity, is, of course, an error for “St. Wilfrid's in the British Medical Journal of February 13, Needle" in the crypt of Ripon Minster. This is 1892, quotes a French arcbæologist, M. Vacquer, a horizontal cylindrical opening, with a funnelwho states that the term grippe in this sense owes shaped mouth externally, through the wall on the its origin to King Louis XV. In a meteorological north side of the remarkable crypt under the record kept at Versailles in 1743 appears the fol. lantern, ascribed with good grounds to St. Willowing : "During the months of February and frid, and probably intended by him, like that conMarch colds and inflammation of the lung were structed by him at Hexham, for the exhibition of very prevalent at Versailles and Paris. The king the relics he had brought with him from Rome. gave the disease the name of grippe.” Here, again, According to Camden the passage through this