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satisfactory, as the authorities for the statements less to say, Westminster scholars. The work now comwere not given. There is no doubt that the pleted and given to the world consists of the names and punishment was what the term naturally signifies. records of boys admitted to Westminster School between

June, 1764, and August, 1883. No explanation of these I have only just lighted on Callot's 'Miseries of limitations is proffered. The compilers, bowever, are War' among my prints. No. 14 of this vivid still seeking particulars concerning the Westmonasseries gives a perfect view of the process of execu- trians admitted previously to June, 1764, and it seems tion. In the middle of a place surrounded by that the period now dealt with is that covered by the soldiers a platform of some height is raised, and on These are four in number, and extend over the period

books of entries at present in possession of the head master, it a poor unfortunate prisoner is securely bound to mentioned,

with the exception of the date from Sept. 27, an actual wheel-of cart or cannon-resting hori. 1788, to the end of 1805, the admissions for which time zontally on stout wooden supports firmly fixed to are not forthcoming. Head masters have been, it the wheel and platform. At the head of the victim appears, in the babit of looking upon these books as there stands a confessor with a crucifix in his band, MSS., as well as the book of Dr. Nicolls, containing,

their private property, and it is hoped that the wanting attending the poor fellow, and opposite the execu- among others, the admission of Gibbon, may yet be distioner with a great heavy club, raised to break the covered. We think, however, of the fate of Warburton's bones of the condemned.

J. C. J. plays, and are not too sanguine.

The task of Messrs. Russell Barker and Stenning has This is a gruesome and ghastly subject, and been carried out with exemplary judgment and zeal. perhaps the less said about it the better. But How ample is the information sometimes supplied will German engravings of executions leave us in no be seen by a reference to the name Somerset. In some doubt as to the nature of the atrocious punishment cases that we note an inquiry in ‘N. & Q. would have of the wheel.” The criminal was stripped and in one or two instancer, it is to be feared, irrecover

speedily obtained information not now forthcoming, and bound, supine, usually upon a wheel, fixed hori- ably lost. Occasionally matters of interest, political or zontally on a scaffold, with legs and arms extended ; literary, spring up, as when we read of Robert Southey and the executioner fulfilled his cursed office by that he was expelled from the school in 1792 for an grasping what appears to have been an ordinary article contributed to the Flagellant. The work is well

executed and welcome. cart-wheel (about forty inches across) at each end of its horizontal diameter, and then bringing down the Church of All Saints, East Budleigh. Part II. By the lower part of the rim with all his might on each T. N. Brushfield, M.D. Reprinted from the Transof the naked limbs in turn of the unbappy victim,

actions of the Devonshire Association for the Advancethus crushing them (much as the malefactor's limbs

ment of Science, Literature, and Art. were crushed after crucifixion); and he seems to The histories of our towns and villages are one by one

being treated of-sometimes in a manner wbich gives have completed the awful operation by snch blows satisfaction, more often, we are sorry to say, in a way on the breast as more or less speedily terminated which shows that the authors possess enthusiasm withlife. Favoured criminals were sometimes strangled out insight; now and then we come across books of this before being “ broken.”

sort that are mere trade speculations. At present The wheel was in its third and last capacity be not promptly taken to show the reading public what

this sort of imposture is rare. If, however, means used as a gibbet, on which the severed limbs and

a good village bistory should be like, we dread very much bead of the victim were exposed, in terrorem, at that as the desire for local knowledge goes on growing the cross-ways; and no one who has glanced at this kind of pestilent literature will rapidly increase. Retzsch's " Outlines to Bürger's Ballads ’ is likely bad books than to furnish examples of really good ones


There is no better method of stopping the influx of to forget the telling effect caused by the intro- This Dr. Brushfield has done in a most exemplary duction of this spectacle in the fifth illustration to

To all Devonshire men his history of the * Lenore' and the fourth to the ‘Pfarrer's Tochter Church of All Saints, East Budleigb, ought to be a work von Taubenhayn.'

J. ELIOT HODGKIN. of surpassing interest; but not to them alone, for to those Richmond, Surrey.

who live far away from Devonshire and who bave no Devonian blood in tbeir veins it will serve as a model of

how a town history should be written. We cannot wish Miscellaneous.

for a better fate for Dr. Brushfield's little work than that

a copy should be deposited in every local library throughNOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

out the land, so that intending authors might have a Westminster School Register from 1764 to 1883. Compiled specimen before them showing how a work of this kind and Edited by G. F. Russell Barker and Alan H. should be done. Stenning. (Macmillan & Co.)

Devonshire is noted for its wood carvings. Much as Forty years have elapsed since the · Alumni West- her churches bave suffered from the zeal of reformers monasterienses' of Mr. Charles Bagot Phillimore was and Puritans, it is probable that even more havoc bas given to the world. During that period other loyal song been made in the latter days by “ beautifying" churcbof Westminster-notably Mr. Frederic H. Forshall, the wardens and ignorant committees of " restoration.” author of • Westminster School Past and Present,' 1884– What damage has taken place at East Budleigh we have contributed towards preserving and rendering cannot estimate, but the full fury of the tempest has not accessible its records. A further important contribution raged there. The old benches, with their curious sculpto the same end is now made by Mr. Russell Barker, well tured ends, have been saved." of these Dr. Brushfield. known on the • Dictionary of National Biography' and in gives a very careful description. They are well worthy •N. & Q.,' and Mr. Stenning, both of thom, it is need of all the attention which he has bestowed upon them.


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There cannot be much doubt that they are the work of a few sentences to anticipate Rabelais. The light it Jocal artists some time early in the sixteenth century. casts upon mediæval manners is very singular. We now call these things open benches or gente, Old London Street Cries. By Andrew W. Tuer, F.8. A. reserving the word “pew" for a pen with a door. Our forefathers called them pews. That pews in the modern EM BOLDENED by the favourable reception given to the

(Leadenhall Press.) sense existed before the Reformation bas been ardently book in a costly edition, Mr. Tuer has now published a denied; but Dr. Brushfield shows that this is a mistake. cheap edition, which appears already to have reached its That there were a few pews with doors in Roman seventy-sixth thousand. It contains abundant matter of Catholic times is certain, but we imagine that they were antiquarian interest, is profusely illustrated, and oververy uncommon. Sir Thomas More uses the word fows with references to N. & Q. Some of the matters eeveral times, but we cannot call to mind any instance in dealt with in. N. & Q.' are not yet satisfactorily settled. which it is quite certain that the term is employed in the The most notewortby example he affords Wallis suggests, and “Water for the Buggs” remains

A tormenter for your fleas” modern sense.

can scarcely be what Mr. is when he speaks of seeing." men fall at varyance for unexplained. The little volume is welcome. A comkissing of the pax, or goying before in procession, or setting of their wives pewes in the church" (ed. 1557, panion volume, giving a selection from country cries, is &

desideratum, p. 88, c.). In those days men and women commonly sat on different sides of the church, and here we have, in all The Pilgrim's Progress. By John Bunyan, (Bagster & probability, an allusion to the women's seats, wherein it Sons.) was but according to nature that the “wiues” should We have here a very cheap, handy, and accurate edition squabble as to who should bave the most notable place. of Bunyan's immortal allegory, illustrated with quaint

Dr. Brushfield has collected much that does not cuts. directly relate to East Budleigh in illustration of the Hazell's Annual for 1893 contains, 28 usual, & objects still to be found in the church and the entries in stupendous mass of information of the most varied the old parish account-books. Among other things we kind. Among annuals it has established a position as have a very complete essay on the old practice of chain

one of the most valuable. ing such volumes as the writings of Erasmus, Foxe, and

We have received a copy of the Baptist Handbook for Jewell in the churches. In the reign of Henry VIII. an order was made that the Bible in English should be placed of information calculated to be of service to the Baptist

1893 (Veale, Chifferiel & Co): containing a large amount in the churches for the use of the parishioners. This

Union. has been thought to have been a new departure. Many instances, however, could be given of chained Bibles in

The next volume of the “* Book-Lover's Library” will churches in pre-Reformation times. We do not, however, be entitled. Literary Blunders: a Chapter in the History remember any example of their being in the vernacular.

of Human Error,' by Mr. H. B. Wheatley, F.S.A., the Sprigs of yow have been used all over the north of editor of the series. It will be issued during the present Europe instead of palms on Palm Sunday. In Devon- month. shire it seems that this use so impressed itselt on the minds of the people that the yew tree was known by the quarian magazine, edited by J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A.

The Illustrated Archæologist, a new quarterly antiname of palm.

Scot., will be published in May next by C. J. Clark, of The Poetical Works of William Wordsworth. Edited, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

with Memoir, by Edward Dowden. Vols. II, and III. (Bell & Sons.)

Notices to Correspondents. MR. DOWDEN's admirable and authoritative edition of Wordsworth progresses satisfactorily. The second

We must call special attention to the following notices : volume is in some respects the best of the series, con.

On all communications must be written the name and taining as it does the poems of the fancy and those of address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but the imagination, including 'Peter Bell, • The Wag- as a guarantee of good faith. goner,' 'Laodamia,' • Hart Leap Well,' “She was a

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. phantom of delight,"' 'Lines composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey,' and innumerable others. Strong

To secure insertion of communications correspondents claims may, however, be put in by vol. iii., with the must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, sonnets “ It is a beauteous evening" and others of un

or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the equalled beauty, 'Rob Roy's Grave' and many other signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to poems which it is a delight to read once more in this appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested bandsome and convenient edition. Vol. iii. is, how to head the second communication "Duplicate.' ever, a little too thick and cumbrous. The notes are TANG JE PUVS.—Sonnets on Tennyson by Mr. Theodore excellent. Wby, we are inclined to wonder, is the second Watts appear in the Athenæum for December 24 and 31, line only of the sonnet " With how sad steps, O moon," 1892. A poem by Mr. Swiuburne appears August 29, put in inverted commas ? Surely both the first lines are 1891, in the same periodical. taken from Sidney!

M. E. NICOLLE, Jersey ("Pouring oil on troubled The Vision of Mac Conglinne. Edited by Kuno Meyer. waters ”).-Consult General Indexes to · N. & Q. With an Introduction by Wilhelm Wollner. (Nutt.)

R. A. FARQUHARSON (“ Silver').- A query as to Silver We have here, with a new translation and glossary, Hill is put 8th S. ii. 366, and remains unanswered. notes, an index of names, and an all-important introduction, an edition of a work which appeals not only to Irish Editorial Communications should be addressed to“ The scholars, but to the folk-lorist and the student of medi- Editor of “ Notes and Queries '”-Advertisements and æval institutions. Prof. Wollner is almost disposed to Business Letters to “ The Publisher"-at the Office, believe in an intention on the part of the author to Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C. parody the celebrated vision of Irish saints. What is the We beg leave to state that we decline to return com. true signification of this quaint gastronomical story we munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and .cannot undertake to say. In some respects it seems io to this rule we oan make no exception.

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Hundred Illustrations,

Vol. XVI. will contain a COMPLETE INDEX. Vol. XVII, SAINTS with their EMBLEMS.

This Day's ATHENÆUM contains Articles on


SCIENCE-The Faunas of Argyll and of Lakeland; School-Books;

Anthropological Notes ; Societies; Meetings; Gossip. FINE ARTS-Library Table; The Royal Academy; The “Constables"

at Burlington House ; Sale; Gossip. MUSIC-The Week; New Songs ; Gossip; Performances Next Week. DRAMA-The Week ; Gossip. JOHN C. FRANCIS, Athenaum Office, Bream's-buildings, Chancery

lane, B.C.


they are Distinguished in Works of Art. By the late Very Rev. F. C. HUSENBETH, D.D. A New Edition, with numerous Corrections and Additions, by the Rev. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D. Forming the Seventeenth and Last Volume of Mr. Baring-Gould's Lives of the Saints.'


and APOCRYPHAL SCRIPTURES. Being the Additions to the Old Testament Canon which were included in the Ancient Greek and Latin Versions; the English Text of the Authorized Version, together with the Additional Matter found in the Vulgate and other Ancient Versions; Introductions to the several Books and Fragments; Marginal Notes and References; and a General Introduction to the Apocrypha. By the Rev. W. R. CHURTON, B.D., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, Canon of the Cathedral of St. Albans, and Examining Chaplain of the Bishop. Large post 8vo. pp. 608, cloth, 78, 6d.



for SATURDAY, April 2nd, 1892, .contains an Article upon the HISTORY of TOOK'S-COURT and its


NEIGHBOURHOOD, by Mr. GEORGE CLINCH, of the British Museum, The NARROW WAY. A Complete

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Manual of Devotion for the Young, with a Guide to Confirmation and Holy Communion. 245th Thousand, Cloth, 6d.; or neatly bound, with gilt edges, is. Large-Type Edition, cloth, Is.

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A mentary on the Four Holy Gospels, containing the Narrative of Our Blessed Lord's Life and Ministry. By the Rev. W. MICHELL, M.A., Diocesan Inspector of Schools in the Diocese of Bath and Wells. A New Edition, Revised. 2 vols cloth, 6s.

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THE HOLY COMMUNION. Part I. Its NATURE and BENEFITS. With a Notice of some

Common Objections to Receiving it. Part II. An EXPLANATION of what is REQUIRED of them who come to the LORD'S SUPPER. In Plain Language.

By the Rev. W. H. RIDLEY, M.A. Price in cloth, 7d.; or on fine paper, 1s. ; neatly bound in Persian roan, with gilt edges, 28.

With the Index,

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JOHN C. FRANCIS, at Bream's-buildings, Chancery-lane, E.C. - Saturday, February 4, 1893.

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and Q U E RI E S

for SATURDAY, April 2nd, 1892,
contains an Article upon the HISTORY of TOOK'S-COURT and its
NEIGHBOURHOOD, by Mr. GEORGE CLINCH, of the British Museum,
with the following Illustrations by Mr. A. Bernard Sykes :-


JOHN C. FRANCIS, Notes and Queries Office, Bream's-baildings,

Chancery.lane, E.C.

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