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or wield weights,

eat only of 2 or 3

let supper-dishes be light.

for theyr offences. And before you go to your refecti*on, moderatly exercise your body with some labour, (* Fol. E. iii. b.] or playeng at the tennys, or castyng a bowle, or paysyng Play at tennis, weyghtes or plommettes of leede in your handes, or some other thyng, to open your poores, & to augment naturall heate. At dyner and supper' vse not to drynke At meals, sundry drynkes, and eate not of dyuers meates : but feede of .ii. or .iii. dysshes at the moste. After that

dishes; you haue dyned and supte, laboure not by and by after, but make a pause, syttynge or standynge vpryght the space of an howre or more with some pastyme : drynke not moch after dyner. At your supper, vse let lyght meates of dygestyon, and refrayne from grose meates; go not to bed with a full nor an emptye stomacke. And after your supper make a pause or you go to bed ; and go to bed, as I sayde, with myrth.

Furthermore as concernynge your apparell. In wynter, next your shert vse you to weare a petycote of scarlet : your dowb*let vse at plesure : But I do (* Fol. E. iv.] aduertyse you to lyne your Iacket vnder this fasshyon Have a jacket or maner. Bye you fyne skynnes of whyte lambe & of white and black blacke lambe. And let your skynner cut both ý sortes diamond-wise. of the skynnes in smale peces triangle wyse, lyke halfe à quarell of a glasse wyndowe. And than sewe togyther a* whyte pece and a blacke, lyke a whole (* MS. a a) quarell of a glasse wynilowe : and so sewe vp togyther

1 Drunkards, bench-wislers, that will quaffe untill thei are starcke
staring madde like Marche Hares: Fleming-like Sinckars ; brain-
lesse like infernall Furies. Drinkyng, braulyng, tossyng of the
pitcher, staryng, pissyng*, and sauyng your reuerence, beastly
spuyng vntill midnight. Therefore let men take hede of dronken.
nes to bedward, for feare of sodain death : although the Flemishet
nacion vse this horrible custome in their vnnaturall watching all
the night. Bullein, fol. lxix-lix, see also fol. xj.
* Compare A. Borde of the “base Doche man," in his Introduction.

† I am a Flemyng, what for all that
Although I wyll be dronken other whyles as a rat.

A. Borde, Introduction.

Wear a scarlet pety cote.

lambskin sewn diamond-wise.

warm.
Wear goatskin
gloves,

on grass or stones.

quarell wyse as moche as wyll lyne your Iacket: this furre, for holsommes, is praysed aboue sables, or any other fur. Your exteryall aparel vse accordyng to your honour. In sommer vse to were a scarlet petycote made of stamell or lynse wolse. In wynter and sommer

kepe not your bed to hote, nor bynde it to strayte ; Keep your neck kepe euer your necke warme. In somer kepe your

necke and face from the sonne ; vse to wear gloues

made of 'goote skyn, perfumed with Amber degrece. (* Fol. E. iv. b.] And beware in standyng or lyeng on the * grounde in

the reflection of the sonne, but be mouable. If thou Don't stand long shalt common or talke with any man : stande not styll

in one place yf it be vpon ý bare grounde, or grasse, or stones : but be mouable in suche places. Stande nor syt vpon no stone or stones : Stande nor syt longe barehed vnder a vawte of stone. Also beware that you

do not lye in olde chambres which be not occupyed, Don't sleep in specyally suche chambres as myse and rattes and snayles

resorteth vnto: lye not in suche chambres, the whiche bu depreued cleane from the sonne and open ayre; nor

lye in no lowe Chambre, excepte it be boorded. BeDon't take cold in ware that you take no colde on your feete and legges.

And of all weather beware that you do not ryde nor go in great and Impytous wyndes. (a Compendyous Regyment or a Dyetary of helth, made in Mountpylior: Compyled by Andrewe Boorde, of Physicke Doctor. (Colophon.) Imprinted by me Robert Wyer : Dwellynge at the sygne of seynt John Euangelyst, in S. Martyns Parysshe, besyde Charynge Crosse.)

ratty rooms.

your feet.

William Vaughan's
Fifteen Directions to preserve Healtų.

(From his Naturall & Artificial Directions

for health, 1602, p. 57-63.)

yourself.

Declare vnto mee a dayly dyet, whereby I may liue in health, and not trouble my selfe in Physicke.

. (1) I will : first of all in the morning when you 1. Stretch are about to rise vp, stretch your self strongly : for thereby the animall heate is somewhat forced into the outward partes, the memorie is quickned, and the bodie strengthened.

(2) Secondarily, rub and chafe your body with the 2. Rub yourself. palmes of your hands, or with a course linnen cloth ; the breast, back, and belly, gently: but the armes, thighes, and legges roughly, till they seem ruddy and warme. (3) Euacuate your selfe.

3. Go to stool. (4) Put on your apparell : which in the summer 6. Put on your time must be for the most part silke, or buffe, made of buckes skinne, for it resisteth venime and contagious ayres : in winter your vpper garment must be of cotton or friezeadow.

(5) When you have apparelled your selfe han- 5. Comb your somely, combe your head softly and easily with an Iuorie combe: for nothing recreateth the memorie more.

(6) Picke and rub your teeth: and because I 6. Clean your would not haue you to bestow much cost in making

clothes.

head.

teeth.

teeth sound and

Water

made after this recipe.

(How to keep the dentrifices for them ; I will aduertise you by foure the breath sweet. rules of importance how to keepe your teeth white and

vncorruyt (sic), and also to haue a sweete breath. First, wash well your mouth when you haue eaten your meat : secondly, sleepe with your mouth somewhat open. Thirdly, spit out in the morning that which is gathered together that night in the throate : then take a linnen cloth, and rub your teeth well within and without, to take away the fumositie of the meat and the yellownesse of the teeth. For it is that which putrifieth them and infecteth the breath. But least

peraduenture your teeth become loose and filthy, I Use Vaughan's will shew you a water farre better then pouders, which

shall fasten them, scoure the mouth, make sound the gums, and cause the flesh to growe againe, if it were fallen away. Take halfe a glasse-full of vineger, and as much of the water of the mastick tree (if it may easily be gotten) of rosemarie, myrrhe, mastick, bole Armoniake, Dragons herbe, roche allome, of each of them an ounce; of fine cinnamon halfe an ounce, and of fountaine water three glassefulles; mingle all well together and let it boile with a small fire, adding to it halfe a pound of honie, and taking away the scumme of it; then put in a little bengwine, and when it hath sodden a quarter of an houre, take it from the fire, and keepe it in a cleane bottle, and wash your teeth therewithall as well before meate as after ; if you hould some of it in your mouth a little while, it doth much good to the head, and sweetneth the breath.

I take this water to be better worth then a thousand of 1000 Dentrifices.) their dentifrices.

(7) Wash your face, eyes, eares and hands, with fountaine water. I have knowne diuers students which vsed to bathe their eyes onely in well water twise a day, whereby they preserued their eyesight free from all passions and bloudsheds, and sharpened

It's better than

7. Wash.

for dim sight.

Prayers,

their memories maruaylously. You may sometimes bathe your eyes in rosewater, fennell water, or eyebright water, if you please ; but I know for certaintie, that you neede them not as long as you vse good fountaine water. Moreouer, least you by old age or some other meanes doe waxe dimme of sight, I will declare vnto you, the best and safest remedie which I knowe, and The best remedy this it is : Take of the distilled waters of verueine, bettonie, and fennell one ounce and a halfe, then take one ounce of white wine, one drachme of Tntia (if you may easilie come by it) two drachmes of sugarcandy, one drachme of Aloes Epatick, two drachmes of womans milke, and one scruple of Camphire: beat those into pouder, which are to be beaten, and infuse them together for foure and twenty houres space, and then straine them, and so vse it when you list.

(8) When you haue finished these, say your morn- 8. Say your ing prayers, and desire God to blesse you, to preserue you from all daungers, and to direct you in all your actions. For the feare of God (as it is written) is the beginning of wisedome: and without his protection whatsoeuer you take in hand, shall fall to ruine. Therefore see that you be mindfull of him, and remember that to that intent you were borne, to weet, to set foorth his glorie and most holy name.

(9) Goe about your businesse circumspectly, and 9. Set to work. endeauour to banish all cares and cogitations, which are the onely baits of wickednesse. Defraud no man of his right: for what measure you giue vnto your neighbour, Be honest. that measure shall you receiue. And finally, imprint this saying deepely in your mind : A man is but a steward of his owne goods; wherof God one day will demaund an account.

(10) Eate three meales a day vntill you come to the 10. Eat only three age of fourtie yeares: as, your breakefast, dinner, and supper; yet, that betweene breakefast and dinner there

meals a day,

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