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these can be satisfactorily distinguished. The Gallican Liturgies include several Uses. This word seems to describe most fitly the relations to each other of the services given in the Gotho-Gallican, Gallican, and Frankish Sacramentaries. All are formed on precisely the same model, only the particular prayers that make up the service in one province differed from the corresponding prayers in another.
5. The Roman Liturgy, though not so rich in its variables Characteris as the Hispano-Gallican, is marked by regularly changing Collects, as well as Lections and Hymns, for every holy day, and by frequent changes of the Preface. In fact, though at present only eleven Prefaces are used, and in Missals of the 12th and 13th centuries only nine are found, yet the Gelasian Sacramentary is as rich in them as the Mozarabic. The Great Intercession is here divided: the Prayer for the Living being said before the Consecration, and the Prayer for the Dead after it. The Pax, which represents the primitive Kiss of Peace, holds in this Liturgy an unique place, being postponed till just before the Communion; in all other Liturgies it is given soon after the commencement of the Missa Fidelium. Lastly, the Invocation is wholly wanting.
Liturgies belonging to it.
The two extant Liturgies which are to be classified with the Ambrosian. Roman are the Ambrosian and that of Sarum. Both of these have sufficient small peculiarities to deserve to be ranked as separate Uses, yet they possess all the distinctive characteristics of the Roman Liturgy as compared with the other Families.
The Liturgy of the African Church has wholly perished, but sufficient notices of it exist in the writings of the African Fathers to give some idea of its general character, and to lead to the conclusion that it was closely allied to the Roman Latin Liturgy. There is a discussion of it, with a valuable and full catena of passages from the African writers, in Mone's 'Lateinische und Griechische Messen,' pp. 73-104.
THE STRUCTURE OF THE LITURGIES.
In order to appreciate rightly what is meant when we say The Compathat the different Families of Liturgies are distinguished by the different sequence of their parts, it is necessary first to grasp clearly what the parts of a complete Liturgy are. In the following comparative Table will be found the orders of seven of the most typical Liturgies, analysed into eighteen sections, each of which embodies a distinct movement, or element, of the service. The Liturgy of S. Chrysostom has been fixed upon as the standard of reference, since it appears to be at once the fullest, the most transparent, and most logical. Reference to this is facilitated by the capital letters, which indicate that the section to which any given capital is prefixed has the same purpose as the section in the Liturgy of Constantinople marked by the same letter. The first column is intended to explain the rationale, or inner meaning, of the service. The other columns exhibit the respective Liturgies, each in the proper order of its parts, subordinate details however being omitted.
of a compa
of the Li
Such a comparative study of the Liturgies as this will not Advantages only help the student to understand more clearly the differences rative study of order of the parts, upon which the classification of Liturgies turgies. depends, but it will enable him to enter more intelligently into the meaning of the service as a whole; and above all, to realise (what is anything but obvious on a first inspection) the marvellous substantial identity of the Eastern and Western Liturgies, which is the strongest argument for their being ultimately derived from one common fountain-head.