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own action. The Coptic Liturgy however is the only ancient Liturgy which preserves a Fraction at this point, though Scudamore (Notit. Eucharistica, pp. 537, 538) produces some indications that the custom was once more widely spread. (iii) The Fraction is found in almost every Liturgy between the consecration and the communion, symbolising the Death and Passion. Here the Mozarabic ritual (see p. 341) is the most elaborate. (iv) The Fraction for distribution among the communicants. The word μελίζειν, as distinguished from κλᾶν, seems to be appropriated to this Fraction (see pp. 50, 190): comminuere seems to be similarly used in Latin.


Genesis (or Adam) Tonus (Copt.). One of the eight Coptic Tones, or Modes, of a cheerful character. These tones are named from the first word of the Hymn most generally sung to them. Gradalis (p. 364), or, Graduale (Rom). (a) An anthem sung after the Epistle. It probably had its origin in the primitive custom of interspersing the Lections with Psalms. The present custom is as follows:-A verse of a Psalm and a Responsory verse is sung (the 'Gradual proper'), followed by two Alleluias, another Verse, and a single Alleluia. In the Easter season the Gradual proper' is not sung, but a second Verse with Alleluia is added to that just mentioned; so that the anthem consists of two Alleluias, Verse and Alleluia, Verse and Alleluia. On certain great Festivals a Hymn, called a Sequence, is interposed before the last Alleluia. From Septuagesima to Easter Even, when Alleluia is not sung, two Verses alone, called a Tract, are said or sung.

(B) The book in which the Introits, Graduals, and other missal

Anthems were collected was also sometimes called the Gradual' (see Antiphonarium').


Hebdomada Major. Holy Week, i.e. the week from Palm Sunday (Dominica in Palmis) to Easter Even (Sabbatum Sanctum). Hegumenos. The Superior of a monastery.

Hymn. So far as relates to the Eucharistic Services, Hymns may be divided into two classes, containing respectively (a) the four Greater Hymns, viz. the Angelic, the Cherubic, the Trisagion, and the Sanctus, Tersanctus, or Triumphal Hymn, as it is variously called; (8) the Lesser Hymns, such as the Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communio, etc.

The Hymns of this latter class will be described under their several names.

The Angelic Hymn is the Gloria in Excelsis with the additions as found in our English Communion Office. As an Eucharistic Hymn in this full form its use is confined to the Western Church, and is probably not older than the sixth century; though the first and Scriptural strain occurs in several Eastern Liturgies, as in the Greek S. James (p. 36), the Syriac S. James (p. 60), and S. Adaeus and Maris (p. 267).

The Cherubic Hymn is peculiar to the Constantinopolitan Liturgy, and others derived from it, or modified to resemble it. It is sung at the Great Entrance. It is said to have been introduced into the Liturgy at the command of Justinian, i.e about the middle of the sixth century. It begins with the words οἱ τὰ χερουβὶμ μυστικῶς εἰκονίζοντες, and will be found in extenso on p. 32.

The Trisagion. The Hymn ἅγιος ὁ Θεός, ἅγιος ἰσχυρός, ἅγιος ἀθάνατος, ἐλέησον ἡμᾶς, which is sung, according to the rite of

Constantinople, in connexion with the Little Entrance. It was introduced into the service by Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (A. D. 446). In the Syriac Liturgy it occurs more than once. In the Coptic not at all. though it is found in the Greek S. Mark (as in the Constantinopolitan Liturgy) just after the Little Entrance. This is probably the Hymn referred to in the Expositio brevis attributed to S. Germanus as the 'Ajus,' which is there said to have been sung in the early Gallican Liturgy before the Old Testament Lection, and before and after the Gospel. In the Roman Liturgy it is sung only on one day of the year, viz Good-Friday, in the special office called the Reproaches. The name Trisagion is often improperly applied to the following Hymn, whereby much confusion is caused.

The Sanctus, Tersanctus, Triumphal Hymn, or Seraphic Hymn (for it has all these names, and is sometimes in early writers called also the Angelic Hymn,' and thus is occasionally confounded with the Gloria in Excelsis) consists of the Hymn of the Seraphim in Isa. vi., generally with the addition of Ps. cxviii. 26, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.' This Hymn is found in all Liturgies in the same place, viz. at the conclusion of the Preface, and just before the con



Icon. A kind of highly decorated picture, regarded as sacred, peculiar to Oriental Churches. There are always two at least in a Greek church, viz. one of our Lord on the right of the Holy Doors (looking towards the Sanctuary), and one of the Mother of God on the left. Iconostasis.

The screen which

separates the Sanctuary (Buа), together with the Chapel of the Prothesis and the Sacristy (diaкo. VIKOV) from the Choir. Hence ritually it answers to our Altarrails, though being solid and reaching in height nearly, or quite, to the ceiling, it more nearly resembles in effect a Roodscreen. It has three doors, viz. the Holy Doors in the centre, leading into the Sanctuary, and a side-door on either side, leading into the two chambers abovementioned. The name is derived from the Icons, which are always arranged upon it.

Illatio (Moz.). The name in the Mozarabic Liturgy for the Preface.' Immolatio (Gall.). The name in the Gallican Liturgy for the Preface.'

Ingressa (Ambr.). The name in the Ambrosian Liturgy for 'the Introit.' It is simpler in form than the Roman Introit, consisting simply of a verse or two, not always from the Psalms, said without repetition, and without Gloria Patri. Intercession, the Great. The Prayer said by the Celebrant for all estates of men in the Church, including the Living and the Dead. The position of it in the Liturgy is one main criterion on which the classification of Liturgies depends. In four of the Liturgical Families it occurs in connexion with the Consecration; in the remaining one, the Hispano-Gallican, it follows the Offertory.

Intinction. The act of placing in the Chalice the portions of consecrated bread intended for the Communion of the people, to whom in the Oriental Churches the consecrated elements are administered together by means of a spoon. It is quite distinct from the commixture. Introit (Rom.). The anthem sung at the approach of the priest to


the altar. For the form of it see above under Antiphona.' Invocation. By the Oriental Churches an Invocation of the Holy Spirit is considered necessary to complete the consecration. In the three Oriental Families of Liturgies such an Invocation is invariably found shortly after the Words of Institution. In the Hispano-Gallican Family there are sufficient traces of such an Invocation in the Prayer called 'Post-pridie' (Moz.), or Postmysterium' (Gall.), illustrated by the very clear words of S. Irenaeus (Frag. 2, al. 38), to give great probability to the inference that it was at one time universally present here too.

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Jacobiticum (carmen) (Syr.). A Syrian tetrasyllabic metre, attributed by some to S. James of Serug (see also 'Ephremiticum '). Jejunia (primi, quarti, septimi, decimi, mensis). Otherwise called jejunia quatuor temporum. The Fasts of the four Ember seasons. Jobi Tonus (Copt.) [or Hebi, viz. 'mourning for the dead']. One of the Coptic tones, of a melancholy or plaintive character (see 'Genesis').


Kiss of Peace. See under 'Pax.'


Lectionarius. (a) Generally, a col

lection of the Lections from Holy Scripture to be used at any ser


Τὴν προσφορὰν τελέσαντες ἐκκαλοῦμεν τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ ̔́Αγιον, ὅπως ἀποφήνῃ τὴν θυσίαν ταύτην καὶ τὸν ἄρτον σῶμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ τὸ ποτήριον τὸ αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἵνα οἱ μεταλαβόντες τούτων τῶν ἀντιτύπων τῆς ἀφέσεως τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ τῆς ζωῆς αἰωνίου τύχωσιν.

vice. (B) The collection of Epistles for the Mass, called also 'Epistolarium.' Lector (Gr. avayvwoτns), a Reader. One of the minor orders, recognised in the East and West, the special duty of which was to read the Lections in Church.


Maniple. One of the Eucharistic vestments. A narrow strip, of the same material and colour as the Chasuble, worn hanging over the left wrist. Originally it was of linen, and intended to serve as a napkin.


Missa. On the derivation and origin of this word see above (Introduction, p. xxxi). In general it means the Eucharistic service,' or, more particularly, the service proper for any particular day, It also occurs in various combinations, such as:

M. Catechumenorum. That part of the service at which Catechumens and Penitents might be present. M. Fidelium, that part at which only the Faithful might be pre


M. Defunctorum or pro Defunctis. A Mass said for the benefit of the dead.

M. Praesanctificatorum (Gr. Tŵv προηγιασμένων). A Mass in which there is no consecration, but communion is made with the consecrated Elements reserved from a previous day. This is customary in the Greek Church on all days in Lent, except Saturdays, Sundays and the Feast of the Annunciation in the Latin Church it is confined to Good Friday.

M. Privata. Low Mass, at which the Priest is assisted by a server only. This is not to be confounded with Missa solitaria, Mass said by a Priest alone, without assistant minister or congregation; a custom formerly practised in Monasteries, but now everywhere forbidden.

M. Sicca. A recitation of the Mass omitting the Consecration and Communion, and such parts of the service as refer directly to these.

M. Solemnis. Mass celebrated with the full ritual and attendance of Deacon, Sub-deacon, Acolytes, and Choir.

M. Votiva. A Mass said out of special devotion, beyond the regular service of the day. Missae de Sanctis. The services belonging to Saints' days. Missae de Tempore Those belonging to the seasons of the Christian Year. Advent, Christmas, etc. Missale. (a) In the most general

sense, the book containing all that is necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year. Such a volume is properly called Missale plenarium, or mixtum. Up to the eleventh century however these complete Missals did not exist, but the parts required by the different ministers were collected in separate volumes, viz. Sacramentarium, Lectionarius, Evangelistarium, and Graduale or Antiphonarium. Then by Missale' was understood (B) the book containing the Missal prayers used by the Priest at the Altar, more commonly known as a Sacramentary.

Missale Offerentium (Moz). 'The Lesser Missal; i e. the common of every Mass' [Neale, Essays on Liturgiology. p. 137]. Probably so called, because it is necessarily used by all priests who celebrate according to that rite. Mixture, (Lat. mistio). The addition of a little water to the wine in the chalice: a practice primitive, and recognised in all ancient Liturgies, except that of the Armenian Church.


Natalitia Sanctorum. The birthdays (i. e. the anniversaries of the death or martyrdom) of Saints.


Oblata (-tio). The forms are used indiscriminately for (a) the act of offering, (B) the offerings pre


Oblatum. An oblate, i. e. in the East, the Holy Loaf; in the West the wafer; prepared for consecration.

Obsignatio, (East-Syr.). The concluding Benediction. Offerenda (Ambros.). The name of the anthem otherwise called Offertorium.

Offertorium (Rom.). The name of the anthem sung at the offertory, or said just before it. It varies with the day. Officium ad Missam (Moz.). The name for the Introit in the Mozarabic Liturgy. Omophorion. Glossary). Oratio Missae (Moz.). The Prayer, or rather short exhortation to the people at the beginning of the Missa Fidelium, corresponding to the Gallican Praefatio Missae (see p. 315).

(See the Greek

Ordinary (of the Mass). All the service of the Mass which is not the Canon.

Ordo (Missae). The rubrics and invariable parts of the service, into which the variable parts, whether prayers and lesser hymns, as in the Western offices, or different Anaphorae, as in the East, are fitted as in a framework. Where there are several anaphorae with a common pro-anaphoral service, as with the Syriac, Ethiopic and other groups of Liturgies, the term Ordo communis is often applied to the latter.


Palla. A veil of linen, used to cover the chalice. It is now commonly stiffened with cardboard for convenience sake.

The Corporal (q. v.) is sometimes called Palla corporalis. Paophi (Copt.). The second month

of the Coptic Calendar, answering to parts of our September and October. (See under Baini.') Patena. The paten, or plate, on

which the oblation is made. Pax. The Kiss of Peace. A custom recognised in all ancient Liturgies, and probably Apostolic, in which the Faithful by a mutual embrace testified to the brotherly love that ought to exist among them. The usual place of its occurrence is shortly after the commencement of the Missa Fidelium, before the Consecration: but in the Roman Family it occurs just before the Communion. In the Greek Church it appears to have been dropped In the Roman the kiss is interchanged ceremonially at Solemn Mass between the Celebrant and assistant ministers. At Low Mass it is commonly omitted; though sometimes given by means of a small metal tablet, called an * osculatory' (sometimes also a Pax'), which the Priest, having kissed the Altar, kisses and presents to the server, who in turn presents it to the people. Peace, Kiss of. See above under 'Pax.'

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variable Prefaces-the fixed part containing only a general acknowledgment of the duty of thanksgiving, while special passages were inserted according to the day or season, mentioning the particular grounds appropriate to the same. Presanctified (Mass of the). (See under Missa Praesanctificatorum '). Prooemium (Syr.). A prelude to the Sedra, in the form of a short address or exhortation, (e. g. p. 60). Prophetia (Gall.). The name in this Liturgy for the Benedictus, or Song of Zacharias, sung at the commencement of the Mass before the Collect for the Day. Prophetica lectio (or Propheta), (Gall.). The Lection from the Old Testament, which in the Gallican Liturgy preceded the Epistle and Gospel. Prosa, a Prose. Another name for the Sequence (q. v.), which was often composed in a free style, rhythmical but not in strict


Prothesis. (See the Greek Glossary). Psallendo (Moz.). An anthem

sung between the Old Testament Lection and the Epistle in the Mozarabic Liturgy. It consists of two or three verses from the Psalms, and corresponds to the Psalmus responsorius of the Gallican. and the Psalmellus of the Ambrosian rite.


Quadragesimale tempus. The season of Lent. Quatuor Tempora. The four Ember seasons.


Sabbatum Sanctum. Easter Even. Sacramentarium. The book containing the Collects, Prefaces and Canon of the Mass, for the use of the celebrating Priest. (See under Missale').


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