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(Latin and English.)


Actio (Rom.).

The Canon of the Mass. The title Infra actionem is commonly prefixed to the paragraph Communicantes (p. 328). Infra and intra appear to have been used almost interchangeably in early ecclesiastical writers. [Bona, de Reb. Liturg., lib. ii. c. xi. § 1, note 3, ed. Sala ] Alb. An ecclesiastical vestment, which seems to have been at first universally of linen. as it still is in the Western Church. The corresponding vestment in the East is the Stoicharion (σTOIXαplov, q. v.). It also seems to have been more full and flowing in early times than it afterwards became. In its normal form it is a long, close-fitting, linen vestment, with tight sleeves, confined at the waist by a girdle: and it is worn under all the other vestments, except the amice. Alia oratio (Moz.). The second prayer, i. e. that which follows the oratio missae, in the Mozarabic Liturgy, in the part answering to the beginning of the Missa Fidelium.

Alleluia. The special liturgical

use of this exclamation of praise seems to be connected with the Gospel. It is true that in the

Greek Liturgies (S. James, S. Mark, and S. Chrysostom) it is also found in connexion with the Great Entrance, forming the conclusion of the Cherubic Hymn; but this is over and above its

chief use. In the Liturgies of Group I and of the Roman family, and in S. Mark's, it was sung before the Gospel: in the Mozarabic, and therefore probably in the Gallican (though of this we cannot be absolutely certain), it was sung after it. In the Coptic Liturgies however, and in the Ethiopic, the Tersanctus is found before and after the Gospel respectively in place of the Alleluia; and in the Eastern Syrian Group other hymns of praise hold the same place.

There were different customs too as to the seasons when it should be sung. In some churches its use was confined to the great festal season between Easter and Pentecost in others it was sung all the year round, except during Lent.

Ambo, a raised desk, or pulpit, from which the Lections, and sometimes other parts of the service, were read or chanted. Amice (amictus). A square piece of linen worn upon the neck and shoulders, put on before all the other vestments.

Anaphora. The more solemn portion of the Liturgy, the central point of which is the Great Oblation. It commences with the words Sursum Corda,' or their equivalents, which occur in all Liturgies, and includes the rest of the service to the end In the sacrificial language of the LXX. προσφέρειν is used of the offerer bringing the victim to present before the altar, ἀναφέρειν is used of the Priest offering up the selected portion upon the altar (see for instance Lev. ii. 14, 16; iii. 1, 5).

Anba (Copt.). i.q. Abba, Father; the title given to a Bishop. Antidoron. In the Greek Church what remains of the five Oblates, after the portions intended for consecration have been cut out and placed on the Paten (see pp. 84-88), is distributed to the people. This hallowed, though unconsecrated, bread is called the Antidoron. A similar custom seems to have prevailed in France and Spain, and to exist still in the Armenian and Coptic Churches. Antiphona. In its most familiar

meaning this name is given to the verse which is said at the beginning and end of Psalms and Canticles in the Daily Offices, and which serves to give them a special significance appropriate to particular days or seasons. In reference to the Eucharistic Liturgies however it has either a general meaning equivalent to anthem,' or a special meaning applying to the Introit. A notion of alternate singing, or of repetition, is involved in the word. The Roman Introit consists of a verse (often called specially the Introit'), followed by a verse of a Psalm and the Gloria Patri, after which the first verse is repeated (cf. p. 292).


The Greek ἀντίφωνον, three of which together, having each an appropriate prayer (see pp. 92, 93), answer to the Roman Introit,

consists of several versicles with a constant response interpolated (see under ἀντίφωνον).

[For further information see Smith's Dict. of Christian An. tiquities, s. v.; and Dissert. I. on The Psalms as employed in the Offices of the Church' in Neale's Commentary on the Psalms, vol. i. P. 34.] Antiphonarium. (a) The book containing the parts of the mass sung by the choir, i. e. Introits, Offertories, etc.; another name for which was the Gradual.' (8) The book containing the Antiphons of the Daily Offices, and the Responsories; which was also called Cantatorium.' Apertio aurium. The ceremony of touching the ears and eyes of a Candidate for Baptism, pronouncing at the same time the word Ephphatha. In preparation for this, some days before, a formal instruction on the Gospels was publicly given: the old form of which may be seen in the Gelasian Sacramentary. [Muratori, de Lit. Romana, col. 537.] Apologia (Sacerdotis). The Confession of the Priest. Apostolus. The Epistle (in the Liturgy). Sometimes also the book containing the Epistles. Apparitio. The Epiphany, or mani

festation of the Lord Jesus Christ. Ark (Eth.). It seems uncertain


exactly what this vessel is. naudot says (vol. i. p. 498), 'Fortasse vas majus aliquod, quo discus et calix contineretur.' Rodwell, in his translation of the Liturgy (p. 4, note o), says that the Ethiopic word is the same as is used in Heb. ix. 4 of the pot in which the manna was preserved. It is here to be understood' (he proceeds) of the vessel in which the bread intended for consecration is placed, together probably with the paten.' May it be a vessel for the Reserved Sacrament? Audientes (see under ἀκροώμενοι).

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Baini (Copt.) The tenth month of the Coptic Calendar, answering to parts of our May and June. Their year commences with the 29th or 30th of August. Benedictio. (a) In the general sense of the term, which we may take to be, as defined by S. Ambrose (de Bened. Patriarc. c. 2), Sanctificationis et gratiarum votiva collatio, Benedictions occur in all Liturgies, and often at more points than one of the service. The two most noticeable occasions are (i) in connexion with the Communion of the People, either before or after it; (ii) at the Dismissal.

(B) In the Gallican Church Benedictio is often used as the name of the Benedicite, or Canticum trium Puerorum.


Calix. The Chalice.

Canon. A fixed formula. The term

admits of many ecclesiastical applications, but in the foregoing Liturgies it will be found used in two senses only, viz. (a) (Rom.), that part of the Liturgy which includes the Consecration, Great Oblation, and Intercession, beginning with the words Te igitur and ending with the Lord's Prayer and its Embolismus. It is divided into ten portions or paragraphs, known usually by their first words. It is often popularly taken as if it included the whole of the remaining portion of the service, but this is not strictly correct. Nor must the word be understood as synonymous with Anaphora,' which is more comprehensive, including the Preface and Triumphal Hymn before the Canon and the Communion with its preparatory ritual, and Post-Communion, after it. The name is sometimes given to the corresponding part of the

Gallican and Mozarabic Liturgies; but improperly, inasmuch as here the forms were variable, all but the formula of Consecration.

(B) (East-Syr.) In this family the invariable doxology at the end of the Prayers, or elsewhere, is called the Canon.' Catechumen. One under training for admission to the Church by Baptism. (For full information see Smith's Dict. of Christian Ant. s. v.; or Bingham, Bk. x. ch. i. ii.) Catholica (W. Syr.). A sort of address or exhortation said by the Deacon, while the Priest was performing the Fraction, etc. (see P. 77).

Catholicon (Copt.). The Lection

taken out of the Catholic Epistles. Chalice. The cup in which the wine (or wine mingled with water, in all ancient Liturgies but the Armenian) is consecrated. Chasuble (in the West, casula; in the East, φελώνιον or φαινόλιον). The upper and principal vestment of the Priest. Its early shape appears to have been circular, with a hole in the centre through which the head was passed; and adorned before and behind with a Y-shaped cross, or yoke. Cherubic (Hymn). See Hymn.' Cinerum Feria Quarta. AshWednesday.

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worship.' It is also the name of those short, nervous, prayers which as a rule distinguish the Western from the Eastern Liturgies. In this sense the form collectio is used in the Gallican Sacramentaries. Two explanations have been given of the term, (i) that it is the prayer said at the assembling of the people, which however could only well apply to the first prayer in the service; (ii) that in it the Priest collects, and presents to God in a compendious form, the petitions, spoken and unspoken, of the congregation.

Comes (Comitis Liber). (a) A Lectionary of Missal Lections, attributed to S. Jerome. (B) : qui valent for Epistolare. the book of the Epistles used in the mass. Commixture (commistio). A rite

to be distinguished both from the Mixture and the Intinction (q.v.) It consists in placing a small portion of the consecrated Bread, or Wafer, into the Chalice, symbolizing the restoration in the Resurrection of the union of Body and Soul which had been severed in death, in a word, pointing to the Risen Life. Though probably not a primitive rite, it became nearly universal at an early date. Communio. (a) The act of partaking of the consecrated elements. (B) That section of the Liturgy which contains the ritual belong. ing to this act. (7) (Rom.) An anthem sung originally during the communion of the people, but in later times after the communion. Competentes (Gr. pwτifóμevoi).

The highest order of Catechumens; candidates for immediate Baptism.

Confir nation. When more chalices than one were used, it was the custom to consecrate one, and from this one to pour a little of the con-ecrated wine into the others, which was held to serve for consecration to the wine in them. This was called Confirma

tion. In the Greek S. James' Liturgy (see p. 50) this seems to have been effected by placing a portion of the consecrated Bread into the Chalices (Renaudot, vol. i. P. 339). Confractorium

(Ambros.). An Anthem sung by the Choir during the Fraction. Consignation. In some Churches it was part of the ritual of the Fraction to dip one half of the broken Bread in the Chalice, and with it to make the sign of the cross upon the other half (Renaudot, vol. i. p. 240). Contestatio (Gall.). The name in the Gallican Liturgy for the Preface, i. e. the part beginning Vere lignum et justum est, etc. Corporale (Gr. eiλnróv). The linen cloth on which the Holy Vessels are placed, and on which the consecration is performed. Corporatio (Moz.) The Incarnation.

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Elevation. The lifting up of the consecrated Bread. There is an essential difference between the meanings of this rite as practised in the Greek Church and in the Roman respectively, at least in later times. In the Greek Church it takes place in the Bema, out of sight of the people, the Holy Doors being still closed: it is an ávádegis to God. In the Roman Church it is a showing to the people for the purpose of adoration. The place of the rite is also different: in the Roman Liturgy it comes immediately after the words of consecration; in the Greek, just before the Communion. Embolismus. Literally 'an insertion.' The name of the short prayer which in almost all ancient Liturgies follows the Lord's Prayer, and is in fact an expansion of the last petition of that Prayer against temptation and evil.

Energumen. A demoniac: one under the influence of an evil spirit.

Entrance (oodos). (a) The Little Entrance, an oriental rite, is the solemn procession when the Book of the Gospels is brought from the Prothesis to the Holy Table. The Deacon carries it, accompanied by the Priest and taperbearers. The procession passes out at the northern door of the Iconostasis, makes the circuit of the northern side of the Church, and enters the Bema by the Holy Doors. The Book, after being laid on the Holy Table, is again taken to the ambo, where the There is an Gospel is read. analogous Procession of the Gospel in solemn Masses in the Western Church.

(B) The Great Entrance is a similar procession, but accompanied by incense and conducted with greater pomp, when the pre

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