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accordingly not reserve to Himself the wisdom to demonstrate the unsearchableness and unfawhich had served Him as a pattern of creation, thomableness, from a sensuous and earthly point but would communicate it to the human race of view, of an attribute, or a hypostasis of God, which He had made and put into His world, because this fact is self-evident, and because which He could do only by setting it before tbe whole tendency of his discourse was not thethem in the form of an original command to fear oretic and speculative, but practical, aiming at God and to depart from evil (17? 70, comp. the establishment of right principles to influence ch. i. 2; Prov. iii. 7; xvi. 6. Instead of not human struggle and action. The view accord97x, very many MSS. and old editions read ingly held by quite a number of modern exegetes
since the time of Schultens (especially Hirzel, min?? ", which reading seems to have in its Schlottmann, Hahn, also W. Wolff's articlefavor: (1) That 717, occurring only twice else. Die Anfänge der Logoslehre im A. T. in the Zeitwhere in our book, might easily be set aside as seq.), that the object of the description in ch.
schrift für Luth. Theol. 4. Kirche, 1870, p. 217 being too singular; (2) that I'm in Jehovah's xxviii. is the wisdom of God as exercised in the own mouth does not occur elsewhere in the Old universe, as the divine principle sustaining the Testament, not even in Amos vi. 8; (3) that the moral and natural order of the universe, is erroparallels of the primitive saying before us in the neous, to say nothing of the fact that in that Proverbs and in the Psalms constantly exhibit case one might find here, with A. Merx (Das ni nx?! (comp. Prov. i. 7; iii. 7; ix. 10; xvi. Gedicht von Hiob, etc., p. 42) a "concealed po6; Ps. cxi. 10).-On the other side it is true the lemic" against the doctrine of Wisdom as set Masoretic tradition expressly reckons this pag
forth in the Solomonio Proverbs. sage among the one hundred and thirty-four 2. We cannot say indeed of this theory, to wit, passages of the Old Testament, where `j7x is that ch. xxviii. discourses of the Sapientia sciagranot only to be read, but is actually written phica, God's wisdom in creation and the governinstead of 1717. (Buxtorf, Tiberins, p. 245). As ment of the world—that it is altogether incorrect. regards the thought, it makes no difference In the concluding verses Job evidently lifts himwhether we read "fear of the Lord” (“the Lord self from his contemplation of wisdom as a huof all,” Del.), or "fear of Jehovah (Jahveh).” man possession to the description of its arche[It may, however, be said, that there is an espe- type, the absolute divine wisdom, by means of cial appropriateness in the use of 'Tx here, in which God has established alike the physical view of the fact that God is spoken of in con- and the moral order of the universe. The pasnection with the creation, as the product of wis sage in vers. 23-28 comes into the closest condom; and not only so, but God in His Lord- tact with the two well-known descriptions of ship, His supremacy, His claim to be feared, i.e. the Book of Proverbs which are occupied with revered and obeyed, whence 'ITX is used rather this eternal world-regulating wisdom-Prov. iii.
19-26, and Prov. viii. 22 seq. It resembles them . God is '37X by virtue particularly in the fact that a preliminary mediof the divine noon which He has “established” iation on the human reflection and emanation in nature. It is man's han to recognize the of this primordial wisdom, on the practical divine, and to fear *37X.-E.)
Chokmah of the God-fearing, righteous man,
prepares the way for it, precisely as in those DOCTRINAL, ETHICAL AND HOMILETICAL. two passages. The “knowledge of the place"
1. According to the connection of the Third of the Creative Wisdom, which ver. 23 ascribes Section of this discourse with the two preceding, like manner as that which is said of its medi
to God, reminds the reader of Prov. viii. 30, in as explained in the remarks on ch. xxviii. 1, it can admit of no doubt that the wisdom described ating agency in determining the laws of wind, in it is conceived of as essentially a human water, rain and thunder (vers. 24-26) reminds
And acquisition, as a blessing bestowed on man by what is said of “geeing and declaring,” *estab
him of Prov. iii. 19 seq. ; viii. 27 seq. God, consisting in the fear of God and in right- lishing," or getting up and searching out” the eousness of life. This connection lies indeed in this —that in order to prove that which is said in heavenly architectress in ver. 27, precisely as ch. xxvii. 12 seq. of the perishable prosperity infinitely many-sided pattern of the Krious kóquov,
in Prov. viii. 22 seq., presents Wisdom as the of worldly-minded sinners, the uselessness of all accumulation of earthly treasures is shown, all things that were to be created, as the com
as the ideal world, or the divine imagination of it being entirely out of their power to secure the possession of true wisdom, and of that plex unity of all the creative ideas or archetypes enduring prosperity which is connected with it. present to God from eternity. This divine creIn addition to this connection with ch. xxvii., ative primordial wisdom, as described here, and the human character of this wisdom, rather than writings (and not less in those passages of the
in the two parallel passages in the Solomonic its hypostatic character, or that which belongs Apocrypha which in some respects are still
more to it as a divine attribute, is shown secondly by full, viz. Sirach, ch. xxiv., and Wisdom, ch. vii. the way in which the same is represented in vers. 15-19 as a possession, being compared idea of the Logos given in the New Testament.
-ix), 18 without question closely related to the with other possessions, treasures and costly It is very true that the idea of Wisdom, esper jewels, and the question submitted how its pos- cially in the passage before us, the oldest of all session (Tøns, ver. 18) is to be attained. To pertaining to the subject, has not yet shaped which may be added, thirdly, the consideration itself into a form of existence so concretely perthat it could scarcely be the speaker's purpose sonal, and a filial relation to God so intimate
.אל הים or אלוה than
and so indicative of similarity of nature, as cha- ; that the wicked are punished in this life (ch, racterize the Johannean Logos. It appears xxvii. 11-23)-_seems to go too far in an opposite rather simply as an “impersonal model” for direction; for after what he has said repeatedly God in His creative activity, while the New heretofore in favor of the teachings of experiTestament Logos is the “personal architect” ence touching the temporal prosperity of the working in accordance with that model, “the ungodly, he could not properly concede the demiurg by which God has called the world into point which he now maintains, and that so comexistence according to that ideal which was in pletely without qualification. The first half of the divine mind” (Del.). But notwithstanding his discourse accordingly seems liable to the this its undeveloped character, the Chokmah of charge of being egregiously one-sided and of deour passage is the unmistakable substratum and parting from strict actual truth in two respects the immediate precursor of the revealed percep -in declaring that Job's suffering was wholly, tion of a personal Word, and of an only-begotten and in every respect unmerited, and in admitting Son of God. And as the older exegesis and the that even in this life there is a divine judgment ology was already in general correct in refer- awaiting the wicked, from which they cannot ring our passage to the Divine in Christ (the escape. The second principal division of the oopia toữ Veov, Matt. xi. 19; Luke xi. 49) the discourse prepares the way at least for suppleattempts of more recent writers to deny any menting and correcting both of these one-sided genetic connection of ideas between it and the representations through its elevated eulogy on New Testament doctrine of the Logos, and in true wisdom, founded on constant undivided surgeneral to regard human wisdom as the only ob- render to God, however much there may be still ject described, even in vers. 23-28 (e. g. Bruch, that needs purifying and improving. He dwells Weisheitslehre, etc., p. 202; V. Hofmann, Schrift- with special emphasis on the fact that the eager bew. I: 95 seq. ; Luthardt, Apologetische Vorträge striving and longing of the wicked reaches not über die Heilswahrheiten des Christenth., 2d Ed. p. only after earthly treasures and jewels, such as 227), have rightly evoked much opposition. are to be procured out of the depths of the Comp. Philippi, Kirchl. Glaubenslehre II. 19.2 earth only with much toil and effort. He thus seq. ; Kabnis, Luth. Dogm. I, 316 seq. ; III, 209 intimates that their whole prosperity, being seq. ; Bucher, Des Johannes Lehre vom Logos, founded on such earthly treasures (comp. ch. 1856 ; also B. Couve, Les Origines de la Doctrine xxvii. 16), is in itself perishable, unreal, a mere du Verbe, Toulouse, 1869, p. 36 seq. The latter phantom, and emphasizes all the more strongly indeed denies in respect to the present passage in contrast with it the incomparable worth of a (in which, like Hofmann, he is inclined to find prosperity consisting in the fear of God and in merely a poetic personification of human wis- strict rectitude, in surrendering oneself wholly dom) that it is related in the way of preparation to that which is divine, in the pursuit of heato the New Testament doctrine of the Logos, but venly treasures, in a word in true wisdom, the admits this in respect to the parallel passages image and emanation of the eternal divine wisin Proverbs, and the later passages. Against dom of the Creator, a prosperity of so high an Merx's view, which in part is similar, see above order that he would possess it as the foundation, No. 1, near the end.
and at the same time as the fruit of his inno3. Taken in connection with the preparatory cence, and that it would not forsake him even train of thought in ch. xxvii. this description of now, in the midst of his fearful sufferings and wisdom, or more strictly, of the way to true conflicts. There is much in this train of thought wisdom, forms one of the most important, artis- that is not brought out with such clearness as tically elaborated portions of the whole poem. might be desirable. Some of it must even be It is a suitable conclusion to the first principal read between the lines as being tacitly taken division of the poem, or the entanglement which for granted, particularly that which refers to results from the controversial passage between Job as having formerly possessed and as still Job and his friends, taking the form of a Con- possessing this heavenly practical wisdom, and
fession of Faith, in which Job, after victoriously also to its relation to bis temporary misery. But repelling all the assaults of his enemies, states although the discourse may lack that close conhis position on all the chief points, about which secutiveness and thorough completeness of plaa the controversy bad revolved, in a manner full wbich modern philosopbio poets or thinkers at once of a calm dignity and the consciousness might have impressed upon it, it nevertheless of victory. The one favorite proposition of his forms a truly suitable conclusion to the preceopponents,—that his suffering could not be un- ding controversies, and at the same time a strideserved—he solemnly and unqualifiedly repels king transition to the gradual solution of the by again asseverating his complete innocence whole conflict which now follows. As regards (ch. xxvii. 2-10). In asserting here that his its significance in the structure of the poem it conscience does not hold up before him one of may be termed “Job's Eulogy on Wisdom," in his former days as worthy of blame or punish- which he announces his supreme axiom of life, ment (ver. 6) he transgresses in a one-sided and characteristically gives to his vindication manner the bounds of that which could be against the friends its harmonious peroration, maintained with strict truth concerning himself and its seal. It appears in the structure of the (comp. cb. xxvi. 13), and so causes that foul book as “the clasp which unites the balf of the spot to appear clearly enough on his moral con- déors with the half of the huous," and on which duct and consciousness, for which he must needs the poet has characteristically in-cribed the implore forgiveness. On the other hand, the well-known axiom of the Old Testament Cbokconfession which follows of his belief in that mah—"The fear of God is the beginning of other favorite proposition of his opponents— wisdom" (Delitzsch).
4. For the homiletic treatment of this section it | chance, it does nevertheless come from God is more important to call attention to the close because of their sin (Am. iii. 6). family relationship existing between this eulogy Ch. xxviii. 1 seq. ZEYss: If men are so ingeof Job's on wisdom and such New Testament nious, and so indefatigably industrious in dispassages as Paul's eulogy on Love (1 Cor. xiii.), covering and obtaining earthly treasures, how our Lord's admonition in the Sermon on the much more should they toil to secure heavenly Mount to seek treasures in heaven (Matt. vi. 19 treasures, which alone can give true rest to our seq ), the similar exhortations of Paul and souls, make us rich and happy (Matt. xvi. 26)! James (1 Tim. vi.; James v.), than to take pains — BRENTIUS: All else in the nature of things, to exhibit the plan of the section, lacking as it is however deeply hidden, can be searched out and in complete thoroughness, and to show its sub- valued by human labor and industry; the wistle, oftentimes completely hidden connections dom of God alone can neither be sought out, nor with the previous course of the colloquy. A judged by human endeavor. Although the veins large number of hearers would scarcely be pre- of silver and gold lie hidden in the most secret pared to follow with profit such elaborate disqui- recesses of the mountains, they are nevertheless sitions concerning the niceties of plan in the discovered by great labor, and riches, which discourse, and by reason of the not inconsidera- incite to so many evils, are dug out. In like ble expenditure of time requisite for such an ob macuer iron, however it may be hidden in the ject, they would be quite, or almost quite un most secret depths of the earth, can nevertheless touched by so much beauty and impressive be discovered; but no one anywhere has found power as the details of the discourse present. A the wisdom of God by human endeavor. division of the whole into smaller sections, at Ch. xxviii. 12 seq. OECOLAMPADIUS: Corpoleast into the three, which constitute the natural real substances, of whatsoever kind, can be partition of the discourse, seems here also to be found somewhere. Wisdom is of another order required for homiletic purposes, in order that of being: you can ascertain neither its place every part of it may be suitably appreciated and nor its price. In vain will you journey to the unfolded.
Brahmins, to Athens, to Jerusalem ; although
you cross the sea, or descend into the abyss, Particular Passages.
you but change your skies, not your soul.
Neither schools, nor courts, nor temples, nor Chap. xxvii. 2 sq. V. GERLACH: If by God's monasteries, nor stars, will make one wiser. grace a holy man then (under the Old Dispensa Ch. xxviii. 23-28. OECOLAMPADIUS (on ver. tion) kept his life pure, and observed God's | 27): Not that we should think of God so childcommandments, albeit in weakness, to which the ishly, as though in His works He had need of speeches of Job himself bear witness (this very deliberation or of an external pattern, but in confession especially), it was of the highest im- His nature He has such productiveness that He portance that this his life should not be judged both wills and produces at one and the same falsely, that he should be recognized as God's time (Ps. xxxiii. 9).-Cocceius: Distinguish visible representative, as a revealer of His law, between the wisdom wbich is the pattern and as a support of God's servants such as were the end, and that which is the shadow [image], weaker, not free from blame. Such a prince and the means. The former is with God, is among God's saints on earth as Job lived pre- God, and is known only to God; the latter is eminently for God's people, and he could not, | from God ip us, a ray of that Wisdom. In like without throwing all into confusion, deny his a nner, we are said to be κοινωνοί θείας φύσεως position, could not through false humility sur (2 Pet. i. 4), i. e. through having God's image, render his righteousness, which for very many being one with Him, and enjoying Him.-Jac. was the righteousness of God himself; he must BOEHME (according to Hamberger, Lehre J. on occasion declare boldly that his enemies were Böhme's, p. 55): Wisdom is a divine imagination, also enemies of God. Hence bis showing him- in which the ideas of the angels and souls and self on the spot in this confession as a victor all things were seen from eternity, not as already after the struggle was not only a comfort to the actual creatures, but as a man beholds himself sorely iried man, but also of importance for the in a mirror.-W. WOLFF (Die Anfänge der Logoscomplete establishment of that which he af- lehre, etc. Zeitschrift f. Luth. Theol., 1870, p. firmed,
220): What is wisdom? It is not measuring Ch. xxvii. 10. BRENTIUS: When he says that space with the help of mathematics, it is not the hypocrite does not always call upon God, he contemplating cells through the microscope, it has reference to the duty of praying without is not even resolving things into their original ceasing (1 Thess. v. 17). For where there is substance, and determining their relations one faith, prayer is never suspended, although one to another, but it is having an insight into their should be asleep, or should be doing something nature, having full knowledge of their original else. Unbelief indeed never prays, except with condition. Yea, more; absolute wisdom is the mouth only; but such praying cannot reach essentially creative. We can search out indeed through the clouds.
God's thoughts (in His creation), but we cannot Ch. xxvii. 13 seq. OSIANDER: God does not gather up any truth into a vital point, out of forget the wickedness of the ungodly, but pun- which anything can proceed or originate; we ishes it in His own time most severely, and cannot (to use the language of J. Böhme) “comgenerally even in this life (Ex. xxxii. 34). . press it into a centre." God alone has that The destruction of the ungodly is therefore to creative wisdom. He must know it, for He has be waited for in patience. Although these think it first and foremost in Himself. It not discothat when misfortune befalls them, it comes by vered and searched out by Him, but it is in His
being (Prov. viii. 25 seq.) It was, and is, in gates," says with truth an eastern proverb. the same eternal form in which God is: uncre- Without the living moral followship of the heart ated, divinely internal.-V. GERLACH (on ver. with God it is vain to desire to know wisdom, 28): “He who would learn the secrets of the which comes only from Him, and belongs only mighty must keep watch diligently at their to Him.
SECOND CHIEF DIVISION OF THE POEM.
DISENTANGLEMENT OF THE MYSTERY THROUGH THE DISCOURSES OF JOB, ELIHU
CHAPTERS XXIX-XLII. 6.
First Stage of the Disentanglement.
Job's Soliloquy, setting forth the truth that his suffering was not due to his moral
conduct, that it must have therefore a deeper cause. [The negative side of
the solution of the problem.]
as in the days when God preserved me; 3 when His candle shined upon my head,
and when by His light I walked through darkness; 4 as I was in the days of my youth.
when the secret of God was upon my tabernacle; 5 when the Almighty was yet with me,
when my children were about me; 6 when I washed my steps with butter,
and the rock poured me out rivers of oil ; 7 when I went out to the gate through the city,
when I prepared my seat in the street ! 8 The young men saw me, and hid themselves ;
and the aged arose, and stood up. 9 The princes refrained talking,
and laid their hand on their mouth. 10 The nobles held their peace,
and their tongue cleaved to the roof of their mouth.
6. Pointing out the inward cause of this prosperity—his benevolence and integrity.
VERS. 11-17. 11 When the ear heard me, then it blessed me;
and when the eye saw me, it gave witness to me: 12 because I delivered the poor that cried;
and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him.
13 The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me:
and I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy. 14 I put on righteousness, and it clothed me:
my judgment was as a robe and a diadem. 15 I was eyes to the blind,
and feet was I to the lame. 16 I was a father to the poor;
and the cause which I knew not I searched out. 17 And I brake the jaws of the wicked,
and plucked the spoil out of his teeth.
c. Describing that feature of his former prosperity which he now most painfully :nisses, viz., the universal
honor shown to him, and his far-reaching influence: vers. 18 25. 18 Then I said, I shall die in my nest,
and I shall multiply my days as the sand. 19 My root was spread out by the waters,
and the dew lay all night upon my branch. 20 My glory was fresh in me, and my bow was renewed in
hand. 21 Unto me men gave ear,
and waited, and kept silence at my counsel. 22 After my words they spake not again;
and my speech dropped upon them. 23 And they waited for me as for the rain ;
and they opened their mouth wide as for the latter rain. 24 If I laughed on them, they believed it not;
and the light of my countenance they cast not down. 25 I chose out their way, and sat chief,
and dwelt as a king in the army,
2. Sorrowful description of his present sad estate.
CHAPTER XXX. 4. The ignomiry and contempt he receives from men: vers. 1-16. 1 But now they that are younger than I have me in derision,
whose fathers I would have disdained
to have set with the dogs of my flock. 2 Yea, whereto might the strength of their hands profit me,
in whom old age was perished ? 3 For want and famine they were solitary;
fleeing into the wilderness
in former time desolate and waste. 4 Who cut up mallows by the bushes,
and juniper roots for their meat. 5 They were driven forth from among men,
(they cried after them as after a thief); 6 To dwell in the cliffs of the valleys,
in caves of the earth, and in the rocks. 7 Among the bushes they brayed ;
under the nettles they were gathered together. 8 They were children of fools, yea, children of base men;
they were viler than the earth.
9 And now am I their
I am their by word. 10 They abhor me, they flee far from me, and spare not to spit in my face.