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second member of the verse puts the thought of primary signification decerpere describes that the first in a still more striking light. The in- which in general forms their daily occupation as dications of retributive justice in the administra- they roam about. ... The idea of waylaying tion of the world, are such that not even God's is not to be connected with the expression.' familiars, who are in His secret, can discern Del. ]; the steppe [0727y, the wide, open, desert the days whereon they occur.-E.].

plain] is to them (lit. "to him," viz., to each Ver. 2. Landmarks they remove [or, are

one of them), [or “to him as father of the comremoved; vb. impersonal] flocks, they plunder, and feed. From this point on begins the pany,” Del., or possibly the sing. is is used to specific description of the many deeds of vio- avoid the concurrence of day with ons immelence, oppression and persecution permitted by diately following: Hirzel] bread for their God. The vers. immediately following (3, 4) children-D?? as in ch. i. 19; xxix. 5) describe the wicked agents who commit such [" the steppe, with its scant supply of roots and deeds, vers. 5-8 the wretched ones who suffer | herbs, is to him food for the children; he from them, and thence on interchangeably, now

snatches it from it, it must furnish it to him" the persecutors and now the persecuted, the (Del.) thus accounting for the use of 970]. A verbs used being put in the 3d person plural striking description of the beggar, vagabond Perfect. In respect to the wickedness of removing landmarks, (*28"="do", from 100) comp: gipsies, or South African Bush men of to-day,

lite of these troglodytes, the precursors of the Deut. xix. 14 ; xxvii. 17; Prov. xxii. 28; xxiii. (of the DN7, onagri (Kulans), with which 10. In regard to the plundering and carrying

“ Those off of herds, comp. ch. xx. 19. ["They steal these are compared, Delitzsch says: flocks, 1?l i. e., they are so bare-faced, that cult to be caught; which in their love of freedom

beautiful animals, which, while young, are diffiafter they have stolen them, they pasture them

are an image of the Beduin, Gen. xvi. 12; in openly.” Delitzsch]

their untractableness an image of that which Ver. 3. Inb, “to drive away,” as in Is. xx. 4; cannot be bound, ch. xi. 12; and from tbeir han, “to distrain, to take as a pledge” as in roaming about in herds in waste regions, are Ex. xxii. 25 ; Deut. xxiv. 6; comp. below ver. here an image of a gregarious vagrant, and free9 (whereas on the other hand in ch. xxii. 6 the booter kind of life." Del.] word is used in a somewhat different sense).

Ver. 6. In the field they reap (so accord[The ass of the orphan, and the yoke-ox of the ing to the K’ri 1713?"; the K'thibh 1793? would widow are here referred to as the most valuable be rendered by some such expression as "they possession, and principal dependence of those make for a harvest”) the cattle-fodder unfortunate ones.-E.].

Ver. 4. The poor they thrust out of the Cosina, as in ch. vi. 5, mixed fodder for the estway-i. e., out of the way, in which they have tle, farrago); lit. "his cattle fodder, i. e. that of the right to walk, into roadless regions (comp. the yw'r mentioned in b. [Most explain this to non in a similar sense in Amos v. 12). All mean that these miserable birelings seek to together (70) as in ch. iii. 18) the wretched satisfy their hunger with the fodder grown for of the land must hide themselves.-So ac

the cattle. Delitzsch on the ground that “7377 cording to the K’ri : Y?

..}y, while the K’thibh does not signify to sweep together, but to reap 19y would, according to Ps. lxxvi. 10; Zeph. steal why did they not seize the better portion

in an orderly manner; and if they meant to ii. 3 designate the “afflicted,” the “sufferers” of of the produce ?” supposes that the "rich evilthe land, which seems less suitable here. The doer bires them to cut tbe fodder for his cattle, Pass. 1x3m denotes what these unfortunate ones but does not like to entrust the reaping of the are compelled to do; comp. ch. xxx. 7.

better kinds of corn to them.” This view, how. Sixth Strophe ; vers. 5-8. Description of the ever, seems less natural than the former, and miserable condition into which the oppressed less in harmony with the parallelism. See beand persecuted are brought by those wicked ones low on 6.-E.]. And they glean the vine(not of another class of evil-doers apart from those previously spoken of, as ancient exegesis yard of the wicked up serotinos fructus for the most part assumed, and as latierly colligere (Rosenm.), to glean the late-ripe fruit,

The meaning can scarcely be Rosenm., Umbr., Vaih. [Lee, Barnes, Carey,

i. e. stealing it. Scott, etc.) explain) As is evident from the that this was done in the service of the rich more extended description in ch. xxx. 1-8 of the evil-doer, in which case the verb siyo racemori unsettled, vagabond life of such unfortunates, would rather have been used (against Delitzsch). the poet has here before his eyes the aborigines Ver. 7. Naked (Di7y, adverbial accusative, of the lands east of the Jordan, who were driven

as in ver. 10; comp. Spie, ch. xii. 17, 19) they from their homes into the desert, possibly the remnant of the ancient Horites (cave-dwellers]; pass the night without clothing, 597 lit. comp. what is said more in detail below on

“ from the lack of," comp. ver. 8 b. and ver. 10. ch. xxx. Behold, wild asses iu the wilder

Ver. 8. And shelterless (from lack ness (i. e. as wild asses; comp. ch. vi. 5; xi. of shelter) they clasp the rock.–Pan, they 12; xxxix. 5 seq.), they go forth in their daily work (lit. “work;” comp. Ps. civ. 23), 1 crouch beneath it as their shelter.

“embrace" the rock, in that shivering they seeking after prey (970, booty, prey, a liv

Comp. the ing, as in Prov. xxxi. 15) ["from 729 in the Lam. iv. 5.

phrase, “embracing the dunghill ” (mezabil),

Seventh Strophe: vers. 9-12. Resuming the Prov. viii. 20). Taking it in this sense here, description of the tyrannical conduct of those the subject is naturally “the poor;” and Xu) in men of power described in vers. 2-4. They the second member is simply "to bear, not “ to tear the orphan from the breast.-here take away from.”—E.] the same as 70, as also in Is. lx. 16 ; lxvi. 11.

Ver. 11. Between their walls (hence under

their strict supervision) they must press out Correctly therefore the LXX.: Tò qaoTon the oil (1708", Hiph. denom., only here); whereas to render tid in its customary signification of "destruction, ruin " (as e. g. by Ramban, they tread the wine-vats, and suffer etc.), [="from the shattered patrimony"], thirst (while so engaged-Imperf. consec. comp. yields no satisfactory meaning. The act of Ewald, 8342, a). A further violation of the law tearing away from the breast is conceived of as

that the mouth of the ox must not be muzzled. the violent deed of harsh creditors, who would

Ver. 12. Out of the cities the dying satisfy their claims by bringing up the orphan groan.-So according to the reading bing children as slaves. And what the miserable (Pesh., 1 Ms. of de Rossi's, and some of the one has on they take away as a pledge. older editions), which word indeed elsewhere A tenable meaning, and one that will agree well means “the dead," but which here, as the pawith ver. 10 is obtained only by regarding hy? rallel of the following dish (“wounded, as an elliptical expression for hy UN: “and pierced to death,” comp. Ezek. xxvi. 15: Jer. li. what is on the miserable one," i. e. What he 22) may very well be taken to mean the dying, wears, his clothing (Ralbag, Gesen., Arnh., those who utter the groaning and rattling of the Vaih., Dillmann) [Rod., Bernard, Noyes]. With death struggle (see Green, 266, 2, a). Šo corthe thougat may ihen be compared Mic. ii. 9; rectly Umbreit, Ew., Hirz., Vaih., stick., Hei

ligst., Dillmann (Schlott., Renan, Noyes. Others in respect to bon see above on ver. 3. The (Carey, Elzas, etc.) in the weaker sense : “morother explanations which have been given are tals.”] The usual reading Din?,“ men,” yields less suited to the connection, if not absolutely impossible, such as: “they take a pledge above masoretic accentuation, and connecting this

a suitable rendering only by disregarding the [beyond the ability of] the sufferer”(Hirzel); Din? as subj. with px?! (s0 Jer., Symmachus,

they take for a pledge the suckling (107 of the poor") (Kamphausen) [Elzns]; “with the poor translated not by the colorless and indefinite

Theod.). In tbat case, however, it should be they deal basely,” or “ knavishly” (Umbr.; term “people” [Lonte] (Hahn, etc.), but by Del.), which latter rendering however would

“men (Männen, viri], warriory," and undermake it seem strange that the verb San has only stood (with Del.) of the male population of a a short while before been used twice (ver. 3, and city, “whom a conqueror would put to the ch. xxii, 6) in the sense of distraining.. [To sword.” This however would remove the diswbich add Dillmann's objection that this intercourse too far out of the circle of thought in pretation seems "colorless," out of place in the which it bas hitherto removed. [According to series of graphic, concrete touches of which the the Mësor. punctuations dins hy? would be description is composed. It may also be said of the explanation of E. V. Ewald, Schlott.,

“out of an inhabited, thickly populated city,'' Renan, Conant, etc., “they impose a pledge on

a thought which bas no place in the connection. the sufferers,” that it is less vivid than that Gesenius, followed by Conant, takes 7'Y (II adopted above. It must be admitted on the Lex.) in the sense of “anguish :" "for anguish other hand that the assumption that Sy= do the dying groan.” But the second memner:

"and the soul of the wounded cries sy nor is somewhat doubtful.-E.].

out,” brings up before us a scene of blood, in. Vers. 10-12 again bring into the foreground volving the slaying of a multitude, for which we as subject those who are maltreated by the should have been unprepared without the menproud oppressors. These are however no longer tion of the “city” in the first member -E.). represented as the wretched inhabitants of

Yet God regards not the folly!-ON, steppes or caves, but as poor serfs on the estates of the rich, and are thus represented as being in lit. [“insipidity], absurdity, insulsiras (chap. i. inhabited cities and their vicinity. Naked they 22), a contemptuous expression which seems (the poor) slink about, without clothing. – very suitable here, serving as it does to describe

tersely the violence of the wicked, mocking at Comp. ver. 7, and in respect to 7277, “to slink," the moral order of the universe, and still remainsee ch. xxx. 28. And hungry they bear ing unpunished. The punctuation 7 on “prayer, the sheaves-i. e. for the rich, whose hired service they perform, who however allow them supplication ” (Pesh., some MSS.) [Con., Noyes, to go hungry in their service, and thus become Good, Elzas), may also be properly passed by guilty of the crying sin of the merces retenta la

without consideration. In regard in the absoborum (Deut. xxv. 4; 1 Tim. v. 18, etc.). [The lute use of big-x's (supply 1949, comp. ch. English translators, misled probably by the Piel, xxii. 22), "he regards not,” see ch. iv. 20; Is. toho, which they took to be transitive, have xli. 20; "and especially Ps. 1. 23, where, premade the “oppressors” of the vers. preceding the accus. of the object. [The rendering of

cisely as here, the expression is construed with the subject of ver. 10. 720 however is always E. V.: " yet God layeth (=imputeth) rot rolly “to walk about, to go to and fro” (so also in to them,” is not essentially different, but is less

בקר but ,צלמות Ber

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expressive. Oppression ravages the earth; in they have no fellowship with it, as children of the wilderness, among rocks and caves, in fields night and of darkness. The rendering of the and vineyards, in villages and cities, men suffer, Targ. and of some of the Rabbis (approximately groan, die—and all this chaotic folly, this dark also of the Vulg.) [also of E.' v.]: "which anomaly, this mockery of the Divine order—God (houses) they had marked for themselves in the heeds it not !--E.]

daytime,” is opposed by the fact that onn sig' 4. Second Division : Second Half: vers. 13-25. nifies always obsignare, never designare; comp. Continuation of the preceding description, inch. xiv. 17; xxxvii. 7. which special prominence is given to those evil Ver. 17. For to them all deep darkness doers who commit their crimes in secret, and is morning; i. e. when the deepest darkness escape for a long time the divine punishment, of the night (nipse, comp. ch. iii. 5) begins, which surely awaits them. Eighth Strophe : vers. 13-17. Those (npo?, drawing on of the night is to them what day

then they enter upon their day's work (the emphatically contrasting the present objects of break is to others)—a striking characteristic of the description, as a new class of evil-doers, the èpya tow okótovc, in which these evil-doers with those previously mentioned) are rebels

engage. Umbreit and Hirzel (and so E. V. against the light, or: "are become rebels,” etc.; for so may the clause ? "? with 3 essen

., .) , tial, comp. ch. xxiii. 13) be taken, unless we

as subject : “the morning is to them at once prefer to explain : “are become among apostates deep darkness.” Against this explanation it from the light," i. e, have acquired the nature may be urged that iin' means not "at once," of such (Dei., Dillm.) [in either case 7'n is not but as in ch. ii. 11; ix. 32, etc., “all together, the merè copula, búto expresses a process of all in a body.”-Because they know the becoming). Vix-"?!, “apostates, revolters terrors of deep darkness; i. e. are familiar from the light, enemies of the light,” are essen

with them, as other men are with the open day: tially the same, as "children of the night” comp. ver. 16 .; ch. xxxviii. 16. The sing. (Rom. xiii, 12; 1 Thess. v. 5; Eph. v. 8, elc.

again makes its appearance here ["?!?, lit. Will not know its ways; i. e. the ways of " for he (or one) knows,' etc.), because stress is the light, for it is more natural to refer the suf- laid on tbe fact that every member of this wicked fix in "???, as well as in mijn to nix than band has this familiarity with the darkness of

night. [According to the rendering of E. V., to “God.''

Hirzel, etc., here rejected, the meaning would be Ver. 14. At the dawn (nines, sub lucem, cum that morning or daylight would bring terror to diluculo, toward the break of day, before it is these evil-doers, the fear i. e. of being detected yet broad daylight) the murderer riseth up. and condemned. In the second member 73'' nsin, one who makes a trade of murder, who would then be antecedent, either general: kills to steal, like the English garotter; for the "when one can discern” (Con.), or particular: wealtby oppressor is no longer (down to ver. 18) if one know them ” (E. V.) and nips ninha, the subject of the discourse

. – [He slays the the consequent—"terrors of death-shade!” The poor and needy: because of their defenceless condition; not of course for plunder, but to

other rendering, however, has on the wbole ibe gratify his bloodthirsty disposition.]–And in advantage of greater simplicity, and agreement

he the night he acts like a thief, or:

with usage and the context.-E.] becomes as the thief,” i. e. in the depths of

Ninth Strophe: vers. 18-21. The judgment night, when there is no one to cross his path. thus far described. This judgment Job describes

which will overtake the wicked who have been he plies the trade of a petty, common thief, com

here proleptically, for in vers. 22-24 a he returns mitting burglary, etc.

once again to their haughty, insolent conduct instead of 77'77, comp. above ch. xviii. 12; xx. before the judgment comes, in order to bring out 23, etc. (poetic form]; and for inx, instead of

the thought that a long time usually elapses

before it overtakes them. This strophe sets nINX, ch. xxiii. 9.

forth, in the first place, and this intentionally in Ver. 15. And the adulterer's eye watches strong language, which in the mouth of Job is now, observare, to be on the watch for, to lurk quite surprising, that a grievous punishment for) the twilight, i. e. the evening twilight, and certain destruction infallibly awaits them ; before the approach of which he does not ply but that such destruction, for the most part, is bis craft; comp. Prov. vii. 9. 70s here crepus- strophe, which, however, in ver. 24 again

long delayed, is maintained in the following culum; see above on chap. iii. 9-And puts a resumes the description of the destruction. The veil over the face: lit. "and lays on a cover- language does not permit us with the LXX., ing of the face, i. e., some kind of a veil; Vulg., Pesh., Eichh., Dathe, Umbr., Vaih, etc., bardly a mask, of which oriental antiquity had to take these verses in an optative sense, as a no knowledge: comp. Delitzsch on the passage. descriprion of the punishment, which ought to

Ver. 16. They break in the dark into befal evil-doers: tbus at the outset in ver. 18 we houses ; lit. "he," or "one breaks in;” the

. . , , following members show, an entire band of out every sign of the optative form of speech is thieves. —They, who by day keep them- wanting. It is po-sible, but the same is not Belves shut up, know not the light, i. e. | indicated with sufficient clearness by the author,

,יהי For the Jussive

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as the plurals in the have חתר indefinite subj

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and for that reason is altogether too artificial, to extends its influence also to the second memtake vers 18-21 (with Ewald, Hirzel, Schlottm., ber. As to the sentiment, comp. Ps. xlix. v. Gerlach, Heiligstedt, Dillmann) as a descrip- 13 [12] 21 [20]; also ver. 18 a; not however tion of the well-merited judgment inflicted on ch. xxi. 23, where rather the euthanasia [of the the wicked, ironically attributed by Job to his subject] is described, not his sudden end withopponents, Job's own opinion on the opposite out deliverance. side being in that case annexed to it in ver. 22 Ver. 20. The womb forgets him, (whereas) seq. See against this opinion, as well as against the worms feed sweetly on him.—The two the related opinion of Stickel, Böttcher. Huhn, short sentences which constitute this meniber etc., the remarks of Delitzsch (ii. 33: "(1) There stand in blunt contrast to each other., pro here is not the slightest trace observable in vers. 18 sensu activo : to taste anything with 'pleasure, 21 ibat Job does not express his own view. (2) delectari aliqua re (lit. "to suck”-bence the There is no such decided contrast between vers. meaning "sweet”). So then is iniquity 18-21 and vers. 22-25, for ver. 19 and ver. 24 | broken like the tree --(i. e. like a shattered, buth affirm substantially the sanie thing con or felled tree; comp. Eccies. xi. 3 ; Dan. iv. 7 cerning the end of the evil doer.

In like man

seq.; also above ch. xix. 10). Instead of the ner it is not to be supposed with Stickel, Löw., wicked man his injurious conduct (79yy, comp. Bölich , Welte and Habn, that Job, outstripping the friends, as far as ver. 21, describes how the

on ch. v. 16) is bere mentioned as baving come evil-doer certainly often comes to a terrible end,

to an end, while ver. 21 again speaks in the and in ver. 22 seq., how the very opposite of

concrete concerning the evil-doer himself, in this, however, is often witnessed; so that this order to point to his heinous bloodquiltiness ng consequently furnishes no evidence in support mental thought of the strophe is this, that nei

the cause of his punishment. [** Tue fundaof the exclusive assertion of the friends. over, ver. 24 compared with ver. 19, where there ther in life nor in death had he suffered the punis nothing to indicate a direct contrast, is opposed broken tree (broken in its full vigor) also cor

ishment of bis evil-doing. The figure of the to it; and ver. 22, which has no appearance of referring to a direct contrast with what has responds to this thought; comp. on the other been previously said, is opposed to such an

hand what Bildad says, ch. xviii. 16: “his antithetical rendering of the two final stro-Lopped off" (or: withered). The severity of

roots dry up beneath, and above his branch is phes."] Ver. 18. His course is swift on the face bis oppression is not manifest till after his

death." Delitzsch). of the waters: i. e. lightly and swiftly is he born hence, as one who is swept away irresisti- « fed upon, devoured,” comp. ch. xx. 26 ) the

Ver. 21. He who hath plundered (lit. bly by the food; comp. ch. ix. 26; Hos. x. 7. barren. that beareth not (who has therefore (Carey curiously conjectures that this ver. speaks of pirates!]_Accursed is their por good to the widow—but on the contrary has

no children to protect her), and hath done no tion in the land; or: “a curse befals," elc.

shown himself hard of heart towards her. On (Dillm.). [In German: Im Fluge ist er dahin the form or comp. Gesen. & 70 [8 69], 2, auf Wassers Fläche; verflucht wird ibr GrundBlück im Lande; or according to Dillmann: Rem. [Green, 150, 2] [The Participial form Flucht trifft, etc., whereby, continues Zöckler, nye introducing the characteristics of the c'ass,

and Sp. is still and followed by finite verb according to Gesen. more clearly expressed. This paronomasia it is 8 131, Rem. 2];

Tenth Strophe : vers. 22-25. und yet He impossible to reproduce in English without slightly paraphrasing the one term or the other. preserveth long the men of might by Bis The above attempts to combine the verbal play strengthếi. e., but truly (? before you is at with fidelity to the German original: “his course

once adversative and restrictive).

He (God, is swift” for “im Fluge dahin,” and “accursed' comp. ver. 23) often greatly prolongs the life of for “verflucht.”] Whether a divine curse, or a

such mighty evil-doers (O'?'98, comp. Is. xlvi. curse on the part of men, is intended, seems 12) [" the strong, who bid defiance not only to doubtful: still parallel passages, such as ch. v. every danger, (Ps. lxxvi. 6) but also to all di3; xviii. 20, favor the latter view. The inter- vine influences and noble impulses.” Delitzsch). change of plur, and sing. occurs here as in ver. On Jus as applied to the agency of God in 16.-He enters no more on the way of the prolonging life comp. Is. xiii. 22; Ps. xxxvi. vineyard; lit. " he turns no more into the way 11; lxxxv. 6 [5]. Such an one rises up to the vineyard" (comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 18); i. e. again, although despairing of life-when he there is an end of his frequent resorting to bis had already despaired of continuing in life. [So favorite possession, and in general of his enjoy- far from using his power to crush the mighty ment of the same. Observe that from here on villains of earth, God uses it to bring them triwealthy evil-doers again form the prominent umphantly through those crises in which thos subject of the description; in this differing from themselves had given up all hope —E.] NS vers. 13-17.

Ver. 19. Drought and heat carry off [thu: 1*- subordinate circumstantial clause, comp. lit. “bear away as plunder”] the snow-water

Ewald, & 341, a.—1'), Aramaizing piur. like (comp. ch. vi. 16 seq.): 80 the underworld 1997, ch. iv. 2. [According to E. V. and most those who have sinned. — Ron, a rela

commentators the subject of ver. 22 is still the tive clause, which is at the same time the wicked man, föns being taken to mean: “10 object of the verb in the first member, which draw, drag” as a captive; or “to hold, bind;"

תִּקְלַל the paronomasia between

or

“ to destroy. He subjugates the mighty, I a way as to set forth a natural death, such as and puts all in terror for their very life. The all die, rather than that caused by a divine interpretation given above however is more in judgment, such as often falls upon the wicked. accord with the proper meaning of fun, with Ver. 25. And should it not be so (IDX XS-DX! ver. 23 understood as having God for its sub

as in ch. ix. 24) who will convict me of ject; and is specially favored by the consideration that it gives more distinct expression to the falsehood, and make my speech of no efthought, so important to Job's argument here of fect?—The phrase sxy (instead of which the lengthening out of the life and prosperity of the Symm., Vulg., Pesh. read Seasing) is precisely evil-doer, and of the long delay of his punishment. the same with eis under trdévai, or our : “bring The omission of the Divine Name is so characteris- to nought,” comp. Ewald, & 286, 9; 321, 6. The tic of our book as to present no difficulty.-E.]. Ver. 23. He grants bim safety (lit. " He the superiority which Job vividly felt himself to

whole question is a triumphant expression of (God) grants to him to be in safety; permits him possess over his opponents, especially in the to be at his ense [hoss, adverbial, of the state views derived from experience which he had or condition He grants him to be in); so that just urged respecting the incomprehensible he is sustained (ppula, expressing the conse- dealings of God with the destinies of men. quence of that divine grant of security), and His (God's) eyes are upon their ways-in

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. order, namely, to keep them therein, and to bless and protect them; comp. by yoin, ch. x.

1. The significance of the present discourse

of Job lies essentially in its descriptive treatment 3. [God's eyes, says Job, follow the prosper- of ethical and anthropological themes, some ous evil-doer with watchful interest, to see that passages even describiog matters of interest in he does not step out of the path of security and the history of civilization (ch. xxiv. 5 seq.), success! According to the other interpretation, whereas the speculative and theological element which continues the evil-doer as the subject, the becomes subordinate. The latter is restricted meaning is that the oppressor allows io those almost exclusively to the first and shorter Diviwho are in his power only a transient respite, sion, which is occupied with the mystery of watching for every pretence or opportunity to Job's own destiny of suffering, just as the seinjure them. See Scott. The full-toned suffix cond Division is occupied with the obverse side 17': seems chosen for emphasis.-E.).

of this mystery, the prosperity and impunity of Ver. 24. They rise high-a little while the wicked. That which the first Division says only, and they are gone. 19h, 3 Plur. Perf. touching the inexplicableness of his sufferings from on=017, to raise oneself, to mount up- is substantially ouly a repetition of the wish, alward” (Ew. & 114 a; comp. Gesen. § 67 [66] ready several times uttered, that God by His Rem. 1 (Green, 8 139, 1], wy? with following personal intervention might decide the contro. for the consequent, forms a short sentence by versy, and confirm bis innocence, combined with

a statement of the reasons why this wish could itself, as in Ps. xxxvii. 10. As to 137*? “then not be realized. On the first of these reasons, to he is no more," comp. Gen. v. 24. The inter- wit: that on account of the overwhelming machange of numbers as in ver. 16 and ver. 18. | jesty pertaining to the appearance of God, the And they are bowed down (concerning Unapproachable and Almighty One, it would be 15??? [Aramaizing] Hoph. from PD, comp. impossible for him to put in bis answer before Gesen. % 67 [8 66), Rem. 1); like all they Him (ch. xxiii. 6) he does not dwell this time as perish (i. e. like all others), and as the top

on two former occasions (ch ix. 34; xiii. 21); of the ears [of grain: i. é. the grain-bearing he merely touches it with suggestive brevily. head of the wheat-stalk] they wither._j17p His consciousness of innocence is too strong to lit. “they shrivel together” (Niph. R-flex, from allow bim to give way long to this thought; Kal; comp. ch. v. 16) i. e., they perish. There thanks to the incessant assaults and accusations

of the friends, it has become consolidated and is no reference to the componere artus of the dead [Ges. "to gather oneself up, composing the strengthened to such a degree that in ch. xix. (18 body and limbs as in death,” which here would indeed bad been the case before here and there. mean to die in the course of nature, not by vio- especially in ch. xvi. 17; xvii. 9) it even found lence, or suddenly), nor to the

utterance in decided exaggeration, and drove

housing,”' i.e. the burial of the dead (comp. Ezek. xxix. 5).

him to extreme assertions touching his absolnte The expression is rather å figure taken from ve

blamelessness and immaculateness, for which he getable life, like the following thp'; "they wi- assertions we find the following that he would

must hereafter implore pardon. Among these ther like the heads of grain;" see on ch. xlii. 2. come forth out of God's trial of him like gold, [It may be claimed with reason that the connection that he would never swerve from His ways, that here favors the definition, to be cut off,” the ori. he had always observed the words of His mouth ental custom of reaping being to cut off the tops, more than his own law (ch. xxiii. 10-12). All leaving long stalks standing in the field.] It is not the more emphatic however is the stress which altogether in the sense of euthanasia, therefore, he lays on the other reasons why that wish of an easy, painless death, as described in ch. seems to him incapable of realization, God, be xxi. 23, that the present passage is to be under- Thinks, purposely withdraws Himself from binn. stood (against Ewald, Dillmann, etc., also Del.). It is deliberately and with good reason that He It rather resumes the description in ver 18 seq, keeps Himself at a distance and hidden fron although in less forcible language, and in such him, it being now His settled purpose to make

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