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terity. [Job's view is that retribution can be tue of an attraction similar to that in ch. xv. such only when it falls on the offender himself. 20 (Gesen. § 148 [& 145], 1) [Green, & 277). It may affect others-although Job does not say Fifth Strophe : vers. 22-26 : [The theory of the that himself-it must reach him. E.]

friends involves a presumptuous dictation to God Ver. 20 continues the refutation of that false of what He should do, seeing that His present theory of substitution or satisfaction, and illus- dealings with men, and their participation of the trates at the same time how the evil doer is to common destiny of the grave, furoish no indicaj't' or “feel” the divine punishment.-7? “ de- tion of moral character). struction," (lit. “a thrust, blow," plaga), only

Ver. 22. Shall one teach God knowbere in the old Testament; synonymous with ledge. Spe? as containing the principal notion the Arabic caid. The figure of drinking the di- is put emphatically first. In respect to the davine wrath has immediate reference to Zophar's tive construction of verbs of teaching (as in description, ch. xx. 23. [“ The emphasis lies Greek didáokeiv Tiví ml) comp. Ewald, 283, c.: on the signs of the person in y. and Oma Seeing He judgeth'those that are in heaMay his own eyes see his ruin ; may he himself ven: lít: "and He nevertheless judges (971, have to drink of the divine wrath." Del.] circumstantial clause) the high” (Carey: “dig

Ver. 21 gives a reason for that which he hasnities.” The LXX read O'97, póvouc). The just said against that perverted theory by call- “ bigh" are simply the heavenly spirits, the ing attention to the stolid insensibility of the angels as inhabiting the beigbts of heaven evil-doer, as a consummate egoist, in respect to the interests of his posterity.

(opping, comp. ch. xvi. 19; axv. 2; xxxi. 2), not

For what careth he for his house after bim : lit. " for the celestial heights themselves, as Gesenius exwhat is his concern, his interest (ron here, as in plains, with a reference to Ps. lxxviii. 69, a rech. xxii. 3 ; comp. Is. lviii. 3) in his house after Still less does it mean "the proud.” (Hahn, Ol

ference, however, which is probably unsuitable. him” (i.e., after his death)? ?na is in close shausen), a signification which op by itself, and union with in'?? (comp. e.g. Gen. xvii. 19) not without qualification never bas. Tuis, proposiwith iron. If the number of his months is tion, that God exercises judicial power over the apportioned to him; or • while (or when) the exalted spirits of heaven, Job advances here all number, etc." The whole of this circumstantial the more readily, that the friends had already clause, which is a partial echo of ch. xv. 20 appealed twice in similar words to the same fact (comp. ch. xiv. 5), expresses the thought, that of the absolute holiness and justice of God (ch. the selfish pleasure-seeking evil-doer is satisfied iv. 18, and xv. 15). They had indeed done ihis if only his appointed term of life remains to him with the intent of supporting their parrowunabridged. This general meaning may be minded doctrine of retribution, while on the conmaintained whether, in accordance with Prov. trary Job, by the same proposition would put xxx. 27, we explain lyn to menn: “to allot, to their short-sighted theory to the rout, and direct

attention to the unfathomable depth and secresy appoint,” thus rendering it as a synonym of of God's counsels, and of the principles of His 7x7 (ch. xl. 30 [xli. 6]; so Targ., Gesen.,

government. Ewald, Dillm.); or, which is less probable, we Vers. 23-26 demonstrate this unfathomabletake it as a denominative from I??, arrow, ness and incomprehensibleness of the divine in the sense of “casting lots, disposing of by judgments (Rom. xi. 33) by two examples, Jot” [from the custom of shaking up arrows for which are contrasted each with the other (ver. lots-a doubtful sense for the Hebrew] (so Coc-23, ver. 25: 1???!, “the one-the other”), of ceius, Rosenm., Umbieit, Hirzel, etc.); or whe one man dying in the fulness of his prosperity, ther, finally, we assign to the word the meaning of another who is continually unfortunate, but of “ cutting off, completing” (Gesenius in Thes., whom the like death unites with the former, Stickel, Delitzsch [E. V. Good, Ber., Noy., notwithstanding that their moral desert during Schlott., Con., Rod., Ren., Fürst] etc.)- to which their life was altogether different, or directly latter interpretation, however, the expression, opposite in character. The assumption of many “the number of his months”-is not so well ancient and some modern commentators, as e. g. suited, for a number is not properly cut off. Hahn, that by the prosperous man described in [In any case the addition of E. V., when the

ver. 23 seq. a wicked man, and by the unfortunumber of bis months is cut off in the midst," nate man described in ver. 25 a pious man is erroneous ; for even if we assign to the verb the intended, without qualification, is arbitrary, and signification-—"cut off” —the meaning of the hardly corresponds with exactness to the poet's clause is cutting off at the end, not in the midst. idea. The tendency of the parallel presented is What is the evil-doer's concern in his house, rather in accordance with ver. 22, to show, in when he himself is no more? The other mean- proof of the mysteriousness of the divine dealing given above however—"to apportion ings and judgment, that what happens outgives a more vivid representation of bis brutal wardly to men in this life is not necessarily deselfishness, his unconcern even for his own flesh termined by their moral conduct, but that this and blood, provided he himself have his full latter might be, and often enough is directly at share of life and its enjoyments. What careth variance with the external prosperity. he for his house after bim, if the full number of Ver. 23. The one dies in the fulness of his his own months be meted out to him? E.] The prosperity; lit. " in bodily prosperity," in ipsa number of 1897 is determined by the subordi sua integritate. In respect to as “self” [esnate (but nearest] term of the subject, by vir- sence, the very thing] comp. Gesen. 124

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[122], 2, Rem. 3; and in respect to DA, “in- decay, worms, as above in ch. xvii. 14. Comp. iegrity in the physical sense, bodily, in general our proverbial expressions in regard to the external well being," comp. the word on? gene

equality of the grave, the impartiality of death, rally used elsewhere in this sense, Ps. xxxviii. 4 5. Third Division : A rebuke of the friends on [3], 8 [7], and also b'D'DA Prov. i. 12. account of their one-sided judgment touching PARU in the second member, which is not found the external prosperity of men, a judgment elsewhere is an alternate form of RIND, “un

which was only unfavorabl) as regards Job:

vers. 27-34. concerned,” enlarged by the introduction of a Sixth Strophe : vers. 27-30.-Behold I know liquid (comp. 757 from W, æstuare, and your thoughts [1130n3, counsels, plans], doba, Bánoapov, from DWJ; Del.]. According xii. 2; xiv. 17; axiv. 8) ["is the name he gives

and the plots (nidia, sensu malo, as in Prov. to Rödiger, Olsh., it is possibly just an error in to the delicately developed reasoning with which writing for AD, the form given above in ch. they attack him”: Delitzsch; the schemes xii. 5. roben stands here for the more frequent which they invent to wound him, the painful didefective form 1970, ch. ix. 20; comp. Jer. with which ye do violence to me: with

lemmas into which they would entrap him : E.] xlix. 31

the intent namely of presenting me at any cost Ver. 24. His troughs are full of milk. as & sinner.

["By the construction of Don Most moderns, following the lead of the Talmudic pyn "olive-trough, as well as the author with ly the notion of falling upon and over

powering is indicated.” Schloitm.]. ity of the Targ. and many Rabbis, take O'poy.

Ver. 28, hypothetical antecedent with '?, is correctly in the sense of “vessels, troughs related to ver. 29 as its consequent, precisely ["milk-pails,” Luther, Wolfsohn, Elzas; "bot. I like ch. xix. 28 to ver. thes,” Lee; “skins," Carey (i. e. undressed Dillm. But such a construction seems neither

29. [So Ewald. Del., skins, the abundance of milk making it neces

narural nor forcible. The causal rendering: sary to use these) ), to the rejection of interpre

For ye'say, etc., is simpler and stronger. It tations which are in part singularly at variance, such as “cattle-pastures

was from just such taunts as the following that

(Aben-Ezra, Schult. Job knew their spirit, and detected their insidi[Renan, Weymss] etc., "veins” (Fürst), "juguTar veins” (Saad.), "sides” (Pesh.) [Noyes, The causal rendering is adopted by E. V. Good,

ous plots against his reputation and his peace. ** bowels" (LXX., Vulg. (“breasts, Targ., E. V.; " loins,” Rodwell; "sleek skin,” Elzas, etc. E.'). If, [or, when]ye say:“Where

Wem., Noy., Words., Schloti., Con., Rod., Carey, Good. “The assumption that I'vy must be a

is the house of the tyrant? (3'71, sensu malo, part of the body is without satisfactory ground (comp. against it e. g. cb. xx. 17, and for it xx.

as in Is. xiii. 2, not in the neutral sense, as 11); and Schlottm. very correctly observes that above in ch. xii. 21) (a title of honor, similar in in the contrast in connection with the represen: personal application to Job here," tyrant.”

use to our nobleman, generosus, for which, in its tation of the well-watered marrow one expects a reference to a ricb, nutritious drink.” Delitzsch).

seems too strong a rendering. Neither here, The meaning of this member of the verse accord

por in Is. 1. C., is such a rendering called for. ingly reminds us in general of ch. xx. 17, which In this member the prominent idea is station, description of Zophar's Job here purposely re

rank: the moral cbaracter of the 2'7) is indi. calls, in like manner as in the marrow of the cated in the following member. E.], and where bones,” in b he recalls ver. 11 of the same dis- the tent inhabited by the wicked ? lit.,

[And the marrow of his bones is the tent of the babitarions of the wicked,"' by well-watered). In respect to "well-watered,” which possibly a spacious palatial tent is inan agricultural or horticultural metaphor, comp. tended, with several large compartments within ls. lviii. 11.

it (such as the tents of the Bedouin sheikbs are to Ver. 25. The other dies with a bitter this day), which can be recognized from afar by soul (comp. ch. iii. 20; vii. 11; x. 1), and their size. [hidun “is not an externally, but has not enjoyed good; lit. "and has not interpally multiplying plur.; perhaps the poet by eaten of the good” (or “prosperity," opin as 12 intends a palace in the city, and by Goox in ch. ix. 25) with ? partitive, as in Ps. cxli. 4; 7bun a tent among the wandering tribes, rencomp. above ch. vii. 13 [: bax perhaps like dered prominent by its spaciousness, and the

eplendor of the establishment” Del.). It is to be 3 TXT conveying the idea of enjoyment, as noted moreover how distinct an allusion there is Schlottmann suggests. Not, however, of full in the question to the repeated descriptions of enjoyment, but rather tasting of it.—Not as in the destruction of the tent of the wicked by EliE. V. “and never eateth with pleasure ;” against phaz and Bildad (ch. xv. 34; xviii. 15, 21). which lies (1) The customary usage of ? parti Ver. 29. Have ye not inquired then

; () Coax ; see Green, & 119, 2] of objective meaning of nain, which cannot be those who travel: lit. "the wanderers, pastaken of subjective pleasure.-E.].

sers-by, of the way;" comp. Lam. i. 12; P8. Ver. 26. Together (or: beside one ano- lxxx. 13, etc. ["People who have travelled ther] they lie down in the dust (of the much, and therefore are well acquainted with grave), and worms cover them. — Op? I the stories of human destinies.” Del.]. And


their tokens ye will at least not fail to it in his discussions. (3) It is inconsistent know ; i. e. that which they have to te l of ex- with the connection. (a) Why should he proamples of prosperous evil-doers and righteous duce this view here as a foreign importation ? ones in adversity (they, who have travelled Why should be rest it on experience ? Observe much, who know about other lands and nations !) that the proposition-the wicked are spared in that you surely will not disregard, controvert, or times of calamity is a deduction from experience, reject ? NON, Piel of 101, expresses here, as for the truth of which Job might well appeal 10 in Deut. xxxii. 27: 1 Sam. xxiii. 7; Jer. xix the testimony of those wbo by much observation 4, the negative sense of "ignoring, denying,” and experience could testify to the fact. But while occasionally, e.g. in Elibu's use of it, ch. surely the doctrine of a future retribution must xxxiv. 19, it signifies also to “acknowledge" (a rest on other authority-the witness of cormenning elsewhere found in the Hiphil). [So science, the testimony of a divine revelation, the here E. V. Lee, Conant, Ewald, Schloti.-áccord consensus of the wise and boly (not merely of ing to which rendering the second member is a ibe :.????\) in all ages and lands. (6) It is continuation of the question begun in the first). inconc-ivable that Job having carried his hearninix, "tokens,” means here "things worthy of

ers forward to the retribution of the Hereafter note, remarkable incidents, memorabilia, anec

as the solution of the mystery of the present dotes of travel.'

should proceed to speak (as he does in the verses Ver. 30 gives in brief compass the substance immediately following) of the present prosperity and contents of these lessons of travel : That and pomp of the wicked, and of the continuance in the day of destruction (TX, as in ver.

of the same to and upon the grave, in the same 17) the wicked is spared (i. e. is held back sion reached in ver. 33 seem strange and unsuit

strain as brfore. Especially does the conclufrom ruin ; : un as in ch. xvi. 6; xxxiii. 18), in ble, if we suppose the sublime truth of a full the day of overflowing wrath they are retribution to be declared in ver. 30.-E.] led away: i. e. beyond the reach of the devas

Seventh Strophe : vers. 31. 31. Who to Bis tating effect of these outbursts of divine wrath face will declare His way? and bath He (ningy as in chap. xl. 11), so that these can do done aught-who will requite it to Him? them no barm. The Hoph. $317, which is used travellers, whose utterance has already come to

This inquiry evidently proceeds not from the blow in ver. 32 of being escorted in honor to an end in ver. 30, but from Job himself. Morethe grave, expresses here accordingly, in like over it concerns not the sinner, but God, the un. manner as in is. lv. 12, being led away with a searchably wise and mighty disposer of men's protecting escort (as, for example, Lot was con destinies, whose name is not mentioned from reducted out of Sodom). [Noyes gives to the verb verential awe. So correctly Aben-Ezra, Ewald, here the same application as in ver. 32, and ex- Hirzel, Heiligst., Dillm. Regarded as the conplains : He is borne to his grave in the day or tinuation of the discourse of the travellers (as wrath ; i. e. he diet a natural, peaceful death). it is taken by the majority of commentators) (so The only unusual feature of this coustruction, Del., Schlott., Renan, Scott, Good, Lee, Bernard, which in any case is much to be preferred as a Rod., Words., Elzas, Merx], the verre must Daluwhole to that of Ewalu [Rdwell] “ on the day rally be referred to the wicked man, characteri. when the overfluwings of wrath come on " is the zing his unscrupulous arbitrary conduct, which diy, instead of which we might rather look for no one ventures io hinder or punish. But for this Dia, in the day.” It is nevertheless unadvi- view the expression 15-090 p, “who will requite sable, in view of the context, to translate the it to him?” would be much too strong. Moresecond member—as e. g. with Dillman [E. V., over a sentiment of such a reflective cast would Con., Carey)—“they are brought on to the day be strange in the mouth of the travellers from of wrath;" for such a proposition could not pos- whom we should expect directly only a statesibly be attributed to the travellers, but at most ment of fact (ninis ver. 29). [Referred to God to the friends; it would thus of necessity follow the meaning would be: Who will challenge the a very abruptly (and unnaturally); neither divine conduct ? He renders no account of His would any essential relief be obtained from a actions. His reasons are inscrutable; and howtransposition of ver. 30 and ver. 29 as suggested ever much His dealings with men seem to conby Delitzsch. [Zöckler overlooks, however, the tradict our notions of justice, our only recourse explanation of tuose (such as Scott, Carey, Co- is silence and submission. But against this innant, Wordsworth, Barnes, etc.) who regard the terpretation it may be urged: (1) It requires whole of this verse as expressing, through the too many abrupt changes of subject. Thus we travellers of ver. 29, Job's own conviction that should have for subject in ver. 30 the wicked the wicked are reserved for future retribution, man, in ver. 31 God, in ver. 32 the wicked again, that they are led forth to a day of wrath here- and this while in ver. 31 and ver. 32 the subject after; that accordingly present exemption from is indicated only by personal pronouns. It is the penalty of sin proves nothing as to a man's highly improbable that X1/7! in ver. 31 b, and real character. Such an explanation, however, sin! in ver. 32 a are used of different subjects. is to be rejected for the following reasons: (1)|(2) The expressions are unsuituble to the It is at variance with the drift of the book's ar thought attributed to them, especially the clause gument. (2) It is inconceivable, if Job held so clearly and firmly to the dortrine of future retri-is-oro 'p, which, as Delitzsch argues, used of bution, as this view of the passage before us man in relation to God, has no suitable meanwould imply, that he did not make more use of ing. On the other hand the application to the

wicked gives a smooth connection, at the same of Sidon.” Renan). This explanation is in time that the expressions are entirely appropri- striking barmony not only with well-known ate to describe his career of lawless impunity. customs of the east, but also with the etymologiThe Nint of ver. 32 moreover acquires by this cally established signification of =heap, ťuapplication its proper emphasis (see on the mulus, monumentum (comp. 54, Gen. xxxi. 46 verse). To the objection made above—that a moral reflection of the sort would be inappro- seq.): It agrees not less with that which was priate in the mouth of travellers, it may be previously spoken by Bildad to precisely the op

posite effect in respect to the memory of the replied that it is not properly a reflection, but a

evil-doer after his death in ch. xviii. 17, where statement of fact, the fact, namely, of the evildoer's exemption from responsibility and pun. of the name of the ungodly, whereas Job on the

the latter presupposes the complete extinction ishment. On the contrary, so far from being contrary makes the same not only not to sleep called to account, or properly punished, he escapes in the day of calamity (ver. 30), he defies the sleep of death, but rather to watch, as though

he continued to live. [And Noyes accordingly the world (ver. 31), and is buried with honor renders: “ Yea, he still survives upon his tomb. (ver. 32). Carey thinks that Job here makes He enjoys as it were a second life upon his tomb; evident allusion to a custom that prevailed among in the honors paid to his memory, his splendid the ancient Egyptians, whose law allowed any monument, and the fame he leaves behind one to bring an accusation against a deceased him.”]. The more striking the above points of person previously to his interment (and even kings themselves were not exempted from this agreement, the less necessary is it to fatigue deaih judgment); if the accusation was fully and Böttcher (Proben, etc., p. 22) in finding how

ourselves in company with the ancient versions proved, and the deceased was convicted of having led a bad life, he was obliged to be placed ? could be taken in the sense of “beaps of in his own house, and was debarred the custom sheaves," and still ohtain a sentiment suited to ary rites of interment, even though the tomb had the context.* Equally unnecessary is it (with been prepared for him." Less simple and pro

Böttcher de infer. p. 40, [Conant], Habn, Röbable than the explanation given above. E.] diger, etc.) to take per impersonally; “ watch

Vers. 32 seq. continue the report of those who is held over his grave-mound, etc.a rendering had travelled much, not however (auy more with which the suffix-less W"?! (not iz!??) would than in ver. 30) in their ipsissimis verbis strictly


but indifferently. [" Moreover,” says quoted, but in such a way that Job fully appro- Delitzsch, “the placing of guards of honor by priates to himself that which they say (to wit, graves is an assumed, but not proved, custom their vivid representation of the brilliant career

of antiquity.” The rendering of E. V. "and of the wicked), so that accordingly even ver. 31 shall remain in the tomb,” is feeble as well as need not be regarded as properly an interrup- incorrect.]. tion of that report. And he (8907? pointing Ver. 33. Soft lie upon him the clods (or back to the y? ver. 30 (emphatic, according to sods] of the valley (ch. Xxxviii. 38). Lit., the view which regards the y? as also the sub-“sweet are to him the clous of the valley,” those,

Valleys are ject of ver. 31. Hethe same who lives that namely, beneath which he rests. lawless, defiant, outwardly successful life, is the particularly desired in the East as places of favorite of fortune to the very last. Feared in burial; witness the valleys around Jerusalem,

hey do in graves.

The favorite his

life, he is again honored in his death. E.] abounding as is borne away to burial, in full honor, and

custom of the Arabs of burying their distinwith a great procession ; comp. on ver. 30; also guished dead on eminences, is accordingly not

referred to here (comp. Del. on ver. 32). ch. x. 19; xvii. 1. [“ Like pismo? above, ["These words also seem to suppose that the nitap is also an amplificative plural.” Del. It

person who is buried may partake, in some rewould thus mean “a splendid tomb ”]. And spects, of the prosperous state of the tomb which on a monument he (still) keeps watch: as contains him. Such an idea seems to have been one immortalized by a statue, or a stone monu indulged by Sultan Amurath the Great, who ment. This is not to be specially understood in died in 1450, [and who in the suburbs of Prusa] accordance with the Egyptian custom (in that now lieth in a chappell without any roofe, his case the reference here being to pyramids ; grave nothing differing from the manner of the comp. on ch. iii. 14), but in accordance with a common Turks; which, they say, he comcustom, still prevalent in the East, specially manded to be done, in bis last will, that the among the Bedouio Arabs, of building large mercie and blessing of God (as he termed it) grave-mounds, or a domed structure towering might come unto him by the shining of the above the grave (1722) in memory of the honored sunne and moone, and falling of the raine and dead. In such a lofty monument the dead man

dew of heaven upon his grave.' KNOLLES keeps watch, as it were, over his own resting after him draws (Tüp intransitive as in Judg.

Hist. of the Turks, p. 332.” Noyes]. And place, without its being necessary, that he was particularly represented by a statue, iv. 6) all the world : viz. by imitating his ex. or a picture on the wall (like those in Egyptian vaults, to which Schlottm. refers here by way nored) as when he watched orer his corn-shocks. Just as im bis

* Witness the following curious effort of Bernard : "[Ho. of comparison). [“ Possibly there is also here life-time people were obliged (through their fear of him) to some allusion to inscriptions warning off those Halute hiin humbly, when they passed before him as he who would desecrate the tomb, similar to those

sto d watching over his shorks of corn, that no poor man

might el an ao ear, so must they tesıify their respect to his found on the sarcophagus of Eschmunazar, king 'body when carried to the erave.


ample, by entering on the same path of a life | trine concerning the horrible end of the wicked; spent in earthly enjoyment and luxury, which and in what he had said he had exhibited so lite he, and an unnuinbered multitude of others be- tle prudence that he had appeared as one wbo fore him (as the third member says) had already presumptuously challenged the divine righteoustrod. Thus rendered the sentence undoubtedly ness, and had thus only confirmed the friends' expresses an exaggeration ; in the DTX-4? there 22-24 ; 2. 3: xii. 6). Now, however, he pro

evil opinion of his moral character (see ch. ix. lies an unjust accusation of misanthropic bit-ceeds to discuss the question in controversy tervege against the great mass of men. [For a calmly and thoroughly, opposing to their proposomewhat similar misanthropic, or at least cyni- sition, that the life of the ungodly must infallical bitterness, comp. what Bildad says in ch. bly end in misery, the fact, which experience viii. 19.] This same characteristic however establishes that it is quite commonly ihe case corresponds perfectly to the exasperated and that the prosperity of the wicked lasis until their embittered temper of Job; whereas on the con- death, while on the contrary the pious are purtrary to interpret "all the world draws after sued with all sorts of calamities to the grave. him” of a large funeral procession (Vaih., In respect to the reflection of an apparent injus[Wemyss, Carey) etc.), yields when compared lice which this experience seems to cast on God, with 32 a an inappropriate tautology, and to re the author of so unequal a distribution of bufer it to those who follow after him through man destinies, Job this time expresses himself sharing the same fate of death and burial (De with discreet awe and reserve. Instead of aslitzsch [Noyes]) seems altogether too vapid in suming i he tone of a presumptuous blasphemer, the present connection.

and accusing God of injustice, or tyrannical seVer. 34. Conclusion : with a reference to ver. verity, he treats the contradiction between pros27. Bow then (7'*?, quomodo ergo, stronger perity and virtue, as it so often exhibits itself than the simple TX) can you comfort me so

in this earthly life, as a dark enigma, not to be vainly (comp ch. ix. 29)? Of your replies ing up ibis antagonism before his opponents

solved by human wisdom. And instead of holdthere remains (over noihing but) falsehood! with frivolous satisfaction or exulting arrogance, Lit. “and as for your replies (absolute case, he exhibits whenever he approaches the suhject Ewald, & 309, b)-ibere remaineth over false- deep perplexity and painful agitation (vers. 5, hood.”—Syą, scil. D'ISRI, “a perfidious dispo- | 6), and in the latter part of the description he sition towards God” (comp. Josh. xxii. 22), and

even points out the mystery wbich surrounds the for that same reason also towards one's neighbor. phenomenon under consideration as a discipli. By this is intended the same intriguing, mali- nary trial for human knowledge, constraining cious, deceitful eagerness to suspect and to slan

to reverential submission beneath the inscrutader, with which in ver. 27 he had reproached ble ways of God (vers. 22 and 31, according to his opponents.

the more correct explanation: see above on the passages). In short, he discourses concerning

this mystery as an earnest thinker, resolutely DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.

maintaining his religious integrity, and putting 1. The significance of this discourse of Job's the counsel of the ungodly far from him (ver. in respect to the progress of the colloquy lies in 16); and this calm, earnesi, dignified treatment the fact that it marks the transition from the pre accounts for his victory over his opponents, who dominantly personal treatment of the problem, as may be seen from the following, which is the which has thus far obtained on the part both of last stage of the colloquy, are constrained to acthe friends and of Job to a discussion dealing more knowledge his affirmations in respect to the disimmediately with the subject-matter, and for that proportion between prosperity and moral worreason more calm, less passionate in its ione, and thiness in this life as being in great part true, more directly preparing the way for the solution. and thus to make a beginning toward a complete Tbe venomous accusations of the friends, (which surrender. in the immediately preceding discourse of Zo 2. Notwithstanding this undeniable superiorphar bad reached the climax of bluntness and ity over his opponents, which Job here already odiousness), do not indeed cease from this point exhibits, his argument presents certain vulneron. Jus“, as little does the tone of bitterness dis- able points, which expose him to further attacks appear from Job's replies, which on the contrary from them. For in so far as, with manifest oneat the beginning and close of the present dis- sidedness, it completely ignores the instances, course exhibits itself in a manner decidedly which occur frequently enough, of a righteous marked (in vers. 2-3 ; which contain sarcastic apportionment of men's destinies, and exbibiis allusions to the empty “consolations of the the instances of the opposite fact, by a process friends”; in ver. 34, with its reproach of false- of abstract generalization, as alone of actual ochood and unfaithfulness). From this point on currence, it does injustice on the one side to the however we find, along with these personalities, friends, who are therehy indirectly classified a tendency, characterized by an ever increasing with the wicked who are unworthy of their prosobjectivity, to consider calmly the question of perity; while on the other side it becomes an fact involved in the matter in controversy; the arraignment of God, who is described as though result indeed being that Job's superiority over he gave no proof of a really righteous retribuhis opponents as regards their respective points tion, but rather decreed continually examples of view becomes more and more obvious. In of the contrary. Indeed in one instance, (vert bis former discourse he had discussed only oc. 19-21) the speaker seems to be guilty even of casionally and incidentally their favorite doc-| formally teaching God, in that he here maintaina

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