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much property he may possess, because he is the crimes which the ungodly have committed in without God, in whom all good things are stored. their presence. In Christ however the sins of You have an example of this in Alexander the all the godly are covered, nay, are absorbed. Great, who, not content with the sovereignty of Wohlfarth: Nature is leagued against sin! It one world, groaned on learning that there were is an incontrovertible truth which we find here, more worlds.

written thousands of years ago–he who departs Ver. 27. IDEM: Creatures, when they see the from God's ways contends against heaven and impieties and crimes of the ungodly, are silent earth, which from the beginning of the ages have until God pronounces judgment; but when His been arrayed against .sin, as a revolt against judgment is revealed, then all creatures betray God's sacred ordinances.

B.-JOB: That which experience teaches concerning the prosperity of the ungodly during their life on earth argues not against but for his innocence:

CHAPTER XXI. 1. Introductory appeal to the friends :

VERSES 1-6. 1 But Job answered and said : 2 Hear diligently my speech,

and let this be your consolations. 3 Suffer me that I may speak ;

and after that I have spoken, mock on. 4 As for me, is my complaint to map ?

and if it were so, why should not my spirit be troubled ? 5 Mark me, and be astonished,

and lay your hand upon your mouth. 6 Even when I remember I am afraid,

and trembling taketh hold on my flesh.

2. Along with the fact of the prosperity of the wicked, taught by experience (vers. 7-16), stands the other fact of eartbly calamity befalling the pious and the righteous :

VERSES 7-26. 7 Wherefore do the wicked live,

become old, yea, are mighty in power? 8 Their seed is established in their sight with them,

and their offspring before their eyes. 9 Their houses are safe from fear, neither is the rod of God

upon

them. 10 Their bull gendereth and faileth not;

their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf. 11 They send forth their little ones like a flock,

and their children dance. 12 They take the timbrel and harp,

and rejoice at the sound of the organ. 13 They spend their days in wealth,

and in a moment go down to the grave. 14 Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us,

for we desire not the knowledge of Thy ways. 15 What is the Almighty that we should serve Him?

and what profit should we have, if we pray unto Him? 16 Lo, their good is not in their hand!

the counsel of the wicked is far from me. 17 How oft is the candle of the wicked put out?

and how oft cometh their destruction upon them?

God distributeth sorrows in His anger. 18 They are as stubble before the wind,

and as chaff that the storm carrieth away. 19 God layeth up His iniquity for His children:

He rewardeth him, and he shall know it. 20 His eyes shall see his destruction,

and he shall drink of the wrath of the Almighty. 21 For what pleasure hath he in his house after him,

when the number of his months is cut off in the midst ? 22 Shall any teach God knowledge ?

seeing He judgeth those that are high. 23 One dieth in his full strength,

being wholly at ease, and quiet. 24 His breasts are full of milk,

and his bones are moistened with marrow. 25 And another dieth in the bitterness of his soul,

and never eateth with pleasure. 26 They shall lie down alike in the dust.

and the worms shall cover them.

8. Rebuke of the friends because they set forth only one side of that experience, and use it to his prejudice.

VERSES 27–34. 27 Behold, I know your thoughts,

and the devices which ye wrongfully imagine against me. 28 For ye say, Where is the house of the prince ?

and where are the dwelling-places of the wicked ? 29 Have ye not asked them that go by the way?

and do ye not know their tokens ?-30 that the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction ?

they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath. 31 Who shall declare his way to his face ?

and who shall repay him what he hath done? 32 Yet shall he be brought to the grave,

and shall remain in the tomb. 33 The clods of the valley shall be sweet unto him,

and every man shall draw after him,

as there are innumerable before him. 34 How then comfort ye me in vain, seeing in your answers there remaineth falsehood ?

throughout their earthly life pursued by misforEXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

tune (vers. 7-26). In view of a distribution of

prosperity and adversity so unequal, and so 1. The obstinacy of the friends, who show much at variance with the moral desert of men, neither the desire nor the inclination to solve the it was decidedly unjust, nay malicious and false mystery of Job's sufferings in a friendly spirit, on the part of the friends to undertake to brand and in such a way as would not wound his feel- him as a wicked man on account of his misforings, drives Job io come out in theoretic oppo- tune (vers. 27-84). The whole discussion which sition to the narrow and external interpretation brilliantly demonstrates Job's superiority over of the doctrine of retribution advocated by the friends in respect to the stand-point of ethithem, and to change his reply from the essen- cal perception and experience, and which serves tially personal character which it had previously to introduce the last turn which the colloquy borne into a strict criticism of their doctrine. takes, and which is decisive of his complete ricHaving first calmly but bitterly challenged their tory, is divided into five strophes, of five verses attention to that which he had to communicate each, the first strophe covering the exordium to them (vers. 2-6), he urges against them the (vers. 2-6), the remaining four constituting the mysterious fact that often the ungodly revel in Second Division [the former two of tbese strosuperfluity of prosperity to the end of their life, phes again being occupied with the fact, the latwhile on the contrary the pious are often ter two with the argument showing the fact to

be irreconcilable with their theory of retribu- | viz.: as being dumb with astonishment, comp. tion ; Dillm.]; followed by two strophes of four ch. xxix. 9; xl. 4—1907? Imper. cons. Hiph. verses each [rebuking the one-sidedness of the friends] constituting the Third Division (vers. from Da (comp. ch. xvii. 8; xviii. 20) (with 27-34.)

Pattach for Tsere in pause], obstupescile. Accord2. First Division (and strophe): Exordium: ing to the reading 1907? (Imper. Hoph. of the vers. 2-6. Job announces that he is about to speak of a mysterious and indeed an astounding

same verb) (as some regard it even with the phenomenon, which demands the entire atten- punctuation Don=hoshammu] the meaning is tion of the friends.

not essentially different. Ver. 2. Hear, I pray, hear my speech! Ver. 6. Verily if I think on it I am conand let this be instead of your consolations-or: “in order that this may supply the founded (577) apodosis ; comp. ch. vii. 14) place of your consolations, may prove to me a

and my flesh seizes on horror. In Heb. comfort instead of them, seeing that they so is subject; comp. The similar phraseology poorly accomplish their purpose” (comp. ch. in ch. xviii. 20. 84359, from yma chap. ix. 6, xv. 11; xvi. 2). (A fine touch of irony: attentive silence would be a much more real comfort

means convulsive quaking, terror, as in the New than all their ineffectual talk!]

Testament εκθαμβείσθαι και αδημονείν (Mark xiv.

33). It is to be ted how by these strong exVer. 3. Suffer me ("}\xp, with Kamets be- pressions the friends are prepared to hear somefore the tone, comp. Jon. i. 12; 1 Kings xx. 33 ; thing grave, fearful, astounding, to wit a propoGesenius & 60 [8 59] Rem. 1)—and then will sition, founded on experience, which seems to I speak (I, '90, in contrast with the "you" of call in question the divine justice, and to the af

firmation of which Job accordingly proceeds the Imper., although without a particularly hesitatingly, and with visible reluctance. strong accent); and after that I have spo 3. Second Division : First Half: The testiken, thou mayest mock (a'yhn, concessive, mony of experience to the fact that the wicked Ewald & 136, e). The demand for a patient are often, and indeed ordinarily prosperous : hearing of his rebuke, which reminds us some vers, 7-16. what of the saying of Themistocles—"Strike,

Second Strophe : verg. 7-11. Why do the but hear ne!" (Plutarch, Themist. c. 11), is wicked live on-instead of dyiug early, as specifically addressed in the second half to 20: Zophar had maintained, chap. xx. 5. The same phar, whose last discourse must have grieved question is propounded by Jeremiah, ch. xii. 1 him particularly, and who in fact after the rejoinder which Job now makes had nothing more old, yea, strong in power, or: “are become

seq.; comp. Ps. lxxiii. Mal. iii. 13 seq. Become to say, and could only leave the mocking as

old (lit. advanced in years, comp. piny) and saults on Job to be resumed by his older companions. [So in xvi. 3 Job had singled out Eli- mighty in possessions.” In regard to him? 231 phaz in his reply, and again in ch. xxvi. 2-4, he (with accus. of specification) comp. the equivasingles out Bildad].

lent phrase Suo? non, Ps. lxxiii. 12; and in reVer. 4. Does my complaint go forth from me in regard to man? i e. as for me gard to sing see above ch. xv. 29; xx. 15, 18.

jx emphatically prefixed, and then resamed Ver. 8. Their posterity is established again in 'no, Gesen. & 145 [& 142], 2), is my 112 here not—" standing in readiness,” as in complaint directed against men is my complaint ch. xii. 5; xv. 23, but “ enduring, firmly es(ņu as in ch. vii. 13; ix. 27; x. 1), concerning tablished, as in (Ps. xciii. 2) before them

round about them, surrounding them in the men, or is it not rather concerning something that closest proximity; this is the meaning of Day: has a superhuman cause, something that is de

not: • like themselves" (Rosenm., Umbreit, creed by God? That in this last thought lies the tacit antithesis to 078? is evident from the of which latter signification to be sure ch. ix.

Schlottm., Vaih., [Fürst, Noyes) etc.), in behalf second member: or why should I not be 26 might be cited; but the parallel expression impatient ? lit. "why should my spirit not be -" before their eyes”-in the second member, come short,” comp. ch. vi. 11; Mic. ii. 7; Zech. favors rather the former sense. [And their xi. &; Prov. xiv. 29. That which follows offspring before their eyes. Dix3xy, as in gives us to understand more distinctly that it ch. v. 25—“is exactly expressed by our issue, was something quite extraordinary, superhuman, though perhaps the reduplication rather imunder the burden of which Job groans, and plies issue's issue.” Carey). Job, having been concerning which he has to complain. [The himself so ruthlessly stripped of his children, rendering of the last clause found in E. V. Lee, makes prominent above all else this aspect of the Wemyss, etc. : “ And if it were so, why should external prosperity of the wicked, that namely not my spirit be troubled ?” is both less Datu which is exhibited in a flourishing posterity, a ral, in view of the antecedent probability that fine trait of profound psychological truth! [To Ox? is cor-related to the 17 interrogative, less be noted moreover is the pathetic repetition of simple, and less satisfactory in the meaning the thought in both members of the verse, and which it yields. E.].

its no less pathetic resumption in ver. 11. This Ver. 5. Turn ye to me and be aston- picture of a complete and peaceful household, ished, and lay the hand on the mouth, with its circle of joyous youth fascinates the be

; בְּשָׁלוֹם

ror,

reaved father's heart exceedingly, and he dwells, instead of which several M88. and Ed's. on it with yearning fondness!)

have in ch. xxx. 31 %, and in Ps. cl. 4 Jam Ver. 9. Their houses [are] peace (oire, comp. Delitzsch on Gen. iv. 21; Winer, Realthe same as ; comp. ch. v. 24 (where see wörterb. II., 123 seq. ["The three musical in

struments here mentioned are certainly the most rem. in favor of the more literal and forcible ancient, and are naturally the most simple, and rendering obtained by not assuming the prepo- indeed may be regarded as the originals of every sition at all; E.] Isaiah xli. 3) without fear.

species of musical instrument that has since been mnen, like tu?? ch. xix. 26; (comp. ch. xi. invented, all which may be reduced to three 15 ; Ig. xxii.3) and the rod of Eloah cometh kinds—string instruments, wind instruments, not upon them, i. e. to punish them; comp. and instruments of percussion; and the 1133 ma' in ch. ix. 34; xxxvii. 13 [How different from harp, the Iyy, pipe, and the ja, tabor, may be the fate of his own house !” No such “ Ter considered as the first representatives of each

no such “Scourge as that which had of these species respectively.” Carey, see illusmade his a ruin!-E.].

trations in Carey, p. 453 seq., and Smith Bio. Ver. 10. From the state of the household the Dict. under “Harp, Timbrel, and Organ"]. description turns to that of the cattle, with the

Ver. 13. They spend in prosperity their peculiarity that here exceptionally the sing. takes the place of the plur., which is used days.-So according to the K'ri 152: (lit. “they almost throughout to designate the wicked (80 complete, finish,” comp. ch. xxxvi. 11; Ps. xc. again below ver. 19, and in like manner ch. xxiv. 9), while the K'thibh 193? would be, according 5, 16 seq.). His bull gendereth and faileth

tó Iga. lxv. 22 not (Zöckler lit.—“his bull covereth and im- conterunt) [which is more expressive than the

“they use up, wear out (284 pregnates ”']. nie, in itself of common gender, K'ri, signifying not only that they bring their is here indicated as a masc. both by the contrast life to an end, but that they use it up, get out with 7779 in b, and by its predic. 233, “to of it all the enjoyment that is in it.-E.). In cover, to gender” (comp. 7937 “ produce fruit,” tradiction to the opposite descriptions of Eliphaz,

either case the affirmation is made in direct conJosh. v. 11, 12). The additional strengthening Bildad, and Zophar, as e. g., ch. xv. 32; xviii. clause byr *??

, neque efficit ut ejiciat (semen) 14; sı. 11.-And in a momentana like indicates that the impregnation is success

our “in a trice” [Germ.: "im Nu"], hence ful. The second member is entirely paral- quickly, easily, without a struggle) they sink

down to Sheol,—they thus enjoy a quick lel.—His cow calveth easily (992, synon. death, free from suffering, having fully enjoyed with who, wypn, Is. xxxiv. 15; lxvi. 7) and

their life even to the end. The connection does

not allow us to understand it of an “evil sudden miscarries not, neque abortum patitur, comp. death,” but rather requires the idea of a euGen. xxxi. 38; Ex. xxiii. 26.

thanasy.-An' might in itself be the Imperf. Ver. 11. Once more Job recurs to the fairest Niph. of non: "they are frightened down instance of earthly prosperity, the possession of

[others, e.g., Bernard ; "they are crushed, or a flourishing troop of children. On D??!!?? hurled down”], to which however the Accus. loci comp. above on ch. xix. 18 [where however the best is ill suited. More correctly the form is word suggests, as it does not necessarily here, a derived from and, the Imperf, of which is writbad quality in the children themselves; Ber

ten either ons, or on. It may be read here nard's rendering “they send forth their wicked

-80 Ewald, Hirzel), or little children," introduces an incongruous ele- either inn (for innment into the picture, which Job contemplates with reduplication of the n in pause [Dageshhere as a pleasing and attractive one.-E.) As forte emphatic, Green, 4 24, c) after the Masora; “ to send forth, to let loose," see Isa.

comp. Gesen. Lehrgeb., p. 45; Ewald, & 93, d.

Ver. 14 seq. And yet they say unto God, xxxii. 20.

“ Depart from us,” etc., etc. i. e., not withstandThird Strophe: Vers. 12–16. They (the ing their prosperity ["the fut. consec. 17DNI does wicked) sing loud with the playing of tim- not here denote temporally that which follows brel and harp; hence with joyous festivity, as

upon and from something else, but generally that

which is inwardly connected with sounething else, in Isa. v. 12.—IN" (scil

. Sip) lit. " they raise and even with that which is contradictory, and their voice,” i. e., in loud jubilations or songs of still occurring at the same time;" Del.], which joy; comp. Is. xlii. 11.-13?? gina, used as in should constrain them to gratitude towards God,

they will know nothing about Him, yea, they acPs. xlix. 5 [4] of the musical accompaniment; count the service of God and prayer to Him as hence, “with, to the timbrel and harp. contrary the reading preferred by the Masora 16; Jer. vii. 16; xxvii. 18.

On the useless. ? yp, precibus adire ; comp. Ruth i. and several Rabbis, 9 ging would signify "at, Ver. 16. After the frivolous words of the unduring the playing of the timbrel, etc.” ( of the godly Job here resumes his own description, and proximate specification of time, as in nya position. --Behold, not in their hand stands

concludes the section in which he states his pro(“about the time”], wyma, etc.). Concerning their prosperity. This is not an objection &s

,שלח to

might at חֲבָלִים לָהֶם or חַבְלֵיהֶם ,tended here

sumed by Job to be made by his opponents, as -whereas on the contrary Job is asking bow below in ver. 19 (Schourrer, Schlottm., Kamph.) often was this the case ?-E.]: (how often) does [Noyes, Elzas), but an expression of Job's own He distribute sorrows in His anger? The conviction, who intends herewith to set forth subject is God (comp. ch. xx. 23). The partithat not they, but God Himself is in some mysteri- cular affirmation of his opponents, to wbicb Job ous way the cause of their prosperity, by which he here alludes, is the close of Zopbar's last speech would indicate the difficulty of the problem, with (ch. xx. 29), the pain of which is dietinctly tence is not an expression of Job's disapproba- enough echoed bere in the pan: The retrotion of the view of life prevalent among the spective reference to this passage would be still wicked (Ewald) [Carey, Wordsworth), for such an expression of disapprobation first appears in

more definite if we were to derive O'??nfrom 6, and the position of the words in a shows han, measuring-line (so the Targ., Ewald, Hirz., clearly that the main emphasis lies on 07?: Dillmann (Schlott., Renan, Fürst]), and explain The interrogative rendering of the clause, “ Be it to mean lots, heritages (comp. Ps. xvi. 6). hold ! is not their prosperity in their hand ?" It is more natural, nevertheless. (with the LXX. (Rashi, Hirzel, Heiligst., Welte, Hahn [Renan]) Vulg., Gesenius, Rosenm. [E. V., Good, Lee, is contradicted by the use of x's ;??, not x??? its ordinary sense="surrows, calamities" (plur.

Noyes, Ber., Rod., Elz.], etc., to take the word in at the beginning. [Moreover the connection with b according to such a rendering is strainen. of han). [“The plur. does not occur in that -E.) -The counsel of the wicked be far tropical sense (of “ lots”), and if it were so infrom me!—The same formula of detestation re

, , curs in the following discourse of Eliphaz, ch.

least be expected.'' D 1.). Also the translation xxii. 18.—'!? np is us d in a precative or optative sense (Ewald, & 2:23, 6); it is thus es

* snares, gins,” (Stickel, Hahn, Delitzsch) yields

a meaning good in itseif, and would have, moresentially, equivalent to the formula elsewhere in

over, the special recommendation of furnisbing use-> 775 ["It is the perf. of certainty, a retrospective reference to ch. viii. 10-12, the which expresses that which is wished as a fact; and 6 look. The expression—"10 distribute

same passage of Bildad s discourse to which a but with an emotional exclamative accent.

snares”-is however altogether too harsh, and Del.]. In respect to 173y, here in the sense of

the assumption that such an unusual expression fundamen'al maxim, disposition, view of life, is occasioned by the collateral reference to ch. comp. ch. v. 13 ; x. 3 ; xviii. 7. Job thus per- xviii. 10 seq., and to ch. xx. 29, is altogether sists decidedly here again in his refusal in any

too artificial. way to renounce God; comp. ch. i. 11; ii. 5. [This strong repudiation by Job of the practical tinues to extend): How often are they as

Ver. 18 (over which the influence of nipa conatheism of the wicked is of especial importance straw (chopped straw) (a figure occurring only to the moral problem of the book.-E.]. 4. Second Division: Second Ilalf. Antithetic before the wind, and as chaff (Ps. i. 4; Is.

here: the figure of chaff is more frequent. Del.] demonstration of the preceding proposition de

xvii. 13) which the whirlwind snatches rived from experience, with reference to the opposite affirmations of the friends, and their

away?

An allusion to Zophar's description,

possible reproaches.

ch. xx. 8, 9, if not as regards the expressions,

still as regards the sense. Fourth Strophe: Vers. 17-21. [The views of the friends in regård to retribution denied both

Ver. 19 “God lays up his calamity for as to the fact and the principle].

his (the wicked man's) children!" (Mix from Ver 17 involves a reference to certain expresa * in the signification “calamity;" comp. ch. sions which Bildad had used in ch. xviii, in jus- xi. 11; xv. 35.) [There is possibly a play on tification of his doctrine, particularly to his de the word JIX, which may be rendered either scription of the “extinguishing of the light of • bis wealth,” or “his calamity." -- Ilis treasure the wicked ” (ch. xviii. 5), and of the sudden the coming wrath! jix also means “iniquidestruction (TX—“prop. pressure of suffering" ty,” and some (E. V., Del., etc.) render it so Del.) of the same (ch. xviii. 12), but only to call here. Here, however, the "evil' which is the in question the correct application of these punishment of “evil” best suits the context. figures.-How oft does the lamp of the -E.] This is objection of the oppowicked go out, and their destruction nents, which links itself to similar affirmations break upon them?-In Job's mind this “how by Eliphaz (ch. v. 4) and Zophar (ch. xx. 10), oft” (17pa, comp. Ps. Ixxviii. 40) is naturally and which Job himself here formulates, in order equivalent to “how rarely;" for he decidedly forth with to refute it: (Rather) let Him redoubts the general correctness of those affirma- compense it to him (or, in view of the emtions of Bildad Moreover the influence of this phasis belonging to the word bearing the prininterrogative “how oft” extends to the third cipal tone: to him let Him repay it ") that he member of the verse (which accordingly is not

may feel it (PT, here sentire, to feel, to be sento be rendered affirmatively, as in E. V., “Goilsible of, as in Is. ix. 8; Hos. ix. 7 ; Ezek. xxv. distributeth sorrows in His anger”-a rendering 14). In a manner quite similar the prophets Jere. which changes the meaning of the entire con- miah (ch. xxxi. 29 seq.) and Ezekiel (ch. xviii.) text, making it an assertion by Job that God controvert the similar doctrine of the vicarious does punish the wicked as the friends had taught expiation of the guilt of parents by their pos

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