Obrazy na stronie
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whatever sort. [As Dillmann observes, that or oping of warlike invasions—still which is communicated by a direct revelation nothing could be deduced from the passage in from God does not need to be supported by the favor of the post-solomonic origin of our book: wisdom of antiquity).

comp. on ch. xii. 24. Ver. 18. That which wise men declare

3. Second Division : An admonitory didactic without concealment from their fathers. discourse on the retributive justice of God as -This verse, which is an expression of the ob- exhibited in the fate of the ungodly: vers. 20-35. ject of 77790x1, coördinate with 'ņ!!, is [“ Now follows the doctrine of the wise men, added without i, because it is substantially iden- which springs from a venerable primitive age, tical with that which Eliphaz * had seen." an age as yet undisturbed by any strange way oniany belongs not to rin? NS? (so the ancient thinking, as we should say), and is supported by

of thinking (modern enlightenment and free versions, and Luther) but to the logically domi- Eliphaz's own experience. Delitzsch. “It is nant verb 17°1', to which they get? is sub- not so much the fact that the evil-doer receives joined as an adverbial qualification. " To de

his punishment, in favor of which Eliphaz apclare and not to hide” is equivalent to a single peals to the teaching handed down from the fanotion, “to declare without deception,” pre- certain degree the dogma of a moral order in

thers, as rather the belief in it, consequently in a cisely like John i. 20, oohoyeiv kaì ovk áyvēlovat. the world.” Wetzstein in Delitzsch):

Ver. 19. A more circumstantial description of oņiax:-To whom alone the land was inward discontent and the restless pain of an

First Strophe : Vers, 20-24. Description of the given (to inhabit), and through the midst earthly-minded and wicked man who defies God, of whom no stranger had forced his way. and cares not for Him. -[Zöckler takes the verb 3 here not in the

Ver. 20. So long as the wicked liveth, sense of a chance sojourning in a land, or tra- (lit., all the days of the wicked) he suffereth veling through it, but in the sense of a forcible intrusion, war gedrungen; a national amalgama- torment (SSinn?, lit. he is writhing and twisttion resulting from invasion. The language will ing, viz., from pain), and so many years as include a foreign admixture from whatever are reserved for the oppressor [“ which acsource.-E.]. Seeing that 1.787 denotes here cording to ver. 32, are not very many,” Dillm.] with much more probability the land” rather P'?), tyrant, one who commits outrageous viotban “the earth” (and so again in ch. xxii. 8; lence, as in ch. xxvii. 13; vi. 23 ; Ps. xxxvii. xxx. 8), and that what is expressly spoken of is 35; Is. xiii. 11, etc.). The second member, in the non-intrusion of strangers (O'RI), Schlott- which DJ 190? is an (adverbial] accusative mann's view that the passage refers to the first clause, and "?? ??? a relative clause depatriarchs, “the nobler primitive generations pending upon it, resumes the temporal clause, of mankind,” who as yet inhabited the earth

all the days of the wicked,” which for the sake alone, is to be rejected. The reason why Eli- of emphasis stands at the beginning of the entire phaz puts forward the purity of the generation sentence. The LXX. renders differently : čin of his forefathers as a guarantee of the sound- åped untà dedouéva dvváotì; and similarly Deness and credibility of their teachings is that litzsch: “and a fixed number of years is reamong *the sons of the East' purity of race

served for the oppressor,” a rendering however was from the earliest times considered as the which gives a much flatter thought than our exsign of highest nobility” (Del.) [" The meaning position. Against the rendering of the Targ., is, • I will give you the result of the observations Pesh., and Vulg. [also E. V.) “and the number of the golden age of the world, when our fathers of years is hidden to the oppressor,” it may be dwelt alone, and it could not be pretended that urged that in that case the reading must have they had been corrupted by foreign philosophy ; and when in morals and in sentiment they were been loop? 1?. [Not necessarily.—” is often pure.” Barnes. “Eliph.,” says Umbr., “speaks used as a sign of the dativus commodi or incomhere like a genuine Arab.” The exclusiveness modi where we should expect j?. - E. g., Mic. and dogmatic superciliousness which are to this day characteristic of Oriental nationalities are

ii. 4 ļ vipy TX, where the removal of the nadoubtless closely associated with the race-in-tion's portion from it, is represented by the prestinct which here finds expression. In propor position ļ, because of the injurious consetion as a people, either from lack of courage, or from an effeminate love of luxury, or from a sor- quences to it. So here the hiding of the number did love of gain prostrates itself to foreign in- of the oppressor's years from him is represented Auences, and carries the witness of its degrada- byļ, because of the misery this causes to him. tion in the impurity of its blood, it cannot, in the On the other hand it may be said in favor of this judgment of an oriental sage, produce, or trans

construction that it is much simpler and stronger, mit, pure and sound doctrine.-E.]. It is unnecessary herewith to assume that the age of Eli

that it introduces an additional thought, such as phaz, in contrast with the boasted age of the the change of many for j'ün might lead us to fathers, was a period of foreign domination, like expect (Del.), and that it is in entire harmony the Assyrian-Chaldean period in the history of with the context. The central thought of the Israel (Ewald, Hirzell, Dillmann). Or granting passage, the essential element of the oppressor's that such a period is referred to—although we misery is apprehension, anxiety, the premonition are under no necessity of understanding either of his doom. How the darkness of this feature

of the picture is deepened by this stroke-"the or, with a neuter construction, the unknown number of his years is laid up in darkness," so something, the mysterious Power (which sugthat he knows not when, or whence, or how the gests the comparison that follows]) as a king blow will fall.–Furthermore the renderiug "hid- ready for the onset.pa cannot belong to den” seems more suitable for 123? than “reserved,” in the sense of " determined,” being the object of the verb, as rendered by the LXX. more vivid, and more closely connected with the [“ like a leader falling in the first line of the subjective character of the description. Even battle”) and the Targ. [" to serve the conqueror if we render it by “reserved,” the idea of “bid-deadly anguish," which suddenly seizes of the

as a foot-stool”], but only to the subject The den” should be included.-E.].

wicked, is compared to a king, armed for battle, Ver. 21 seq., describe more in detail the rest

who falls upon a city ; comp. Prov. vi. 11.—The legg pain of soul, or the continual Sain? of meaning of the Hapaxleg. 117? (=1179, Ew., the wicked. [It is doubtful whether the follow-12 156, 6) is correctly given on the whole by the ing description is to be limited to the evil-doer's Pesh. and Vulg., although not quite exactly by anxiety of spirit, or whether it includes the re

proelium. The Rabbis, Böttcb., Del., etc , render alization of his fears in the events of his life.

it better by “the round of conflict, the circling On the whole Delitzsch decides, and apparently of an army[“. the conflict which moves round with reason, that as the real crisis is not intro- about, like tumult of battle," Del.] ; but Dillduced until further on, and is then fully de

mann best of all, after the rabic 70 by “ onscribed, the language in vers. 21-24 is to be un

set, storming, rush of battle ;" for this is the derstood subjectively.-E.]. Ver. 21. Terrors (the plural 0'170 only only meaning that is well suited to

, pahere) sound [lit.: the sound of terrors) in his ratus ad, as well as to the principal subject 777 ears; in (the midst of) peace the destroyers

Second Strophe : Vers. 25-30. The cause of the fall upon him; or, if we regard 77ivi not as a

irretrievable destruction of the wicked is his precollective, but as singular (comp. ch. xii. 6): sumptuous oppositiou to God, and his immodes. the destroyer falls upon him.” As to xl) with rate greed after earthly possessions and enjoy. the accus. in the sense of “coming upon any

ments. The whole strophe forms a long period, one,'' comp..ch. xx. 22; Prov. xxviii. 22. consisting of a doubled antecedent (marked by

Ver. 22. He despairs (lit., he trusts not, he the double use of '?, ver. 25 and ver. 27), and a dares not) of returning out of the darkness consequent, vers. 29, 30. (viz., of his misfortune, see vers. 25, 30), and Ver. 25. Because he has stretched out he is marked out for the sword. 15p, the his hand against God (in order to contend same with '99 (which form is given by the K'ri with Him), and boasted himself against the and many MSS.) Part. pass. of nor, signifies Almighty. [As indicated in the introductory literally, “watched, spied out,” which yields a

remark above,"? at the beginning is not " for perfectly good sense, and makes both the mid-E. V.), introducing a reason for what precedes, dle rendering of the Participle, (“anxiously but “because,” the consequent of which is not looking out for the sword”-so the Pesh. and given until ver. 29 seq.] 2n', lit. "to show Vulg.) and Ewald's emendation to 70%, seem oneself a hero, a strong man;" i. e., to be proud, superfluous.

insolent; comp. ch. xxxvi. 9; Is. xlii. 13. Ver. 23. He wanders about for bread:

" Ah

Ver. 26 continues the first of the two antecewhere ?”' [i. e., shall I find it]?. The meaning is dents, so that part is still under the regimen of obvious: in the midst of super-abundance he, the ') in ver. 25 ... has run against Him with greedy miser, is tortured by anxieties concern- | (erect) neck (comp. ch. xvi. 14) with the ing his food—a thought which the LXX. [also thick bosses (lit. with the thickness of the Wemyss and Merx], misunderstanding the short bosses, comp. Ewald, & 293, c) of his shields.

, “ where"

[for In a the proud sinner is represented as a single which they read 78, “vulture"], have ob- antagonist of God, who 78939, i. e., erecto colle

, scured, or rather entirely perverted by their sin. (comp. Ps. lxxv. 6 [5]) rushes upon Him ; in b gular translation : κατατέτακται δε εις σίτα γυψιν: | he is become a whole array with weapons of of["he wanders about for a prey for vultures, fense and defense, by virtue of his being the Wem.]. With 7X comp. the similarly brief leader of such an army. 77377 in ch. ix. 19.--He knows that close by

Ver. 27. Introducing the second reason [for him [lit. as in E. V., “ready at his hand”], of the wicked - Because he has covered his

ver. 29 seq.]. consisting in the insatiable greed (17a, like to by ch. i. 14 TS, near, close face with his fatness (comp. Ps. lxxiii. 4-7), by," Ps. cxl. 6 (5); 1 Sam. xix. 3) a dark day and gathered (nur, here in the sense of a na(lit. day of darkness; comp. ver. 22) stands tural production or putting forth, as in ch. xiv. ready—to seize upon him and to punish him 9) fat upon his loins. , as in ch. xviii. 12).

Ver. 28. And abode in desolated cities, Ver. 24. Trouble and anguish terrify him. houses which ought not to be inhabited, paypa 7 here not of external, but of internal iz . *S, lit. " which they ought not to inneed and distress, hence equivalent to anguish babit for themselves ;" the passive rendering of and alarm; comp. ch. vii. 11.-It overpower- 30" [Gesen., Del.] is unnecessary, the meaning ath him (the subj. of 172 ??A is either npay? of the expression in any case being, (domus nom

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habitandæ) which are destined for ruins.- cordance with the interpretation now prevalent We are to think of an insolent, sacrilegious,

, mocking, avaricious tyrant, who fixes his resi

(with the suffix 0-) from a dence-whether it be his pleasure-house, or his root (which is not to be met with) 7759, = Arab. fortified castle-in wbat is and should remain nal, “to attain, to acquire," and so used in the according to popular superstition, an accursed sense of quæstum, lucrum (comp. the post-biblical and solitary place, among the ruins, may be, pinp, pauwvās). A possession “ bowing down to of an accursed city; Deut. xiii. 13-19; comp. the earth” is e. g. a full-eared field of grain, a Josh. vi. 26; 1 Kings xvi. 34; also what is re

fruit-laden tree, a load of grain weighing down ported by Wetzstein (in Delitzsch I. 267 n.) con that in which it is borne, etc. In view of the cerning such doomed cities among modern ori- fact that all the ancient versions present other entals.* the reference to be to a city cursed in accord- readings than 09??–. g., LXX: 053 [adopted ance with the law in Deut. (1. c.)—against which by Merx]; Vug. 053, radicem suam: Pesh. Löwenthal and Delitzsch observe quite correctly that what is spoken of here is not the rebuilding sp, words ; Targ. pinap, etc.—the attempts forbidden in that law, but only the inhabiting of of several moderns to amend the text may to such ruins Possibly the poet may have bad in some extent be justified. Not one of these howmind certain particular occurrences, views, or ever, yields a result that is altogether satisfaccustoms, of which we have no further knowledge. Perhaps we may even suppose some such widely- tory, neither Hupfeld's 757? (non extendet in spread superstition as that of the Romans in re terra caulam), nor Olshausen’s 047? (“their lation to the bidentalia to be intended. [Noyes, sickle does not sink to the earth”), nor BöttchBarnes, Renan, Rodwell, etc., introduce ver. 28 with “ therefore,” making it the consequence of er's op? (“their fullness”), nor Dillmann's what goes before. — Because of his pride and

19 xb?, “and he does not bow self-indulgence, the sinner will be driven out to dwell among ruins and desolations. To this down ears of corn to the earth.” [Carey sugyiew there are the following objections. (1) It gests that there may be a transposition here, and deprives the language of the terrible force which that instead of ons we should read phoj from belongs to it according to the interpretation given above. (2) It leaves the description of

hogy a to cut ;” the translation then being: the sin referred to in ver. 27 singularly incom

“neither shall the cutting (or offset) of such explete and weak. This would be especially no- tend in the earth.” The verbal root ho found ticeable after the climactic energy of the description of the sin previously referred to in only in Isa. xxxiii. 1 (79939, Hiph. Inf. with vers. 25, 26. Having seen the thought in ver. Dagh. dirimens for yob?no) seems to signify 25 carried to such a striking climax in ver. 26, perficere, to finish; hence E. V. here renders we naturally expect to find the thought suggested

the noun “ perfection.” Bernard likewise “ rather than expressed in ver. 27 carried to a similar climax in ver. 28. (3) After dooming the meaning “ to spread, extend,” is preferred by

complishment, achievements.” For 703 the sinner to dwell an exile among “stone-beaps,” | Good, Lee, Noyes, Umbreit, Renan, Con., Rod(0:42), it seems a little flat to add, “he shall not well, etc. (E. V., “ prolong"). The preposition be rich,” if the former circumstance, like the 5 however suits better the definition “to bow latter, is a part of the penalty.-E.).

down," which on the whole is to be preferred. Verg. 29, 30. The apodosis: (Therefore) he -E.) does not become rich (llos. xii. 9 [8]), and Ver, 30. He does not escape out of the his wealth endures not (has no stability, darkness (of calamity, ver 22); a fiery heat comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 14), and their possessions [lit. a flame) withereth his shoots, and he (i. e., the possessions of such people) bow not passes away (740) forming a paronomasia with down to the earth.—This rendering is in ac

the 990 dp's of the first member) by the blast *“As no one ventures to pronounce the name of Satan of His [God's] mouth; comp. ch. ir. 9. In because God has cursed him (Gen. iji. 14), without adding the second member the figure of a plant, so fre'alah el-la'ne. God's curae upon him l' son man may not presume to inhabit places which God has appointed to desola- quent throughout our book previously used also

Buch villagrs and cities, which, according to tradition by Eliphaz (comp. ch. v. 3, 25 seq.) (and already bave perished and been frequently overthrown by the visitation of Divine judgment, are not uncommon on the border: suggested here according to the above interpréof the desert. They use places, it is said, where the primary tation of 29 b], again makes its appearance, commandments of the religion of Abraham (Din Ibrahim) | being used in a way very similar to ch. viii. 16 have heen impiously transgressed. Thus the city of Babylon will never be col nized by a 8-mitic tribe, because thev hola seq.; comp. also ch. xiv. 7. The parching heat the bel ef th t it has been destroyed on account of Nimrod's here spoken of may be either that of the sun, or apostasy fr m God, and his hostility to His favored one Abra- of a hot wind (as in Gen. xli. 6: Ps. xi 6). ham. The tradition which has even been transferred by the

Third Strophe : Vers. 31–35. Describing more the c ty of Higr (or Medain Salih) on account of disobedience in detail the end of the wicked, showing that his to God, prev nts sny one from dwelling in that remarkable prosperity is fleeting, and only in appearance, city, which consi-ts of thousands of dwellings cut in the rock, and that its destruction is inevitable. some of wh: h are richly ornamented; without looking round, and muttering prayers, the desert ranger horries

Ver. 31. Let him not trust in vanity-he through ever as does the great procession of pilgrims to is deceived (nyn!, Niph. Perf. with reflexive slightest delay in the accursed city."

sense: lit, he has deceived himself) [Renan:

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tion.

tribes of Arabia Petrea into Islamism of the d solation of

Insensé.!] for vanity shall be his possession | maging ” (oon as in Lam. ii. 6; Prov. viii. 36, [7710n; Ges., Fürst., Con., etc., like E. V.“re- etc.), proceeds from the wicked himself. A recompense :” Delitzsch: “not compensatio," but ference to the process of cutting off the sour permutatio, acquisitio; and so Ewald and Zöckler grape for the manufacture of vinegar (Wetzstein, -Eintausch, exchunge). Niv, written the first Delitzsch) is altogether too remote here.--In retime 18, is used here essentially in the same

gard to the variety of figures here derived from

the vegetable kingdom, comp. further Pe. xcii. sense as in ch. vii. 3, and hence delusion, venity, evil . In the first instance the sense of emp, in general my Theol. Naturalis, p. 218

seq.

13 (12) seq. ; Hos. xiv. 6 seq. ; Sir. xxiv.; and tiness, deception predominates, in the second

Ver. 34. For the company of the profilithat of calamity (the evil consequences of trusting in vanity). For the sentiment comp. ch. iv. gate is barren.—729 as in ch. viii. 13 ; xiii. 8; Hos, viii. 8; and the New Testament pas- 16 7022 (ch. iii. 7) is here and in cb. XII. 3 sages which speak of sowing and reaping; Gal. used as a substant. in the sense of “stark death " vi. 7 seq. ; 2 Cor. ix. 6

(LXX.: Távaros), barrenness, hard rock, comp. Ver. 32. While his day is not yet (lit. "in Matth. xiii. 5; and 777. signifies here not inhis not-day,” i. e., before his appointed time has deed specially the family, as in ch. xvi. 7, but yet run its course; comp. ch. x. 22; xii. 24), it still the family circle, the kinsfolk, tribe, or clan. is fulfilled, viz., the evil that is to be exchanged,

-And fire devours the tents of bribery: it passes to its fulfillment; or also: the exchange i. e., the fire of the Divine sentence (comp. ch. i. fulfills itself, xypn referring back immediately 16) consumes the tents built up by bribery, or to indo, ver. 31,-90 Hirzel, Dillmann. And the tents of those who take bribes (oikovs owpa

DEKTÕV, LXX.). his palm-branch (119as in Isa. ix. 13; xix.

Ver. 35. They (the profligate, for an in 15) is no longer green, is dry, withered. The

ver. 34 was collective) conceive (are pregnant whole man is here represented as a palm-tree, with) misery, and bring forth calamity.(12), but as decaying with dried up branches— 77 and 4py, synonyms, as in ch. iv. 8; comp. by which branches we are not to understand the parallel passages Ps. vii. 15 (14); Isa. xxxii. particularly his children, especially seeing that 11; lix. 4. The Infinitives absolute in a, which only one is mentioned instead of several. are put first for emphasis, are followed in b by

Ver. 33. He loses (or shakes off] like a the finite verb: and their body prepares devine his grapes (lit., his unripe grapes ; 22 ceit, i. e., their pregnant womb (not their “ in

ward part,” as Del. renders it) matures deceit, oroas, late or unripe grape; comp. ripens falsehood, viz., for themselves; comp. ver. Isa. xviii. 5; Jer. xxxi. 29; Ezek. xviii. 2) and 31. For 1???, to prepare, to adjust, comp. ch. casts down, like an olive, his blossoms, xxvii. 17; xxxviii. 41; for opp, "deception," i. e., without seeing fruit, this, as is well-known, Gen. xxvii. 35; xxxiv. 13; Mic. vi. 11; Prov. being the case with the olive every other year, xi. 1, etc. for only in each second year does it bear olives in anything like abundance; comp. Wetzstein in Delitzsch [1. 272 n. “ In order to appreciate

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. the point of the comparison, it is needful to know 1. Job's persistence in holding what the friends that the Syrian olive-tree bears fruit plentifully assume to be a delusion, and especially in mainthe first, third, and fifth years, but rests during taining an attitude of presumptuous defiance tothe second, fourth, and sixth. It blossoms in wards God, com pels them to enter on a new cir. these years also, but the blossoms fall off almost cle of the discussion with him. This is opened entirely without any berries being formed.” by Eliphaz in the new arraignment of Job befure Add the following from Thomson's Land and the In respect of doctrinal contents this disBook : The olive is the most prodigiel of all course exhibits little or nothing that is new, as fruit-bearing trees in flowers. It literally bends indeed is the case generally with what the friends under the load of them. But then not one in a produce from this point on. It revolves, as well hundred comes to maturity. The tree casts them as that wbich Bildad and Zophar say in the seoff by millions, as if they were of no more value quel, altogether about the old thesis, that Job's than flakes of snow, which they closely resemble. sufferings have a penal significance. The speakers So it will be with those who put their trust in assume that to bave been sufficiently demonvanity. Cast off they melt away, and no one strated by what they have said before, and setakes the trouble to ask after such empty, use-cordingly do not undertake to prove it further to

him, but being themselves unqualifiedly right, legs things, etc.” I. 72]. The verb pion in a they imagine that they have only to warn and is variously rendered by commentators; e. 9., threaten and upbraid him in a tone of the harsh“ broken (man bricht, mi impersonal] as from est reproof. The fact that Job had spoken exa vine are his unripe grapes," Schlott.; or: citedly, daringly, and inconsiderately against “ He (God) tears off as of a vine his young God, is, to their minds, transparent proof, which grapes (Del., Hahn); or: “he (the wicked) needs no further confirmation, of the correctness wrongs as a vine his unripe grapes" (Hupfeld) of their coarse syllogism: “All suffering is the The rendering given above (Ewald, Hirzel, Dillo penalty of sin; Job suffers severely; therefore, mann) [E. V., Con., Noy., Carey, Ren., Rod.], Job is a great sinner.” And so assuming him to etc.), is favored the parallelism of the second be impenitent, and hardened in presumption, member, which shows that the “injuring, da- they break out all the more violently against

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him, with the purpose not of instructing him of the prosperity of the penitent and righteous more thoroughly, but of more sharply blaming man with which the firsi discourse of Eliphaz and chastising him. The consequence is that closes (chap. v. 17–27). The contrast between these later discourses of the friends become more the two descriptions, which are related to each and more meagre in their doctrinal and ethical other like the serene, bright and laughing day contents, and abound more and more in contro- and the gloomy night, is in many respects sugversial sharpness and polemic bitterness. They gestive and noteworthy; but it is not to the give evidence of a temper which has been aroused speaker's advantage. In the former case, in to more aggressive vehemence towards Job, aim- painting that bright picture, he may be viewed ing at his conversion as one laboring under a as a prophet, unconsciously predicting that which delusion, and, at the same time, of increasing was at last actually to come to pass according to monotonousness and unproductiveness in the de- God's decree. But here, in painting this gloomy velopment of their peculiar views, their funda- night scene, wbich is purposely designed as a mental dogma remaining substantially unchanged mirror by the contemplation of which Job might throughout.

be alarmed, this tendency to prophesy evil shows 2. Of these arraignments belonging to the se him to be decidedly entangled in error. Indeed cond act (or stage) of the discussion, and having the point where this warning culminates, to wit, as just stated a polemic far more than a doctrinal the charge of self-deception and of hypocritical significance, the preceding discourse by Eliphaz lying, which baving been first introduced in ver. is the first, and, at the same time, the fullest in 5 seq., is repeated in the criminating wordmatter, and the most original. Its fundamental ????—at the close (ver. 35), involves in itself proposition (vers. 14, 15) is indeed nothing else grogs injustice, and is an abortive attack which than a repetition of that which the same speaker recoils on the accuser himself with destructive bad previously propounded to Job as truth re-l effect, besides depriving the whole description ceived by bim through a divine revelation (chap. 1 of its full moral value, and even detracting from iv. 12 seq.). Here, however, by the parallel jux: its poetic beauty. taposition of "the heavens” with "the angels," there is introduced into the description an ele- Teman, even when in error, remain a teacher of ment which is, in part at least, new, and not un real wisdom, who bas at bis disposal genuine interesting (comp. the exegetical remarks on Chokmah material, however he may pervert its ver. 15). The application of the thesis to Job's

application in detail. This same gloomy case is thereby made much more direct, wound picture with which the discourse before us ing him much more sharply and relentlessly than closes, although it fails as to its special occasion before, as ver. 16 shows, where the harsh, "hi- and tendency, contains much that is worth pondeous” (Oetinger) description wbich El. gives dering. It is brilliantly distiuguished by rare of the corruption of the natural man, is unmis- | truth of nature and conformity to experience in takably aimed at Job himself, as the genuine ex its descriprions, whether it treats of the inward ample of a hardened sinner. It will be seen from torment and distress of conscience of the wicked the extract from Seb. Schmidt in the homiletical (ver. 20 seq.), or of the cheerless and desperate remarks (see on ver. 2 seq.) how the harshness issue of his life (ver. 29 seq.),—the latter deof the charges preferred against Job in the first scription being particularly remarkable for the division (especially in vers. 2–13) reaches the profound truth and the beauty of the figures inextreme point of merciless severity, and bow, troduced with such effective variety from the along with some censures which are certainly vegetable kingdom (see on ver. 33). But even merited (as, e.g., that he braves God, speaks in the first division there is not a little that is proud words, despises mild words of comfort and interesting and stimulating to profound reflecadmonition, etc.) there is much thrown in that is tion. This is especially true of ver. 7 seq., with unjust and untrue, especially the charge that he its censure of Job's conceit of superiority on the “chose the speech of the crafty,” and hence that ground of his wisdom—a passage the significance he dealt in the deceitful subtleties and falsehoods of which is attested both by the recurrence of of an advocate. The discourse, however, pre one of its characteristic turns of expression sents much that is better, that is objectively more (ver. 2) in the Solomonic Book of Proverbs, and true and valuable, and more creditable to the of another in Jehovah's address to Job (chap. speaker. Here we must reckon the whole of the xxxviii. 3 seq.). second division (vers. 20–35). Here we have a picture indisputably rich in poetic beauties, and

HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. in powerful and impressive passages, harmoniously complete in itself withal, and easily de Ver. 2 seq. : SEB.Schmidt: He brings against tached from its surroundings,—the picture of a Job the grave accusation of swelling up, as it wicked man, inwardly tormented by the pangs were with the conceit of too great wisdom, and of an evil conscience, who after that he has for hence of sinning in more ways than one; thus a long time enjoyed his apparent prosperity, at he would convict him: (1) of vanity; (2) of last succumbs to the combined power of the tor- causing scandal, and of encouraging men to ments within, and of God's sentence without, and neglect the fear of God-nay more, to fall into so comes to a horrible end. This passage-which atheism; (3) of presumption, or of the conceit reminds us of similar striking descriptions else- of too great wisdom; (4) of contempt for the wbere of the foolish conduct of the ungodly and word of God; (5) of proud anger against God. its merited retribution (as, e.g., Ps. i.; XXXV.; lii.; -WOHLFARTH : The reproaches which we bring Prov. i. 18 seq.; iv. 14 seq.; v. 1 seq.)—forms an against others are often only witnesses to our interesting counterpart to the magnificent picture own guilt!

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