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At length, day appearing, the governor was informed, that the inhabitants were flying in crowds to the westermost part of the town. The governor, attended by the above-mentioned gentlemen, and about five or six other officers, went to the westbattery, to inform himself better. Af. ter he had remained there about a quarter of an hour, Lieutenant-Colonel Thornicroft desired him to remove, as being unable to do any service there; he and Colonel Sibourg both answer. ed, that no danger was to be apprehended there more than in any other place, and that there they would wait the event. The Lieutenant-Colonel remained, because his superiors did, and other officers imitated the same example but the hour of five being now considerably past, the corporal's guard cried out, that the train was fired, observing some smoke from the lighted matches, and other combustible matter near it, from whence the same ascended to the centinels above. The governor and field-officers were then urged to retreat, but refused.The mine at last blew up; the rock opened and shut; the whole mountain felt the convulsion; the governor and field officers with their company, ten guns, and two mortars, were buried in the abyss; the walls of the castle shook, part of the great cistern fell, another cistern almost closed, and the rock shut a man to his neck in its clift, who lived many hours in that afflicting posture. About thirty-six centinels and women were swallowed in different quarters, whose dying groans were heard, some of them after the fourth mournful day. Many houses of the town were overwhelmed in their ruins, and the castle suffered much; but, that it wears any form at all, was owing to the vent which the explosion forced through the veins of the rock, and the countermine. After the loss of the chief officers, the government fell of course to Lieutenant Colonel Dalbeume, of Sibourg's regi
ment, who drew out a detachment of the whole garrison, and with it, made a desperate sally, to shew how little he was moved at their thunder. The bombs from the castle played on the town more violently, and the shot! galled every corner of their streets; which resentment they continued till the arrival of our fleet which they had expected so long *.
On the fifth of April, about eight o'clock in the morning, Sir Edward Whitaker's squadron arrived and attempted the relief of the castle; his ships were the Defiance, Northumber land, Essex, York, and Dunkirk.The last went within the line, as drawing less water than the other, in three and a half fathom: then laying her broadside to the east part of the town, began to cannonade a battery of four guns, and two others raised under the hill, each mounted with two guns, and from the mole-head, a forty-two pounder. The wind having been fresh the night before, and an unhappy swell rolling in from the eastward at eleven, the great ships were obliged to weigh their anchors, making out of cannon-shot. The Dunkirk, having much of her -igging da maged, and her small bower cut between one and two, fell fast a-stern, lying exposed to the enemy's shot, bombs, and carcases, till three in the afternoon, at which time, by winding the right way, she got off. The weather continuing very bad till the seventh, and it not being known what extremities the garrison might be under, and the enemy encreasing considerably in strength, the general sent a
This Major-General Richards, tho' an Englishman, was an officer in the King of Spain's service, and of the Romish religion; there perished, besides the officers mentioned in the text, five Captains, three Lieutenants, forty-two soldiers, all the miners, and about thir ty peasants.
flag of truce a-shore, with proposals or surrendering the castle; which was agreed to, and our men embarked.
perfected an invention, known only to himself, of the greatest importance to the commercial world, a mode of engraving Bank-Note Plates, which cannot fail to prove a check against forgery. The instrument by which they are produced is extremely intricate, and constructed on a plan entirely out of the common routine of mechanics. The note may be comprehended at one glance, consisting merely of straight and waved lines, curiously combined, and forming a variegated tint, at once simple in appearance, and inimitable in execution, reconciling two principles naturally in direct opposition to each other. The mathematical accuracy with which the lines are laid agreeably to this plan, is beyond the power of man strictly to imitate by the common method of engraving, even allowing that the first-rate artists were to employ their talents to that purpose. Specimens have been submitted to a number of the most distinguished artists;
Memoirs of the Progress of MANUFACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, and the FINE Arts.
THE appearance of a meteor is
mentioned in many of the northern provincial newspapers in October. On comparing their accounts, they all scem to refer to one and the same meteor, seen at places very remote from each other, and in all nearly at the same instant of time, a few minutes before eight P. M. on the 17th of that month. It passed in a northeasterly direction, and appeared at no great altitude; but its real height must have been considerable, otherwise it could not have been seen in so many remote places at the same instant. It was seen as far north as Aberdeen, and as far south as Hull. Its apparent diameter was somewhat less than that of the moon, and in some places it seemed to have a tail, throwing off coruscations of great brilliancy. It diffused a very vivid, pale light, and was visible in its progress for a few seconds.
Anexperienced Propagator of Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, has discovered a cheap and efficacious method of propagating, by cuttings, all kinds of Fruittrees, without the aid of artificial heat. By this novel and advantageous system, it appears that we are not only enabled with certainty to propagate any particular species, but preserve, with the strictest purity, the more valuable fruits, without liability to adulteration or degeneracy, the certa consequence of budding or grafting upen ungenial and improper stocks, and avoid the common inconvenience of receiving erroneous sorts from public
Mr Jaines Archer, engraver, has
among others to Messrs Sharp, Fuller, W. Skelton, J. Skelton, Neagle, Milton, and Scott-and have received their decided approbation.
Mr William Skrimshire, jun. has made some observations on the fecula of potatoes, and some other British vegetables, which, during the present high price of bread, seem particularly worthy of attention. One thousand grains of the former roots yielded 111 grains of fine white fecula, when perfectly dry, which he recommends not only as the most economical means of fattening cattle and pigs, but also as a very palatable and nutritious food for man. This fecula, which is generally known to laundresses by the name of potatoe starch, is obtained by the process which they employ. Formed into small cakes, and dried in the open air, or by a gentle heat, this preparation will keep for many years. When the fecula and pulp are mixed together, and thus prepared, half an ounce of it will, says Mr Skrimshire, gelatinize
nize so large a quantity of boiling water as to afford a sufficient meal for any labouring person in health. It may be sweetened either with molasses or sugar; or being boiled with an onion or pot-herbs, and seasoned with pepper and salt, it will make a very palatable, wholesome, and nutritious soup. If this preparation be boiled with milk, sweetened with sugar, and flavoured with a little wine or spice, it forms the most nourishing and restorative food that can possibly be administered to the sick and convalescent. From the ease with which it is digested, it is peculiarly adapted to the impaired organs of the debauchee, and the feeble powers of infancy.With a larger proportion of the preparation, a stiff jelly may be formed, which, acidulated with lemon-juice, or any other vegetable acid, becomes the best domestic remedy that can be employed in every species of sore throat. The pure fecula, the author asserts, will be found superior in every respect to salep, sago, arrow-root, or any of the vegeable preparations of that kind, which have been so pompously advertised and recommended to the public by persons interested in the sale of them. Another use to which Mr Skrimshire has applied potatoes, is likewise worthy of notice :-" "I have frequently formed a very grateful and nutritious beverage (says he) from potatoes sliced, roasted to a coffee colour, then ground in a mill, and mixed with a sixteenth of its weight of the best Turkey coffee." The other vegetable productions on which Mr Skrimshire has made experiments, are the horse-chesnut, acorns, and the root of the red-berried briony, commonly called mandrake, and of the cuckowpint, or wake - robin. All of these yield a large proportion of fecula, which forms a nutritious food for man or other animals.
The French chemists have not only repeated Mr Davy's experiments on the decomposition of alkalis, but have
confirmed the accuracy of his resear ches, by obtaining similar results by a different process. Messrs Gay and Thenard have succeeded in deoxidating potash by means of iron, The event is announced in Correspondence sur l'Ecole Imperiale Polytechnique, Number 10, in the following terms:
"A letter from London, dated November 23, 1807, announced that Mr Davy, had succeeded, by means of a strong galvanic pile, in decomposing the two alkalis of potash and soda; and that he had read a memoir to the Royal Society, in which he concluded that these two alkalis were metallic oxides. On the 3d of December, Messrs Gay and Thenard repeated Mr Davy's experiments at the laboratory of the Polytechnic School, and actually obtained at the negative pole of a pile, with large plates, the two new metals, the existence of which had not even been suspected previous to Mr Davy's experiments. The above chemists, however, continued the inquiry in a new point of view. They proposed to themselves the discovery of a substance sufficiently oxidizable to take off the oxygen from the alkalis, which had been ascertained to be metallic oxides, and their experiments were attended with the greatest success. On the 7th of March, 1808, they informed the Institute of France, that, upon treating potash with iron, in the fire of a reverberating furnace, the iron deoxidated the potash, and made it pass to the metallic state."
M. Maelzl, a German mechanist, is at present exhibiting at Paris an Automaton of a singular construction. The figure represents a trumpeter in the uniform of the band of the French Imperial Guards, and at the word of command raises a trumpet to its mouth, and plays some exquisite pieces of martial music. The whole of the mechanism is contained within the chest of the Automaton: its feet rests upon a board to which castors are affixed, and the proprietor moves it from place
to place, in the exhibition room, to shew that there is no communication with any other apartment. In this respect it is superior to the celebrated Automaton flute-player of M. Vaucanson, which once made so much noise in Europe: the latter figure reclined against a wall, behind which some complicated machinery was supposed to be placed. The most wonderful part of M. Maelzl's Automaton, is the effect produced by the lips of the figure upon the trumpet, which are made to exhibit all the delicacy of touch peculiar to the lips of the human body. No jarring or creaking sound of machinery is to be heard, altho' the ear is applied close to the body of the Automaton, nor can any musical sound be emitted unless when the trumpet is applied to the mouth. At the conclusion of the exhibition, M. Maelzl sits down to a pianoforte, and his trumpeter performs an accompaniment to several pieces of music, with all the precision of a first-rate performer. M. Maelzl has already distinguished himself by several improvements on musical instruments.
I. Memoirs of Robert Cary, Earl of Monmouth. Written by himself. And Fragmenta Regalia; being a History of Queen Elizabeth's favourites. By Sir Robert Naunton. With Explanatory Annotations.8vo. 10s. 6d.
MEMOIRS furnish the materials of history, but it does not follow, that after having performed this office, they are to be thrown aside as useless or uninteresting. Not only for those who wish to carry on researches of their own, but even for the general reader, they possess considerable attraction. To see "the very age and body of the time," nothing can be more effectual than the perusal of a few
ofthese as a supplement to the general history. For this purpose, these memoirs of Sir Robert Cary appear to us very well suited. Sir Robert appears to have been a very accomplished gentleman, according to the standard of that age; a brave officer, a skilful and assiduous courtier. He appears to have enjoyed the successive favour of Elizabeth, James I, and Charles I.; for though the last-mentioned monarch dismissed hiu, (for what reason does not appear) from his office of chamberlain, yet he settled a handsome pension upon him, and created him Earl of Monmouth.
A considerable part of these memoirs is rather meagre and uninteresting; but there are two subjects on which they enter more into particulars, and are most curious and amusing indeed. These are the private character of Queen Elizabeth, and the state of manners on the borders of England and Scotland.
No Sovereign of England perhaps has enjoyed so high a reputation, living and dead, as Queen Elizabeth. Her reign is always appealed to as the most glorious period in our annals; nay, though one of the most arbitrary of sovereigns, she is the idol even of the whigs. Yet on an attentive examiwhat it is that is so very great in her nation it may be difficult to discover character. We must admit indeed signal exception, her favourites, were that her ministers, and even, with one well chosen; and that, at no period, a greater number of accomplished men appeared on the theatre of public
life. In regard to her domestic eco
nomy, she was not involved in any peculiar difficulties; the most important affairs being those of Scotland, where, whatever we may say of her prudence, we cannot much praise her generosity. Foreign affairs were more important; and here much cannot be said in her favour. The timid and feeble aid given by her to the cause of civil and religious liberty, which was so gloriously
and so hardly contended for, with the sordid stipulations by which that aid was clogged, give no high idea either of generosity or enlarged policy. The defeat of the invincible armada threw a great lustre round her reign, and her conduct there was certainly spirited; yet fortune, at least' as much as conduct, decided that event. Her reputation seems to have been very much raised by a certain accommodation of her character to that of
the English people; a sort of rough, bustling good sense, which, in that age particularly, seems to characterise them, and which brought her more home to them, than more polished and dignified qualities could have done.
The following dialogue may amuse our readers. The Queen had recalled Essex from France immediately before the siege of Rouen. Cary, who was the friend of Essex, came over to deprecate this recal at so critical a period.
I spake with most of the council before the Queen was stirring, who assured me, that there was no removing of her Majesty from her resolution, and advised me to take heed that I gave her no cause to be offended with me, by persuading her for his stay, which they assured me would do no good, but rather hurt. About ten of the clock she sent for me. I delivered her my Lord's letter. She presently burst out into a great rage against my Lord, and vowed she would make him an example to all the world, if he presently left not his charge, and returned upon Sir Francis Darcey's coming to him. I said nothing to ber till she had read his letter. She seemed to be meanly well contented with the success at Gorny, and then I said to her,
"Madam, I know my Lord's care is such to obey all your commands, as he will not make one hour's stay after Sir Francis hath delivered him his fatal doom; but. Madam, give me leave to let your Majesty know before hand, what you shall truly find at his return, after he hath had the happiness to see you, and kiss your hand. He doth so sensibly feel his disgrace, and however
you think it reason for this you have done, yet the world abroad, who know not the cause of his so sudden leaving weakness in him, and a base cowardlihis army to another, will esteem it a ness in him to leave the army, now, when he should meet the King and his whole army for the besieging of Roan. You will be deceived, Madam, if you
think he will ever after this have to do
with court or state affairs. I know his full resolution is to retire to some cell in the country, and to live there, as a man never desirous to look a good man in the face again. And in good faith, Madam, to deal truly with your Majesty, I think you will not have him a longlived man after his return. The late loss of his brother, whom he loved so dearly, and this heavy doom that you have laid upon him, will in a short time break his heart. Then your Majesty will have sufficient satisfaction for the offence he hath committed against you."
She seemed to be something offended at my discourse, and bade me go to dinner. I desired her, that if she pleased to command me any service, I might know her pleasure in the afternoon, for I meant with all the haste I could make to return to my charge. I had scarce made an end of my dinner, but I was sent for to come to her again. She delivered me a letter, written with her own hand to my Lord, and bade me tell him, that "if there were any thing in it that did plcase him, he should give me thanks for it." I humbly kissed her hand, and said to her, "I hoped there was in it that which would make him of the most dejected man living, a new creature, rejoicing in nothing so much as that he had to serve so worthy and so gracious a mistress." P. 28.
Soon after this Cary thought proper to marry; and the match, by his own account, seems to have been very