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Langrognet in Hell. By the licve in God, I have never offended " Abbe T'albert de Nancray." "Lan- the king, and I give justice to the grognet, councillor in the parliament of devil.” It is added, that being in the Besançon, having died suddenly, Tal- carriage which was to conduct him to bert, who was his personal enemy, de- punishment, he ridiculed the monk scribes him carried into hell, where he who attended to exhort him to resees the limbos, tartarus, and elysium, pentance, and said, speaking of Jesus prepared for his friends or his ene- Christ, “ he sweated with fear, while mies. This personal satire was burn- I die intrepid.” May all these details ed by a decree of the parliament of be depended upon? They are found Eesançon.

in the life of Vanini, pnblished by “ Thuani Historia. Paris, 1604. Durand, at Rotterdam, 1717, 12mo. “ fol.” This first part, which con

Lucilio Vanini was born at Tautains the only eighteen first books of rozano in the Terra d'Otranto in 1585. this interesting history, was censured He gave to the public only the two in 1604, that is to say, as soon as it works which form the subject of this appeared. It contains only the events article ; he has likewise a treatise on from 1545 to 1560. The censure is astronomy, which is in manuscript. in manuscript; it exists in the library “ Voltaire." There is no writer, of the Emperor of Germany.

who, joining boldness in opinion Vanini Amphitheatrum æternæ brilliant talents in writing, has so ma-“ Providentiæ divino-magicum, Lyons, ny claims to make a figure in this “ 1650 ;' and, “ De admirandis na- work as Voltaire. It would be endless “ turæ reginæ deæ mortalium arcanis, to enumerate all those of his writings “ libri IV. Paris 1616.” These two which were condemned and censured; works are full of infamy and impiety, we shall notice, however, some of the yet it is remarkable that they appear- most remarkable. ed at first with the royal privilege and “ The J'ai vu (I have seen) and approbation. The second, which is " the Birth of Adonis." The first of the strongest, contains sixty dialogues these two pieces of verse, which is said between Alexander and Julius Cæsar: to be by the poet Lebrun, was ascribit is divided into four books, and dedi- ed to Voltaire, and made him be concated to Marshal Bassompierre, the fined in the Bastille in 1716: he repatron of the author. Vanini was ar- mained there more than a year : it is rested at Toulouse : after being tried said to be there that he began his as an atheist, he was delivered to the poem of the League,' known afterflames on the 19 February 1619, aged wards under the name of the Henriade. 3t, after having had his tongue cut The Henriade," (first edition at out. It is pretended, that at the first London.) This poem was not coninterrogatory which was put to him, demned ; yet the author could not he was asked if he believed the exist- obtain permission to print it in France. ence of God; he stooped down, took he published it at first in England; up a straw, and said, “ I need only when, in 1725, a few copies appeared this straw to prove the existence of a secretly at Paris, the outcry of impiecreating being:" he'rlien made a very ty was raised. The clergy wished to fine discourse on Providence ; which subject it to censure, as containing the did not save him, however, as being errors of the Semi-pelagians. At court, ascribed rather to fear than to convic- it was said, that no one who was not tion. When he was asked to atone seditiously disposed would have venfor his offences, and to ask pardon of tured to write the panegyric of the God, of the king, and of justice, he is Admiral de Coligny. Notwithstandsaid to have replied, " I do not be- ing all these accusations, the Henri, Dec. 1809.



ade, in the sequel, met with the great- middling, especially in regard to hisest success; it was translated into tory. Romances were not numerous; Latin veise; into English by Lok- they amounted, at most, to 30 vols. man; into Italian by the Abbe Quiri- But however middling a great part of ni; into German, into Dutch, &c. the works in this library were, they The Maid of Orleans.This became very valuable from the notes

had been begun in 1730. Chau- with which Voltaire had covered them. velin, the keeper of the seals, having When be read a work, and found oc. heard it talked of, had threatened to casion to make any remark upon it

, throw Voltaire into the bottom of a he took the first



which dungeon, if he published this work.- came to his hand, wrote his remark,

The first edition given by the author and fixed it on the margin, at the very was in 1762.

place which had called it forth. It is Philosophical Dictionary, begun in to be regretted, that this curious mo1760, printed in 1764, one vol. 8vo. nument should no longer be in France; " and very much augmented since un- its place ought to have been in the “ der the title of Questions upon the imperial library of Paris, but it is in

Encyclopedia.This work was com- that of St Petersburg. Catharine II. mitted to the flames at Geneva, pros- made the acquisition of it : Madame cribed in Holland, and condemned to Denis, Voltaire's heir, yielded it in be burned by a decree of the Parlia- 1778, for the sum of 150,000 livres, ment of Paris, of 19th March 1765. (about 70001.) This was the price The prosecutor-general wished to make set upon it by that magnificent soveVoltaire be arrested. I have been as- reign. The Empress required also, sured, that it was on the subject of that to the books should be added all this book that the condemnation of the original letters of Voltaire, which young Labarre to the flames took could be printed, and even those which place. This decree was executed at could not. Madame Denis only askAbbeville in 1766.

ed permission to keep copies of them. “ The Man with Forty Crowns." Catharine likewise asked exact plans, This romance of political economy was in every direction, of the Chateau de proscribed and burned by a decree of Ferney ; she proposed to cause a simithe Parliament. A magistrate is re- lar one to be built in her park at ported to have said, at the time of the Czarskozelo, and to erect in it a mocondemnation of this work: “Shall we nument to the memory of Voltaire : burn booksenly?" Is this sally well au- there was to be a museum, where the thenticated ? It reminds me of one still books were to be placed in the same stronger : a magistrate of the 16th order in which they had been at Fercentury cried out at the point of death, ney. I know not if these projects “ Thank God, I die in peace, for thro' have been executed. me, 166 sorcerers have been burned ; Wiclef. Joannis Wiclefi, viri unif I have not done more, God will “dequaque clarissimi dialogorum libri forgive me, he knows it has not been “ IV. quorum primus divinitatem et for want of good will.”. I do not re- “ ideas tractat; secundus, universa. collect the name of this worthy and rum creationem complectitur: terhumane magistrate; he belonged to “tius, de virtutibus vitüsque contrathe Parliainent of Toulouse or of “riis copiosissime loquitur ; quartus, Bourdeaux.

“ romanæ ecclesiæ sacramenta, ejus We shall conclude this article by a “ pestiferam dotationem, antichristi notice respecting the library of Vol. “regnum, fratrum fraudulentam oritaire. It consisted of 6210 volumes, “ ginem, atque eorum hypocrysim, vathe greater part of which were very riaque nostro oevo scitu dignissima

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" graphice perstringit, 4to. 1525, (no signal of the interests of two false

place.") This volume has become priests, who are manifestly both Antivery rare, from the care with which it christ, in order to preserve them in was suppressed by the court of Rome. worldly greatness, by oppressing the It appears that it issued from the press Christian world more than the Jews of John Oporin of Basle: a copy was oppressed Jesus Christ and his apossold in 176+ by the Jesuits of the tles. Why will not the haughty priest College of Clermont, at 241 livres, of Rome grant to all men, on condi(101.) But it is commonly valued at tion that they shall live in peace and 100 or 120 livres, (H or 5.). The charity, that plenary indulgence which impression at Frankfort, 1753, in 4to. he grants to them to fight and destroy is of less value. In this work, of which each other. In 1382, a council was Otho Brunsfels is said to be the edi- assembled at London by William de tor, Wickliffe introduces three per- Courtenay, in which several heretical sonages,

who are: Truth, or Alithia; propositions of Wickliffe were conLying, or Pseudis ; and Prudence, or demned. The most prominent are the Phronesis. It is a sort of theology, following: “ Outward confession is which contains all its doctrine, the ba- unnecessary to a man who feels suffisis of which, consists in admitting an cient contrition; we do not find in the absolute necessity in all things, even gospel that Jesus Christ enjoined mass : in the actions of God. Yet, he says, if the Pope is deceitful and wicked, that God is free, and that he could and consequently a member of the have done otherwise had he so willed deyil, he has no power over the faithit; but, at the same time, he says, ful, except, perhaps, what he has rethat it forms part of his essence not to ceived from the Emperor. After Urwill otherwise than he does. Wick- ban VI. we ought to own no Pope, liffe wished to establish equality and but to live like the Greeks, each unindependence among men ; a preten- der his own laws. It is contrary to sion equally ridiculous and impossible sacred scripture that churchmen should to execute. The French made a fatal hold temporal goods.” It has been trial of it at the end of the eighteenth said, that there exists another work of century. The English had made the Wickliffe, entitled, “ Four books of same beneath the eyes of Wickliffe in Trialogues," infinitely more rare than 1379 and 1330. It was in the time that we are now speaking of; but no of this heretic, that Urban VI. and copy of it is actually known, and Clement VII. disputed the seat of there is reason to believe that it is the Rome. Europe was divided between same work with that which we now these two Pontiffs : one was acknow- announce. John Wickliffe, born at ledged by the English, and the other Wickliffe, in the county of York, by the French. The emissaries of Ur- , about 1324, died at Lutterward, where ban preached, in England, a crusade he kept himself concealed, in Decemagainst France, and granted to the ber 1384. The animosity of his enecrusaders the same indulgences enjoyed mies pursued him beyond the tomb; by those who went to the Holy Land. for they dug up his body some years Wickliffe thundered against this cru- after, burned it, and then threw the sade in a work forcibly written. “ It ashes into the river. Wickliffe comis shameful, says he, that the cross of posed a great number of works; but Christ

, which is a monument of peace, none has reached us except that of of mercy, and of charity, should be which we have spoken. come to all Christians the standard and



SKETCH of the Rise and PROGRESS of which we received from the entrance the British Navy.

of the combined fieets into the chan.

nel, in August 1779. By 1st Janu(Concluded from p. 815.)

ary 1780, accordingly, they were raiAT by

sed to 143 ; and 1st January vember 1762, the number of 1782, to 161; the smaller vessels ships amounted to 141 sail of the line, were also raised at the latter period to 24 fifties, and 267 smaller vessels.

439. Eight more of the line had Twenty-four ships of the line were been added before the signing of the building, 14 in the King's, and 10 in preliminaries on 20 January 1783, the Merchant's yards. Twenty-one The tonnage of the Navy then amcunships of the line were taken from the ted to 500,000 tons. In the course enemy in the course of this war. The of this war there were taken from our English, on the contrary, lost no ves- different enemies, twenty-six ships of sel of more than 50 guns.

They lost the line, and 61 of 54 guns and under. two fifties, one of 20 guns, and six We lost only one ship of the line, small vessels. During the course of thirty of 50 and under, besides 50 this war, L.200,000 was annually vo- sloops and smaller vessels. Fortyted for building and repairing of ships. two ships of the line were building, At the end of it some reduction was 13 in the King's, and 29 in the Mermade in the navy, though a much chants’ yards. greater force was still kept on foot About this time, the East India than during any former peace. The Company presented Government with diuinber from 1762 to 1771 conti- three ships of 74 guns. nued pretty steadily at about 135 ships The state in which the navy had of the line, and 250 smaller vessels

. been found in 1771, afforded proof of On occasion however of the dispute the necessity of attending to its prowith Spain about Falklands islands, it per repair.' Accordingly all the arwas discovered that these ships were tificers were retained in the dock in a most defective state of repair; yards, and continued, even during the and, had a long war taken place, the winter months, to work extra hours. nation aust have suffered considerably. An useful regulation was adopted, on In consequence of this discovery, a the suggestion, it is said, of Lord Bargeneral examination took place, and ham, by which large stores of all pains were taken to put the ships into kinds, sufficient to last for several a proper state of repair.

years, were kept constantly accumuAt the breaking out of the Ameri- lated; thus ebviating any precari

. can war in 1775, the navy consisted ousness of supply, or uncommon high of fewer vessels than at any former price, to which war might give occaperiod of the peace. There were on- sion. ly 131 of the line, and 209 smaller In the course of the peace, from vessels ; in all 340. As small ves- 1783 to 1791, the building and resels were chiefly wanted during the pairing of ships went on with great earlier stages of this unfortunate con- activity ; but as a good number were test, their numbers were greatly aug- disposed of as old and unserviceable, mented; and in 1778, the larger ves- no numerical augmentation took place. sels continuing the same, amounted to In 1789 the ships of the line amount319. The accession of the Euro- ed to 148, and the smaller vessels to pean powers rendered it necessary to 304. Of these 93 were in perfectly extend this augmentation to the lar- good condition, and ready to be sent ger vessels ; especially after the alarm upon immediate service; a much lar


Of 50 guns,

zer proportion than had ever been so, The following is a list of those taduring any former period of peace. ken or destroyed by the enemy. In December 1790, in the build

Of the line to 54 guns,

incluing of a ship called the Hawke, an

sive, important experiment was tried.-


1 This vessel was built in part of wood


12 that had been stript of its bark and

41 left standing since the spring of 1777.

Sloops and small vessels, Theexperiment however totally failed;

59 for in 1803 this vessel was found to be in so great and general a state of

The unappropriated stores at the end decay, as not to be worth repair.

of this war amounted to 2,610,908l. On 1st January 1791, the ships in

During the short peace which good condition were 95, of which 35 ceeded, the establishment of the nawere in commission. On the 1st December 1792, the ships of the when at the lowest 50,000 seamen were

vy was never greatly reduced; and line amounted to 141, but the num, still employed, and 38 ships in comber in good condition, from several

mission. At 15 May 1803, there accidental causes, had diminished to

were in all 177 ships of the line, and 77, of which 12 were in commission. in 1st January 1805, the number In each of these two years an arma- was nearly the same. At this latter ment had been prepared, in contem- period 124 were in commission. plation of a rupture, first with Spain,

The following is an account of the and afterwards with Russia. The

number of ship-wrights employed in value of stores, at 31st December our docks during different periods of 1792, amounted to 1,812,982l.; of

our history. which there was at Deptford to the value of 218,5581. ; at Woolwich

1702-1869 1770—2928 189,5501,; at Chatham 378,304 1.; at

1710--2574 1780-3260 Sheerness, 71,8071.; at Portsmouth,

1744.--. 3065 1790-2965 448,624 l.; at Plymouth, 506,1291.

1750-2698 1800—3776 At this period, war broke out with

1760-3281 1805_3193 France, and the utmost activity was employed in fitting the navy for service. In the course of nine months, for building a 74 gun ship was 10l.

In Queen Ann's war, the charge the ships in commission were increa


In 1755, for building sed from 12 to 72. It is needless to recal to our readers the events of

a 74, the charge was 171. 2s. 6d. In this naval war, the most glorious in 1771, it was 171. 58. In 1780, it was which Britain was ever engaged, and

171. 10s. In 1795, it was 201. In which completely established her em

1805, it was 361. The following is the

attached to the different pire over the seas. The following

expence is a list of the ships taken or destroyed parts of a vessel of 74 guns, which the course of it by the English.


Hull, including coppering, Of the line, and down to 54

201. 4s. per ton.

39,530 guns inclusive,

86 Rigging and stores, 51. 4s.
3 Masts aud yards,

1660 Frigates 206 · Rigging,

2550 Sloops and small vessels, 275 Sails,


per ton.


Of 50 guns,

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