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" It is not then--the repetition is impor- the Creator and Redeenier willed these. tant-it is not his Holiness who seeks the things, and that all concur to accomplish rupture. A pacific Prince, notwithstand- his purposes when his appointed time ar. ing he was obliged to witness the spolia. rives. tion, in defiance of all right, of his states " This is the answer which the Under. of Benevento and Ponte Corvo ; notwith- signed is commanded by his Holiness to give standing his enormous expence of maintaio. to che note of M. Champagny, and to com ing French troops ; not withstanding the un municate to your Excellency. surpation of his capital, the usurpation of
“ Cardinal GABRIELLI." almost all his sovereign rights; nulwithstanding the violent dismissal of so many
SPAIN, spiritual persons, composing the Holy See
EXPOSITION nare; and notwithstanding all the other acts, by which his dignity has been degra. Of the Practices and Machinations which ded, all that his Holiness did, was to coni.
led to the Usurpation of the Crown of mand his people, when the French army
Spain, and the means adopted by the Ementered Rome, to sliew it respect; all that
peror of the French to carry it into ex. his Holiness did was to receive it in the cution, by Don Pedro Cevallos, First se. most hospitable manner, and implore of his cretary of State and of Dispatches to his Majesty, in the mean time, relief from so
Catholic Majesty Ferdinand VII. many aggravated evils; and all that his
“ At a period when the nation has made Holiness now does in this extremity is, to and continues to make the most heroic ef. mourn between the vestibule and the altar, forts to shake off the yoke of slavery atinvoking the pity of Heaven upou his peo- tempted to be imposed upon it, it is the duple, and that by a return to better counsels, ty of all good citizens to contribute, by en the most potent Emperor Napoleon will very means in their power, to enlighten it not suffer the inheritance of the Roman with respect to the real causes that have See, given by Providence to the head of brought it into its present situation, and tv the Catholic Church in full enjoyment, to keep up the noble spirit by which it is anibe lost and routed out.
mated. “ 'Thus has his Holiness made war! Thus “ To make known to Spain and to the has he conducted himself to the present whole world the base means resorted to by hour towards his Majesty, however dis- the Emperor of the French to seize the pertressing has been the result. Still his Ho- son of our king, Ferdinand VII. and to subliness will cherish the hope that his Majes jugate this great and generous nation, is a ly, rejecting the counsels of the enemies of duty well worthy of one whe, like myself
, the Holy See, who have had recourse to e. is in a condition to discharge it ; inasmuch very art to change his disposition, will re- as circumstances placed nie in a situation vert to their for mer friendly correspon- to be an eye-witness of the events which dence, and be satisfied with the concessions preceded the catastrophe of Bayonne, and made in the note of the 28th January. If, in which i bore a part. It was not in my by the hidden purposes of the Most High, power to do this before, in consequence of this should not take place, and his Majes personal restraints, and from not having ty, regardless of his own glory, and deaf co collected the documents necessary to accre. the calls of justice, should put his threats in dit my statement. Some are still wanting, execution, and take possession of the States which it was necessary to burn, in cons* of the Church by right of conquest, over quence of dangerous circumstances, in which turning the Government in consequence, his every thing was to be seared ; others have Holiness will be unable to remedy such fa. disappeared through the various incidents tal occurrences; but he solemnly declares, connected with that unhappy period; but that the first will not be a conquest, as his those which I now present are sufficient to Holiness is in peace with all the world, but prove the atrocious violence committed a will be an usurpation more violent than his. gainst our beloved King Ferdinand VII. and tory can furnish, and the second will not the whole nation. be ihe result of conquest, but of that usur. " Though the conduct of Spain towards pation. He declares as the same time that France since the peace of Basle, a very in it will not be the work of political genius teresting portion of irs political history in and illumination, but an awful visitation of these latter times, is intimately connected that God from whoni all Sovereignty is de- with the important events which form the rived, and especially that given to the flead subject of this exposition, it is not necessary of the Church.
to dweil even upon its principal periods: It " Bowing, in that event, with profound will be sufficient to state what the whole adoration to the decrees of Heaven, his Hor nation, and all Europe, know, that the po. lices will find consolation in reflecting, that litical system of Spain has constantly been during this time to preserve friendship and fliction which his highness laboured under the best understanding with France, and from a coujunction of circumstances, as lato maintain at all hazards the ruinous alli- mentable as notorious, and his anxiety to aance concluded in 1796.
void another connection into which it was " To attain this end, there is no sacrifice attempted to force him, with a lady selecwhich Spain has not made, and as the pre- ted for him by his greatest enemy, and on servation of the Prince of the Peace in the that account alone the object of his averhigh decree of favour he enjoyed with sion, induced him to acquiesce in the sugCharles IV. depended in a great measure gestions of the ambassador, but with the upon the continuance of this system, it was stipulation that it was to meet the appromaintained with the greatest constancy and bation of his august parents, and under the de fatigable attention.
impression that it would strengthen the “ Fleets, armies, treasure, every thing friendship and alliance then subsisting bewas sacrificed to France ; humiliations, sub- tween the two crowns. His highness, acmissions, every thing was suffered, every cuated by mocives sn cogent in a political thing was done to satisfy, as far as possible, point of view, and yielding to the solicita. the insatiable demands of the French go. tions of the ambassador; wrote accordingly vernment ; but the idea never once occurred to his imperial majesty. of preserving the nation against the machi- " A few days after our beloved prince nations of an ally, who was over-running wrote this letter, occurred the scandalous Europe.
imprisonnient of his august person in the “ 'The treaty of Tilsit, in which the des- royal monastry of St. Laurence, and the tiny of the world seemed to be decided in still more scandalous decree wbich was is. his favour, was hardly concluded, when he sued in the name of the King, and addressturned his eyes towards the west, and re-ed to the Council of Castile. There are solved on the ruin of Portugal and Spain; very strong reasons to believe, that the unor what comes to the same purpose, to make known hand that frustrated this seigned himself master of this vast peninsula, with conspiracy was some French agent employa view of making its inhabicants as happy ed to forward the plan which Napoleon as those of Italy, Holland, Switzerland, and had formed. the league of the Rhine.
" Fortunately the Spanish nation was " At this very time the emperor was re- deeply impressed with its situation, entervolving in his mind some designs facal to tained a just opinion of the good disposiSpain (for he began to disarm her), by de- tion and religious principles of their prince manding a respectable body of our troops to of Asturias, and suspected instantaneousexert their valuur in remote regions, and ly that the whole was a calumny fabricated for foreign interests. This he effected with- by the favourite, as absurd as it was audaut difficulty, and there was placed at his cious, in order to remove the only obstacle
sposal a gallant and picked force of 16,000 which then opposed his views. men of all descriptions.
“ It is already known, that on the impri“ The enterprise of making himself mase sonment of the prince of Asturias, his royter of Spain was not so easy as Napoleon al father wrote to the emperor, no doubt, imagined. It was, above all, necessary to at the suggession of the favourite, complainfind out some pretexe for carrying into ex. ing of the conduct of the ambassador Beauecution the daring and gigantic plan of sub- harnois
, in his clandestinc communications jugating a friendly and allied nation, that with the prince of Asturias, and expressing had made so many sacrifices for France, and his surprise that the emperor had not come which this very emperor had praised for its to a previous understanding with his Ma. fidelity and nobleness of character.
jesty on a subject of such pre-eminent in“ Nevertheless, being accustomed to act portance to sovereigns. with that disregard to delicacy in the choice " As the imprisonment of the prince of ef his means, which is characteristic of the Asturias, and, above all, the most scandaman who imagines that the conquest of the lous decree fulminated against his royal perwhole world, the destruction of the human son, produced an effect completely contrary species, and the havoc of war, are condu- to the expectations of the favourite, he becive to true glory, he resolved to excite and gan to be afraid, thought proper to recede, foment discord in the royal family of Spain, and to meditate a reconciliation between through his ambassador at this court. the royal parents and their son. With this
“ The latter, though perhaps not initia. view, as is scated in the abstract of the Esa ted in the grand secret of his master, suc- curial cause, circulated by the council in ceeded in seducing the Prince of Asturias, consequence of his majesty's orders of the our present king and master, and suggest 8th of April, he forged certain letters, and ed to him the idea of intermarrying with made the prince of Asturias sign them a princess related to the emperor. The af. while a prisoner, which being delivered in
to che hands of the royal parents, were sup- the consideration due towards a Princes posed to have softened their hearts; and who was cousin to the Emprese, and in-conby these singular means did this innocent sequence of the part the ambassador Beauprince obtain a nonsinal liberty.
harnois, her relative, took in the business “ This was the state of affairs when a * Now it was that the Favourite began French courier arrived at the Royal Palace clearly to discover how much his credit of st. Laurence, with a trea:y concluded had sunk, and he gave himself up for los, and signed at Fountainbleau on the 27th of in consequence of being deprived of the supOctober, by Don Eugenio Izquierdo, as port of his imaginary protector the EmpePlenipotentiary of his Catholic Majesty, and ror of che French. There were no means Marshal Duroc, in the name of the Empe- now neglected by him to endeavour to io. ror of the French. Its contents, as well as gratiate himself with the Grand Duke of those of the separate Convention, constitute Berg; every sort of expression, every kind Nos. 1. 2. of the documents annexed to this of deference was employed for this pure Exposition.
pose ; and the more effectually to avert the "It is worthy of observation, that the inpending storm, he prevailed upon the department of the Ministry, of which I was Royal Parents to write to the Emperor at the head, was totally unacquainted with direct, and to request his consent to the the measures taken by Don É. Izquierdo, marriage of one of his cousins to the Prince at Paris, as well as with his appointment, of Asturias
. his jostructions, his correspondence, and “ Meanwhile the Emperor of the French every part of his proceedings.
appeared to be very much dissatisfied with "The result of this treaty was to ren. the conduct of Izquierdo, and kept him at der the Emperor master of Portugal with a distance, in order to cut off this direct very little expence ; to furnish him with a mode of conumunication, and to make him, plausible pretext for introducing his armies self more impenetrable. into our peninsula, with the intent of sub- “ His Imperial Majesty set off on a jourjugating it at a proper opportunity, and to ney to Italy, with that studied parade which pur him in immediate pussession of Tus- all Europe has witnessed, giving it such an cany.
air of importance, that it was to be presu. “ The Favourite was to have for his por- med he was going to fix che destinies of the tion the Algarves and Alantejo, in full pro- world. But there is reason to surmise, that perty and sovereignty, but the Emperor's his real object was no other than to divert answer to the letters of the Royal Father the general attention to that quarter, for had not yet arrived ; it was completely un- the purpose of misleading the other States, certain what it would be, and this filled whilst his real designs were directed to the him with fear and anxiety.
invasion of Portugal and Spain. “ The intimate relations which the Fa- “ This artifice and dissimulation did not, vourite maintained at that period with the however, prevent the discovery of one of Grand Duke of Berg, through the medium the articles in the Secret Treaty of fourof his confident Izquierdo, fiattered him to tainbleau, by his expelling, with the greata certain degree with the hope that every est precipitation, from Tuscany, the Queen thing would be settled to his wishes, tho' Regent and her children, plundering the the interposition of a few millions might be Royal Palace, and seizing all the public necessary. But neither the Favourite nor funds of a Court that was ignorant of the his confident knew the real intentions of existence of such a Treaty, and had comthe person they were treating with at mitted no act of forfeiture. Paris. In fact, the instant the Emperor “ Whilst the Emperor kepe Europe
in found that the Favourite had committed suspence by his journey to Malan and Ve. himself, and the Royal Parents were brought nice, he thought fit to answer the letters, into a discredit, he shewed no disposition which he had some time before received 20 answer his Majesty's letters, for the pur- from the Royal Farber, assuring bis Mapose of keeping them in suspence, and in- jesty that he never had the slightest inforspiring them with dread, in the hope that ination of the circumstances which he comthey might form the resolution of with- municated respecting his son the Prince of drawing, though at that time he had not Asturias, nor ever received any letter from completed his plan for taking advantage of
his such an occurrence.
" The Grand Duke wrote to the Favou. rite, that he would enıploy every means to All this appears from the correspobsupport him, but chat the negociation was dence of the Favourite with the Grand rendered very delicate, owing to the extra. Duke, which the latter carried off from the ordinary attachment which prevailed in office of the Secretary of State during his Spain towards the Prince of Asturias, and lieutenancy.
his Royal Highness". Nevertheless his Ma- “ In this state of things, the Emperor or. jesty consented to the proposed intermar- dered Izquierdo to repair to Spain, which riage with a Princess of his family, un- he accordingly did, in a very precipitate doubtedly with an intention of amusing the and mysterious manner. According to his Royal Parents; whilst he was sending in- verbal statements, he brought no proposal to Spain, under various pretexts, all the in writing with him, nor was he to receive troops which he had then disposable, and any, and he had orders to remain only three was studiously propagating an idea that he days. was favourable to the cause of the Prince « On his arrival, under these circumstanof Asturias, and thus endeavouring to cap- ces, at Aranjuez, the Favourite conducted tivate the good opinion of the Spanish na. him to the presence of the Royal Parents, tion.
and their conferences were conducted with “ The Royal Parents, struck with the so much secrecy; that it was impossible for terror which this conduct of the Emperor any one to discover the object of his misnaturally inspired, and the Favourite being sion; but soon after his departure from this still more astonished, opposed no obstacle capital, their Majesties began to shew a to the entrance of the French troops into disposition to abandon the metropolis and the Peninsula ; on the contrary, they gave the Peninsula, and to emigrate to Mexico. the most effectual orders that they should “ The recent example of the determinabe received and treated even on a better tion taken by the Royal Family of Portnfooting than the Spanish troops.
gal seemed to have fully corresponded with “ The Emperor, under the pretence of the views of the Emperor, and there is reaconsulting the security of these troops, or- son to think that his Imperial Majesty prodered his Generals, by stratagem or force, mised himself a similar success in Spain. to get possession of the fortresses of Pam- “ But he must have been very ignorant peluna, St. Sebastian, Figuieras, and Bar of the Spanish character to flatter hinself celona, which alone could present any ob- with such expectations. Scarcely had the stacle to an invasion. They were accord- first reports gone abroad of the intention of ingly taken by fraud and surprize, to the the Royal Family to abandon their resiindignation and sorrow of the whole na- dence, a resolution clearly indicated by the tion, to which the French still affected to many preparations which were going on, profess friendship and alliance.
when discontent and fear were depicted in « The Emperor conceiving himself al. the most lively colours in the features of all ready master of all Spain, and thinking the the inhabitants of the capital, and of all time had arrived for accelerating his mea. ranks and classes of persons. This alone sures, thought proper to write a letter to was sufficient to induce their Majesties to the Royal Father, complaining in the bit. refute the rumour, and to assure the peoterest terms, that his Majesty had not re- ple that they would not abandon them. newed his application for an Imperial Prin- “ Nevertheless such was the general discess for his son the Prince of Asturias. The trust, such the magnitude of the evils which King was pleased to return for answer, that must have resulted, and such and so many he adhered to his former proposal, and was the symptoms of a determination to emi. willing that the marriage should immedi- grate, that every one was on the alert, and ately take place.
all seemed to be impressed with the neces“ Some important proceeding was still sity of preventing a measure pregnant with necessary to carry the project to a proper so many mischiefs. Th. danger increased, degree of maturity, and the Emperor not and the fears of the public kept pace with willing to trust it to writing, thought he it. The consequence was, that the com. could not find a better instrument than Don motions of Aranjuez, on the 17th and 19th Eugenio Izquierdo, whom he had detain- of March, burst forth like a sudden exploed in Paris in a state of great dejection and sion; the people being led by a sort of interror, that had been artfully impressed u- stinct of self preservation. The result was, pon him for the purpose of his more effec- the imprisonment of the Favourite, who, tually executing his commission, by impres- without the title of King, had exercised all sing the Royal Parents and the Favourite the functions of royalty with the same feelings.
“ Scarcely had this tempestuous scene
taken place, when the Royal Parents findCompare this statement with the con- ing themselves deprived of the support of tents of the letter (p. 458.) from his impe- their Favourite, took the unexpected huc rial Majesty to King Ferdinand, in which voluntary resolution which they hard for he acknowledges having received the letter some time entertained, to abdicate their written to him by the Prince of Asturias, Throne, as they accordingly did, in la rour on the suggestion of the ambassador Beau- of their son and heir the Prince of Ascu: is.” harnois.
(To be concluded in our next.) Nov. 1808.
TREATIES between FRANCE and SPAIN and shall possess them subject to the
for the Partition of PORTUGAL. same conditions. 9.-The King of E. Two secret treaties for the partition truria cedes the kingdom of Etruria to of Portugal were concluded at Foun- the Emperor Napoleon. 10.-When a tainbleau on the 27th of October 1807, definitive occupation of the provinces of and ratified by Bonaparte on the 29th ; Portugal shall be effected, commissionthey are annexed as documents to Ce: ers shall be appointed to determine the vallos's narrative, and are in substance proper limits. 11.-The Emperor of the as follow :
French becomes guarantee to the King of The preamble to the first treaty states Spain for the possession of his estates on the the object of the two Sovereigns (Charles Continent of Europe, south of the Pyre. and Napoleon) to be," to settle, by
- The Emperor of the French common consent, the interests of the agrees to acknowledge the king of Spain two states, and to determine the future as Emperor of both Americas, at such time condition of Portugal, in a manner con- as may be proposed for his Majesty to formable to the policy of the two coun- assume this title, which may either be tries.” Article 1.-The provinces of on the occasion of a general peace, or Entre Minho and Douro, with the city at latest within three years. i3.-It is of Oporto, shall be given in full pro. understood that the contracting powers perty and sovereignty to the King of will make an equal division of all the Etruria, under the title of King of Nor islands, colonies, and other ultramarine thern Lusitania. 2.--The kingdoms of property of Portugal. 14.—The preAlentejo and of the Algarves, shall be sent treaty shall remain secret, &c. given to the Prince of the Peace, under The second treaty provides for the im. the title of Prince of the Algarves. 3.– mediate march of a French army to Lis. The provinces of Beira, Tralos Montes, bon, and for the co-operation of a Spanish and Estremadura, shall remain as a de. force in giving full effect to this villanposit till a general peace, to be dispo. ous scheme. For this purpose the French sed of according to circumstances, as troops were introduced into Spain, and shall be agreed between the contracting a few months after Bonaparte had dubparties. 4.-The kingdom of Northern bed Charles IV. Emperor of beth Ame. Lusitania shall be possessed by the he. ricas, and guaranteed to him the posreditary descendants of the King of E. session of his European dominions, he truria, according to the laws of succes• kidnapped him and his family, carried sion in Spain. 5.-The principality of them prisoners to France, and transAlgarves shall in like manner be here. ferred the crown of Spain to his bro ditary in the descendants of the Prince ther! And to complete the acme of of the Peace. 6.-In default of legiti- fraud, it ought to be observed, that mate heirs of either of these Princes, whilst these very treaties were negotitheir dominions shall be given as an in. ating at Fountainbleau, Bonaparte was vestiture to the King of Spain, on con- proposing terms to the Prince Regent dition that they shall never be united of Portugal, and assuring him that he under one head, nor attached to the had no designs hostile to his country or Crown of Spain. 7.—The kingdom of to himself!! Had the Prince remained Northern Lusitania, and the principa. at Lisbon, he would undoubtedly have lity of Algarres, acknowledge the King shared the fate of the Royal Family of of Spain as protector, and their Sove Spain, and been at this time a prisoner reigns shall in no case make war or in France. peace without his consent. 8.-If the Another Spanish public paper of some provinces of Beira, Tralos Montes, and importance is a “ Manifesto of the proEstremadura, should, at a general peace, ceedings of the Royal Council of Casbe restored to the house of Braganza, tile, in relation to the events which bave in exchange for Gibraltar, Trinidad, occurred since October last.” It is the and other colonies taken by the En. Council's justification of its own conglish from Spain or her allies, the new duct to the nation for its apparent subSovereigo of these provinces shall have, 'mission to the French while they were with respect to the King of Spain, the in possession of Madrid. It appears from same obligation as the King of Northern it, that Ferdinand VII, even when in Lusitania and the Prince of Algarves, the custody of his destroyer, contrived