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Historical Affairs.

EAST INDIES. HE accounts by the last India fleet

sions were in a state of perfect tranquil. lity. Letters from Bencoolen state, that the Malays had attacked the Go. vernment-house, and murdered the Bri. tish resident, Mr Parr. Some unpopu. lar regulations respecting the culture of their vineyards were the cause of this outrage. The Danish settlements of Se. rampore, on the Hooghly, and of Tranquebar, had been taken possession of by the Company's troops. The stores found are said to have been very considerable. In November last a most destructive inundation took place at Penang, by which 100 inhabitants perished, and a great number of houses and cattle were swept away. There are several contradictory rumours from Persia. On the one hand it is stated that 12,000 French troops (this is extremely improbable) had actually arrived in Persia, and that the Persian monarch had declared war against Great Britain. On the other hand it is asserted, that the intrigues of the French had been ably, seasonably, and successfully opposed by Colonel Malcolm, whom Lord Minto had sent on a special mission into Persia, to counteract and frustrate the schemes which Bonaparte had been so long maturing for the subjugation of our Indian dominions.

By the same conveyance, we have a long official detail of Sir Edward Pellew's operations at Batavia in June 1807, and of the destruction of the whole of the Dutch naval force in the East Indies, consisting of two ships of 70 guns, a sheer hulk of 68, and an Indiaman of 1000 tons, pierced for 40 guns, but the particulars are not very interesting.

NEW SOUTH WALES.

The dispatches from this quarter, of date April 19. state that the colony had been in a state of violent ferment and commotion. The following are all the particulars that we have learnt:-The disturbance (in which the convicts took no part) had its origin in a difference Nov. 1808.

between the colonists and Gov. Bligh. The latter had thought it expedient, on

some of the respectable inhabitants, as it was supposed, on unwarrantable grounds. At length the people became tumultuous, and demanded the person of the governor, and were beginning to proceed to acts of violence, in order to get him into their power. Major Johnstone, who had the command of the military in the absence of Lieut. Col. Patterson, who was at one of the dependencies, finding the people were unmanageable, in order to restore tranquillity, promised to confine the governor until his conduct was properly investigated. He accordingly dispatched a guard to his house to seize him; but the governor, having received intimation of his arrest, made his escape, and hid himself in an adjoining house, where he was found under a bed, whence he was dragged. He was immediately put in a place of security, and Col. Patterson was sent for, who, it was expected, would send him home. Thus this affair has terminated, and the colony became immediately tranquil.

TURKEY.

Another of those revolutions so fre. quent in Turkish history has taken place at Constantinople; the following are the particulars that have transpired:

The object of the revolution was to replace the deposed Selim on the throne. -The chief agent in the business was Mustapha Bairacter, Pacha of Rudschuck. He came to Constantinople with a body of chosen troops, occupied the most important posts of the city, put to death the commandant of the castles of the Dardanelles, the Aga of the Janissaries, and others who had conspired against Selim, and deposed the Mufti, and all the new Ministers of the Sultan Mustapha. The latter, who was at Befectach, and had no suspicion of the project, was informed of it on the 28th of July by the Sultan's mother, and immediately returned by sea to the seraglio, while the Pacha of Rud

Rudschuck was entering it by land. The Pacha caused it to be intimated to him that Selim was the only lawful Emperor, but Mustapha disregarded the intimation, and ordered the inner-gates of the seraglio to be shut. The soldiers forced an entrance, but found the unfortunate Selim murdered. The Pacha immediately caused Prince Mahomet, the last branch of the reigning dynasty, a youth of 15, to be proclaimed Empe

ror.

A number of the principal partisans of the Sultan Mustapha were strangled in the seraglio. The chief of the eunuchs, and most of those who assisted in the murder of Selim, were executed on the 29th of July. We have no certain accounts of the fate of Mustapha himself.

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mouth on the 26th of April with a convoy, which she parted from on the coast of the Brazils. Every thing was pro ceeding in that quarter tranquilly and prosperously, under the auspices of the new Government. The highest veneration was shewn by the colonists of all descriptions for the Prince Regent, and prompt obedience paid to his ordinances and commercial regulations. The most enthusiastic attachment prevails at Rio Janeiro and Bahia towards the Eng. lish settlers, and the happiest consequen ces are expected to result from the mercantile enterprises of our new friends in every part of South America.

WEST INDIES.

Government have received dispatches from the Governor of Curacoa, which state that he took the earliest opportu nity of communicating to the Governor of Caraccas the intelligence which be had received from England respecting the important events which had occur. red in Spain. The Governor of the Caraccas immediately expressed his determination to support the rights of his lawful sovereign, Ferdinand the VII. and to act in concert with the loyal patriots in Spain, and with the British.He also issued orders for the arrest of all the Frenchmen within his government. The Governor of Maracay bo has also declared a similar determination, and there is no doubt but that these examples will be followed in every part of Spanish South America.

Later dispatches from Curacoa relate the effects of this prompt communication to the Spanish Main, where the news of the events in Spain was receiv ed with all the enthusiasm of joy. The news of Joseph's usurpation was sent to La Guira by a French brig of war. It was received in Caraccas with the ut most indignation, insomuch that the French commissioners were obliged to repair on board the brig at midnight, being apprehensive of personal violence. A day or two after, the Acasta frigate arrived with the news of the revolution in Spain. The French brig put to sea, but was pursued and taken by the Acasta.

Dispatches from Jamaica, and from Admiral Cochrane, relate to the state of the Spanish islands, which have warn ly

ly embraced the patriotic cause. Adm. Cochrane's dispatches state that he had received the accounts and documents relative to Spain, which he had communicated to the Spanish colonies with all possible speed, and in the mean time he had liberated all the Spanish prisoners, and sent them to the Spanish Main, and had discontinued all hostilities against the Spanish vessels.

Dispatches have been seized on board a French cartel at Barbadoes, with an immense quantity of proclamations in the name of Joseph Bonaparte, promis ing great commercial advantages to the colonies; but the Spaniards spurned him and his promises, and have even commenced hostilities. A vessel sent to the Spanish Main from Martinique, for provisions, has been taken by the Spaniards, and all the crew sent to prison, The Governor of Cuba has issued a most spirited manifesto against France. The Canary Islands have opened all their ports to the English.

We have accounts from Barbadoes of an unsuccessful attempt to carry the Island of St Martin's (long a haunt for the enemy's privateers) by a coup demain. About 135 men were landed, in August, from the Subtle schooner, and Wanderer sloop, under the command of Lieut. Spearing, of the Subtle. They soon got possession of the lower fort, of six guns, which they spiked, but, on ascending the rocky heights, they found the enemy in such force that success was hopeless. The Lieutenant was killed; and from 20 to 30 of his men were killed or wounded. The rest were ob. liged to surrender, but were immediately exchanged. Lieut. Spearing was a gallant officer, in the prime of life, and had received 11 wounds in the service of his country.

The distress of the French islands, from the want of provisions, in conse. quence of the American embargo, and the stoppage of supplies from the Spanish islands, is such, that if our cruisers are vigilant, they must be soon starved into a surrender.

AMERICAN STATES. Notwithstanding the general and in creasing discontent of the people, particularly those of the mercantile class, occasioned by the embargo, which has now subsisted ten months, the President

persists in this ruinous measure. The British ministers intimated long ago to the American envoys, that no further modification could be made on the or ders in Council. This answer, it seems, did not prove satisfactory, and we understand that no intercourse has taken place for some months betwixt them.→ About the end of May, Congress separated, leaving it to the discretion of the President to raise or continue the embargo.

The effects of this measure were felt more severely in the New England States, from whence the trade to the West Indies was most considerable.

At a very numerous meeting of mer chants and other inhabitants of Boston, held there on the 9th of August, it was moved and unanimously resolved

"That it is expedient for the town of Boston respectfully to petition the President of the United States to suspend the laws laying on the embargo, either wholly or in part, according to the power vested in him by the Congress of the United States; and if any doubt should exist, as to the sufficiency of those powers, that he be requested to call the Congress together as soon as may be."

To this petition the President gave a full and explicit answer. He expressed himself as equally dissatisfied with the determinations of the French and British governments, on the subject of their respective decrees and orders in council, and declared, as he saw no prospect that either of them was disposed to return to a proper sense of reason or justice, the embargo must of necessity continue so long as the belligerent powers persevered in the measures which occasioned it. He however referred the matter entirely to Congress, which would meet at the legal time as soon as he could have issued notice for convening it.

It appears from the American papers that the knowledge of the late events in Spain has produced a most sensible impression on the minds of the people in favour of England. Many of the American writers complain loudly of the conduct of their government towards this country, and anticipate the downfall of the American trade in consequence of the continuance of the embargo, which will leave the Spanish ports open exclu sively to the English.

ITALY.

Answer of his Eminence Cardinal Gabrielli, first secretary of state, to the note of his Excellency M. Champagny, addressed to M. Le Fevre, charge d'affaires from the Emperor of France, dated April 19. 1808. (P. 631.)

"After your Excellency had made known to the Holy Father, that it was the decided wish of his Majesty the Emperor and King, that he should enter into an offensive and defensive league with the other Powers of Italy, as had been declared by M. Champagny to the Cardinal Caprara, by note of the 3d current, the dispatch of the Cardinal has been received, which brought the original note of the above Minister.

"The Holy Father, after having attentively read and considered the said document, has ordered Cardinal Gabrielli, First Secretary of State, to make known to your Excellency his Holiness's sentiments of its contents; beginning with that which forms the cardinal point among all the others. His Holiness has seen with pain, that even the final proposition therein contained, of the offensive and defensive league, should be accompanied with the threat of depriving him of his temporal dominions, in case of his non-compliance. If worldly considerations had at all influenced the conduct of the Holy Father, he would from the first have yielded to the wish of his Majesty, and not have exposed himself to suffer so many calamities; but the Holy Father is regulated alone by the consideration due to his duty, and his conscience; both have prevented him from agreeing to the federation, and they equally hinder him from consenting to the offensive and defensive league, which differs but in name; its na. ture, however, does not except any Prince, to whom the l'ope, according to the circumstances of the times, might not become an enemy,

"His Holiness feels, morever, that this article, far from improving, detracts from his situation. In the articles presented to Cardinal de Bayan, the federation was pro. posed as alone against heretics and the English. But this is couched in general terms, pointing out no people as an enemy, yet excluding no government, no nation, from the contingency of becoming one. If then, his Holiness declined from conscientious motives to be a party to that federation, so is he equally withheld from this league. The Holy Father would not merely bind himself to a defence, but to an aggression. Then would be seen the Minister of the God of Peace placing himself in a state of perpetual warfare; then would be seen

their common Father in arms against his children, and the Head of the Church exposing himself, by his own act, to a deprivation of his spiritual connection with the Catholics of those Powers against which the league would make it imperative on him to act hostilely. How then can his Holiness shake off his power and natural character, and sacrifice, as must be the consequence, the interest of religion?

"His Holiness, unlike other Princes, is invested with a two-fold character, namely of Sovereign Pontiff, and of temporal Sovereign, and has given repeated proofs that he cannot, by virtue of this second qualification, enter upon engagements which would lead to results militating against the first and most important office, and injuring the religion of which he is the Head, the Propagator, and the Avenger. His Holiness, therefore, cannot enter into any offensive and defensive league, which would, by a permanent and progressive system, drag him into hostility against all those powers upon which his Majesty may think proper to make war, since the Italian States, now dependent upon his Majesty, can never a, void taking part in such wars. His Holiness would consequently be obliged to become a party in them by virtue of this league. Such an engagement must begin to be acted upon by the Pope from this mement, and against any Catholic Prince; thus waging war against him without a motive. Farther, it must be waged against all those powers, whether Catholic or not, who may, upon whatever grounds, be the enemies of any Italian Prince.

"Thus is the Head of the Church, accustomed as he is to rule his estates in peace, driven in a moment to a state of warfare, offensive against hostile powers, and defensive of the others. This engagement is too repugnant to the sacred duties of his Holiness, and too injurious to the interests of religion, to be entered into by the Head of that religion. His Holiness feels that it would be a dereliction of truth to enter the league; he would announce, by such a res solution, his refusal of any accommodation, any peace with the Emperor, and would even declare hostilities against him. How could it ever be supposed, that his Haliness should be capable of declaring war against any power? He has long been enduring the most hostile treatment, and is therefore prepared to endure the threatened loss of his temporal dominions.

"Heaven is witness of the purity of his Holiness's intentions, and the world will judge if it was possible to have conceived so extraordinary a scheme. Ardently desiring to compromise, and to be in peace with his Majesty, he manifested, in his note of

the

the 28th of January last, his compliance, as functions of the Legate, and to his deparfar as it was possible to comply; his Mature, his Holiness could hardly have expec jesty, however, does not practise all those ted that they would have been attributed condescensions which he might practise to- to the motives assigned in M. Champagny's wards the Holy See; he persists inflexibly note. His Holiness will repeat them once in demanding what his Holiness neither can more. After having tried every method nor will accede to, namely, in binding him to recal his Majesty to his previous sentito a war, and to a perpetual and aggres ments towards.the Papal See, and to consive war, under the pretence of securing the cert the desired reparation of so many retranquillity of Italy. What can Italy have ligious innovations; after having endured, to fear if his Holiness should not enter into for such a length of time, with unsubdued the proposed league? patience, and with unalterable meekness, so many outrages and insults; after having seen how fruitless were all the remonstrances urged against the hostile proceedings of the French; after having peaceably borne the humiliation of imprisonment; and seeing these insults, these contempts, these violations, increase with every hour, his Holiness found it necessary, though with the deepest regret, to determine on the recall of his Legate, in order to overthrow, at least in the face of the world, the false and scandalous opinion, that whatever might occur, even the most flagrant wrongs, would receive his tacit consent.

"Surrounded as the Papal Dominions are by those of his Majesty, no rational fear could be entertained but of the ports; yet his Holiness having offered to shut them during the present war against the enemies of France, and to guard the coast, he thus proposed to contribute as far as was in his power, without betraying his sacred duties, to the security and tranquillity of Italy. If, in spite of all this, his Majesty shall take possession, as he has threatened, of the Papal Dominions, respected by all, even the most powerful monarchy, during a space of ten centuries and upwards, and shall overturn the Government, his Holiness will be unable to prevent this spoliation, and can only, in bitter affliction of heart, lament the evil which his Majesty will commit in the sight of God; trusting in whose protection, his Holiness will remain in perfect tran quillity, enjoying the consciousness of not having brought on this disaster by imprudence, or by obstinacy, but to preserve the independence of that Sovereignty which he ought to transmit uninjured to his suc. cessors, as he received it; and to maintain in its integrity that conduct which may se cure the universal concurrence of all Princes, so necessary to the welfare of religion. For this fidelity to his sacred duties, his Holiness will receive consolation from the words of his Divine Master, Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness

sake?

"With respect to the articles relating to the dismissal of the Cardinals, his Holiness, in the complaints alledged, had no need of examining the principle of their allegiance. Presuming on that freedom which the rights of nations allow to every man, to live under that sky which is most congenial to him: presuming on that new allegiance acquired by the domicile of many years, his Holiness remarks, that primitive allegiance cannot avail against the sacred obligations undertaken by the Cardinals in the Church of God, the oaths they take on receiving the purple, and their eminent office of Councillors to the Sovereign Pontiff in his spiritual concerns; and that, therefore, they cannot be torn from his bosom.

With regard to the cessation of the

"In this very recall, the precise period of which could not have been anticipated by his Holiness, he professed along with those constant affectionate regards which he entertained for his Majesty, that could he but consent to the demand of the evacuation of Rome, and be satisfied with those concessions which are compatible with the duties of his Holiness, the Legate might continue, in conformity with his instructions, to exercise his functions. But his Majesty proved inflexible, and instead of receding a single step, preferred the discontinuance of the Legation, and the departure of the Pontifical Representative.

"It is not, therefore, his Holiness, who by this hypothetical recal of his Legate, has declared war against the Emperor; it is the Emperor, who chuses to declare war against his Holiness; and not content with declaring it against his temporal Sovereignty, he threatens to raise in his spiritual, a wall of division between the Catholics of France and the Sovereign Pontiff, in the assurance, according to M. Champagny's note, that the Cardinal Legate having given up his functions, the Gallican Church resunies its doctrine in all its integrity.

"His Holiness has too good an opinion of the illustrious Clergy of France to doubt that the Gallican Church, however jealous of its prerogatives, is yet so attached to the chair of St. Peter, that it will maintain itself unshaken in its true principles, without asserting rights which it does not and cannot possess; nor become schismatic, by separating itself from the Catholic Unity.

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