Obrazy na stronie


“ A phenomenon has occurred here, from Vellas. After taking some not unusual in former ages, but of freshment, we visited the second cra. which there has been no example of ter; the sulphurous smoke of which, late years, it was well calculated to driven southerly, rendered it impracti, inspire terror, and has been attended cable to attempt approaching the large with the destruction of lives

, and pro- one. perty. On Sunday, the 1st of May, When we came within a mile of at one p. m. walking in the balcony the crater, we found the earth rent of my house at St Antonio, I heard in every direction; and, as we apnoises like the report of heavy camon proached nearer, some of the chasms at a distance, and concluded there was were six feet wide ; by leaping oves some tea engagement in the vicinity some of these chasms, and making of the island. But soon after, casting windings to avoid the larger ones, we my eyes towards the island of Saint at length arrived within two hundred George's, ten leagues distant, I per- yards of the spot; and saw it, in the ceived a dense column of smoke rising middle of a pasture, distinctly, at in. to an immense height; it was soon tervals, when the thick smoke which judged that a volcano had burst out swept the earth lighted up a littlt. about the centre of that island, and The mouth of it was only about fifty this was rendered certain when night yards in circumference ; the fire seemcame on, the fire exhibiting an awful ed struggling for vent ; the force with appearance. Being desirous of view- which a pale blue flame issued forth, ing this wonderful exertion of na- resembled a powerful steam-engine, ture, I embarked on the 3d of May, multiplied a hundred fold; the noise accompanied by the British consul, was deafening; the earth where we and ten other gentlemen, for Saint stood had a tremulous motion, the George's ; we ran over in five hours, whole island seemed convulsed, horna and arrived at Vellas, the principal bellowings were occasionally heard town, at eleven a. m. We found the from the bowels of the earth, and poor inhabitants perfectly panic-struck, çarthquakes were frequent. After reand wholly given up to religious cere- maining here about ten minutes, we monies and devotion. We learned that returned to town; the inhabitants the fire of the 1st of May had broken had mostly quitted their houses, and out in a ditch, in the midst of fertile remained in the open air, or under pastures, three leagues S. E. of Vellas, tents, and had immediately formed a crater, We passed the night at Vellas, in size about twenty-four acres. In and the next morning went by water two days it had thrown out cinders or to Ursulina, a small sea-port town, small pumice stones, which a strong two leagues south of Vellas, and vieisN. E. wind had propelled southerly; sed that part of the country covered and which, independent of the mass with the cinders before-mentioned, accumulated round the crater, had co- and which has turned the most valuavered the earth from one foot to four ble vineyards in the island to a frightfeet in depth, balf a league in width, ful desert. On the same day (the 4th and three leagues in length; then pas- of May) we returned to Fayal, and sing the channel five leagues, had on the 5th and succeeding days, from done some injury to the east point of twelve to fifteen small volcanos broke Pico. The fire of this large crater had out in the fields we had traversed on

nearly subsided, but in the evening the 3d, from the chasms before despreceding our arrival, another small cribed, and threw out a quantity of erater had opened, one league north lava, which travelled on slowly toof the large one, and only two leagues wards Vellas, The fre of those small


craters subsided, and the lava ceased running about the 11th of May ; on

SCOTTISH REVIEW which day the large volcano, that had 1, History of the University of Edina lain dormant for nine days, burst forth

burgh, from 1580 to 1646. By again like a roaring lion, with horrid

Thomas Craufurd, A.M. Professor belchings, distinctly heard at twelve leagues distance, throwing up prodigi

of Philosophy and Mathematics in

the College of Edinburgh in 1646. ous large stones, and an immense quantity of lava, illuminating at night

To which is prefixed, the Charter the whole island. This continued with

granted to the College by James tremendous force until the 5th of

VI. of Scotland, in 1582. lune, exhibiting the awful yet

magnifi. THIS work, now printed for the cent spectacle of a perfect river of fire first time, from a manuscript in (distinctly seen from Fayal) running the University library, contains a good into the sea.

On that day (the fifth) deal of curious information. It begins we experienced that its force began to with the very establishment of the fail

, and, in a few days after, it ceased University, and gives thus a view of entirely. The distance of the crater the primordia of that celebrated instifrom the sea is about four miles, and tution. its elevation about 3,500 feet. The From the time of the Reformas lava inundated and swept away the tion, it would appear, that the çititown of Ursulina, and country-houses zens and ministers entertained an amand cottages adjacent, as well as the bition to have an University in their farm-houses throughout its 'course. .city; but this project was so veheIt, as usual, gave timely notice of its mently opposed by the Bishops and approach, and most of the iuhabitants the older Universities, that it remainfed; some few, however, remained in ed for a long time without effectthe vicinity of it too long, endeavour. However, in 1578, “ by the earnesta ing to save their furniture and effects, dealing of James Lawson, minister were scalded by flashes of steam, which, of Edinburgh," thc High Grammar without injuring their clothes, took School was compleated," with some inoff not only their skin but their flesh. tention, if more could not be obtained, About sixty persons were thus miser- to make it Scholam illustrem, with proably scalded, some of whom died on fession of logic, and the parts of phithe spot, or in a few days after. Num- losophy in private classes." But, at bers of cattle shared the same fate.- length, in 1581, prelacy being extirThe judge and principal inhabitants pated in Scotland, the advocates for left the island very early. The con- an University availed themselves. So sternation and anxiety were for some well of the opportunity, that they ob days so great among the people, that tained permission to effect their pureven their domestic concerns were pose. abandoned, and, amidst plenty, they

The Kirk of Field was purchawere in danger of starving. Supplies sed and enclosed with a wall for the of ready-baked bread were sent from erection of the new building. Mr Rohence to their relief, and large boats bert Rollack, a professor in the Uni. to bring away the inhabitants who had versity of St Andrews, was, with gelost their dwellings. In short, the is- neral approbation, chosen principal; land, heretofore rich in cattle, corn, and he, with Mr Duncan Narne, seand wine, is nearly ruined ; and a cond master, constituted then the scene of greater desolation and distress whole University. Soon after, a third lias' seldom been witnessed in any master was named; and in 1590, the country.

Lords of Session, the practitioners at


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P. 104.

the Bar, and the Town Council, ad- bation lately used to be too slender ; vanced each a thousand libs. for the there being only prescribed to the can. maintenance of a professor of Law - didats an ode of Horace, to be explained It so happened, however, (for what in publick for the space of 3 quarters of reason is not stated,) that the two first fore, it was resolved, with the consent

an hour, after some 4 or 5 days. Hereprofessors of this science “ did only of the judges, that the trgal should be in professe Humanity publicly in the most part of Latin and Greek authors colledge, without any mention of the ad aperturam libri; whereby diverse isiaz Lawes.” Yet in the same year, a Chair aside, at the day appointed by the proof Humanity was also established by gram, Munday 27th March, appeared the same public bodies. New Profes- only Mr John Armor and Mr Thomas

Craufurd. sors of Philosophy and Divinity were afterwards established, either by the This regulation, however, appears Town Council, or by private mortifi- to have been thought too severe to cations; and the salary of those alrea- continue long, and a new vacancy acdy established was augmented by the curring in 1630, same methods.

There appeared two competitors for It by no means appears, however, the vaking chair of Humanity, Mr John that these appointments were of the Armour (mentioned before) and Mr same desirable and respectable nature Humphrey Hood. Both refusing the which they now are. The church, as strict tryal ad apertura, libri, an Ode at present in England, seems to have of Horace was prescribed to then, up a drawn from them on all occasions.

which they were to discourse 3 quarters of an hour.

P. 117. We find constant mention of the Professors, and even the Principals, re

Both the emoluments and respectaceiving and accepting calls to the Mi- bility, however, of these livings, apnistry. Nay, even the Grammar Scohol pear to have gradually increased, and, seems to have been considered as a in consequence, a singular case takes higher situation, for thither Mr Ray, place, of Mr Henry Charteris, who after having taught for eight years was first removed from being Princiwith reputation, as Professor of Hu. pal of the College to the Church of manity, was transported. At a subse North Leith, and then returned from quent period, Mr Alexander Gibson, thence to be Professor of Divinity “ to the admiration of his friends, The Professors appear to have associembraced a call to the Grammar ated more, and to have had more faSchool of the Canongate.” Several mily connection, than now, with the anecdotes on the subject of this chair, Bailies and other members of the give us not very high ideas of the clas- Town Council, which opened a source sical learning of that period.

of undue election that does not exist cancy having taken place in 1625, at present. An instance is given in was filled up, as indeed all others in the following passage : this class seem to have been, by a competition of learned men.

Mr Patrick Sands returning from his

So great a travels, by advice of his patron the Earle number presented, that the labour of of Lothian, followed the Colledge of examination threatened to be enor- Justice, but finding there less satisfacmous, till the following expedient was tion then he expected, David Aikenhead, devised, which effectually thinned (whose sister be had married,) being them.

Dean of Guild, and having great power

in the Council, began to project a way The Primar, (who by the foundation to get him made Primar of the Colledge. hath great stroke in the tryal of the In the end of the year 1618, Mr Henry Professor of Humanity,) and sundry of Charteris having only soo libs. of stipthe Regents thought the manner of pro- end, desired augmentation equal to the


A va

E ministers, as had been conditioned, witty compliments paid by his Majes

David Aikenhead told him, that he ty to the different Professors. thought it was most reasonable which

After the disputation, his Majesty he sought; but in respect of the pre- went to supper, and, after a very little sent condition of the patrimony of the time, commanded the Maisters of the Colledge, it could not be effectuat, and College of Edinburgh to be brought betherefore, (being a preacher,) he should fore him. In their presence, he disdo well to embrace some call to the mic coursed very learnedly of all the purnistry elsewhere. The good man smelo posés which had been agitated. Then ling his intention, touk reso’ution to he fell to speak of the actors. “Mewithdraw himself; yet the Regents thinks (said he) these gentlemen, by with earnest dissuasives kept him still their very names, have been destinated for one year. In the beginning of this for the acts which they have had in hand year 1820, having a call to the ministry to-day. Adam was father of all; and at North Leith, he dimitted his charge very firly Adamson had the first part of upon the zoth day of March.

this act. The defender is justly called Hereupon the intended project was

Fairly : his theses had some fair lies, set a work, and to make it less invidious, and he sustained them very fairly, and the Primar's charge, (who before had with many fair lies given to the oppug. been Rector and Professor of Divinity,) ners. And why should not Mr Sands svas divided. The Council and Minis

be the first to enter the sands; but now ters chuseing Mr Andrew Ramsay, mi- I clearly see, that all sands are not barnister, to be Rector of the University ren, for certainly he hath shewn a fertile and Professor of Theology, and Mr Pa. wit. Mr Young is very old in Aristotie. trick Sands, Primar of the Philosophy Mr Reid needs to be red with blushing Colledge; and albeit an augmentation for his acting to-day. Mr King dispulatelie could not be found to Mr Henry ted very kingly, and of a kingly purCharteris above soo libs., there was now

pose, anent the royal supremacy of reaappoynted to Mr Andrew Ramsay 500

son over anger and all passions. I am libs., to Mr Patrick Sands 1000 merks, so well satisfied with this day's exercise, with 100 lib. for his house rent, and the that I will be godfather to the Colledge a eldest Regents, Mr Andrew Young, of Edinburgh, and I have it called the was created public Professor of the Ma- Colledge of King James; for after the thematicks, and Mr James Reid, public founding of it had been stopped for sunProfessor of the Metaphysicks, 250 dry years in my minority, so soon as I merks being appoynted to either of came to any knowledge, I zealously them for their stipends in these faculties, held hand to it, and caused it to be esa besides 250 merks as ordinary Regents. tablished; and although I see many The 2 youngest Regents, (Mr James look upon it with an evil eye, yet I Fairly and Mi William King,) had eie will have them to know, that having ther of them an augmentation of 100 given it this name, I have espoused its merks, making them up iso merks in

quarrel." all; and to give some satisfaction to Mr

One who stood by, told his Majestie, Henry Charteris, there was a gratuitie that there was one of the company of of 2000 merks bestowed upon him for whome he had taken no notice, Mr Henhis long and faithfull service.

P. 9

ry Charteris, Principal of the Colledge, The Philosophy taught at this time (who sate upon the President's right

hand,) a man of exquisite and universeems to have consisted entirely in ex,

sal learning, although not so forward to pounding and commenting upon Aris- speak in publick, in so auguet an astotle: accordingly, King James, at his sembly. “ Well," answered the King, interview with the Professors, said, as “ his name agreeth very well to his nathe highest compliment which could ture, for charters contain much matter,

“ These men know Aristo- yet say nothing, but put great purposes tle's mind as well as himself did while

in men's mouths." he lived." Since we have mentioned commended his Majestie's wittie allu

These who stood by the King's chair, this visit, we shall entertain our rea- sions to the actors names; whereupon ders with the author's account of the his Majesty pressed, that the same


be paid,

should be turned in verse, wherein' his At the Tgon, from the middle of the Majesty both delighted much, and had way 'southward, the Mouot Parnassus an singular faculiy, Soine of thesc was reared up in a vast frame of timber, versions, (both in English and Latin, the superfice representing all the varic. verses,) were written by such as he and ties of rocks and vegetables, which are them, and thereafter printed.

to be seen on mountains ; upon the P. 84. middle betwixt the two tops


ed an pyramide of great height, with At a visit which the King pail to an globe of glass on the top thereof; Edinburgh fifteen years after, in 1633, out of the cavity hereof did spring out the College busied itself in the erec- a source of clear water, representing tion of a magnificent pageant, which Hippocrene. In the belly of this moun may give some idea of the taste of the tain sat a considerable number of quir.

isters of choise singing vioces, an organist age.

also, with some other musicians; who, The reason of prevention of the diet at the King's approaching, in a sweet of this solemnity, was the King's Ma. harmony, emodulated an pleasadt air, jesty being in the Citie, and the sitting composed for the purpose, called Caleof the Parliament upon the 15th day of donia. On the foreside of the mounJunij. His Majesty, comeing from tain, looking to the north, sat Apollo Dalkeith, by Lastalrig, and the Long and the Nine Muses, habited conveGate, about half-six at night, came to niently. The song being ended, Apollo the West Port. Upon the south side of uttered a panegyric to the King's Mathe port, upon a pretty pageant, the jesty, and at the closeing thereof deli draught of the City of Edinburgh, and vered to him an book of panegyricks, suburbs belonging thereto, being ex

and other poems, composed by the Uni. ceedingly well powrtrayed, was object. versity. Thence he removed to the * ed to his Majesty's eye'; and a vale be. streight of the Netherbow, where there ing removed, the Nymphe Edina, (ac-was erected a stately arch, representing companied with two other nymphes) so much of the heavenly constellations after a short speech of congratulation and planetary infuences 'as could conto his Highness, delivered the keys of veniently be applied to the purpose ; , the Citie, to be disposed of at his plea. and from off this pageant the seven sure. After this his Majesty entering planets, (one after another,) delivered the port at the Grassmarket, the Magis. acclamatory and congratulatory speechtrates of the Citie, being richly habited, es, with pithy sentences, agreeing as did give his Majesty the welcome off an

well to the purpose as to the persons. Jittle stage made for the purpose. In

P. 110. the strait of the West Bow was erec- This exhibition is said to have been ted a stately pageant, (arched beneath accompanied by some sanguinary prefor passage) having the country of Ca. liminaries, which may give an idea of ledonia, or Scotland, "according to the the state of acadeinical manners.: a old topographie, with excellent artifice represented; off the pageant the Lady In the morning, when the speakers Caledonia, in ancient, but rich habit, des were conveened in the lower publick livered an congratulatorie speech to his half of the Colledge, to receive their Majesty, full of pathetical expressions, particular directions, the Primar and the Upon the west wall of the Tolbooth, rest who were to put them to that (where now the Goldsmiths' shops do which they were to act, being out of stand,) there stood an vast pageant, ar- the room, the first and last speaker, falched above, having on an large map the ling by the ears, did so tear and deform pourtraites of 109 Kings of Scotland, one another's faces, that neither of them In the cavitie of the arch, Mercury was could be discerned, which was like in represented bringing "up Fergus the all probability to have marred the whole First King of Scotland, in an convee bussieness; every act being linked to nieut habite ; who delivered to his Ma. another. The Primar having a balm of jesty a very grave speech, containing soveraign vertue, bound up their faces, many precious advices ww his Royal suc annointed therewith, and kept them

close: So shat lhe King's entry falling



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