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"A phenomenon has occurred here, not unusual in former ages, but of which there has been no example of late years; it was well calculated to inspire terror, and has been attended with the destruction of lives and property. On Sunday, the 1st of May, at one . m. walking in the balcony of my house at St Antonio, I heard moises like the report of heavy cannon at a distance, and concluded there was some tea engagement in the vicinity of the island. But soon after, casting my eyes towards the island of Saint George's, ten leagues distant, I perceived a dense column of smoke rising to an immense height; it was soon judged that a volcano had burst out about the centre of that island, and this was rendered certain when night came on, the fire exhibiting an awful appearance. Being desirous of viewing this wonderful exertion of nature, I embarked on the 3d of May, accompanied by the British consul, and ten other gentlemen, for Saint George's; we ran over in five hours, and arrived at Vellas, the principal town, at eleven a. m. We found the poor inhabitants perfectly panic-struck, and wholly given up to religious ceremonies and devotion. We learned that the fire of the 1st of May had broken out in a ditch, in the midst of fertile pastures, three leagues S. E. of Vellas, and had immediately formed a crater, in size about twenty-four acres. In two days it had thrown out cinders or small pumice stones, which a strong N. E. wind had propelled southerly; and which, independent of the mass accumulated round the crater, had covered the earth from one foot to four feet in depth, half a league in width, and three leagues in length; then pas sing the channel five leagues, had done some injury to the east point of Pico. The fire of this large crater had nearly subsided, but in the evening preceding our arrival, another small crater had opened, one league north of the large one, and only two leagues
from Vellas. After taking some refreshment, we visited the second cra ter; the sulphurous smoke of which, driven southerly, rendered it impracti cable to attempt approaching the large one.
When we came within a mile of the crater, we found the earth rent in every direction; and, as we approached nearer, some of the chasms were six feet wide; by leaping over some of these chasms, and making windings to avoid the larger ones, we at length arrived within two hundred yards of the spot; and saw it, in the middle of a pasture, distinctly, at intervals, when the thick smoke which swept the earth lighted up a little.— The mouth of it was only about fifty yards in circumference; the fire seemed struggling for vent; the force with which a pale blue flame issued forth, resembled a powerful steam-engine, multiplied a hundred fold; the noise was deafening; the earth where we stood had a tremulous motion, the whole island seemed convulsed, horrid bellowings were occasionally heard from the bowels of the earth, and earthquakes were frequent. After remaining here about ten minutes, we returned to town; the inhabitants had mostly quitted their houses, and remained in the open air, or under tents.
We passed the night at Vellas, and the next morning went by water to Ursulina, a small two leagues south of Vellas, and viewed that part of the country covered with the cinders before-mentioned, and which has turned the most valuable vineyards in the island to a frightful desert. On the same day (the 4th of May) we returned to Fayal, and on the 5th and succeeding days, from twelve to fifteen small volcanos broke out in the fields we had traversed on the 3d, from the chasms before described, and threw out a quantity of lava, which travelled on slowly towards Vellas. The fire of those swall
craters subsided, and the lava ceased running about the 11th of May; on which day the large volcano, that had lain dormant for nine days, burst forth again like a roaring lion, with horrid belchings, distinctly heard at twelve leagues distance, throwing up prodigious large stones, and an immense quantity of lava, illuminating at nightthe whole island. This continued with tremendous force until the 5th of June, exhibiting the awful yet magnificent spectacle of a perfect river of fire (distinctly seen from Fayal) running into the sea. On that day (the fifth) we experienced that its force began to fail, and, in a few days after, it ceased entirely. The distance of the crater from the sea is about four miles, and its elevation about 3,500 feet. The lava inundated and swept away the town of Ursulina, and country-houses and cottages adjacent, as well as the farm-houses throughout its course.— It, as usual, gave timely notice of its approach, and most of the iuhabitants fled; some few, however, remained in the vicinity of it too long, endeavouring to save their furniture and effects, were scalded by flashes of steam, which, without injuring their clothes, took off not only their skin but their flesh. About sixty persons were thus miserably scalded, some of whom died on the spot, or in a few days after. Numbers of cattle shared the same fate.The judge and principal inhabitants left the island very early. The consternation and anxiety were for some days so great among the people, that even their domestic concerns were abandoned, and, amidst plenty, they were in danger of starving. Supplies of ready-baked bread were sent from hence to their relief, and large boats to bring away the inhabitants who had lost their dwellings. In short, the island, heretofore rich in cattle, corn, and wine, is nearly ruined; and a scene of greater desolation and distress has seldom been witnessed in any country."
History of the University of Edin burgh, from 1580 to 1646. By Thomas Craufurd, A. M. Professor of Philosophy and Mathematics in the College of Edinburgh in 1646. To which is prefixed, the Charter granted to the College by James VI. of Scotland, in 1582.
THIS work, now printed for the
first time, from a manuscript in the University library, contains a good deal of curious information. It begins with the very establishment of the University, and gives thus a view of the primordia of that celebrated institution.
From the time of the Reformar tion, it would appear, that the citizens and ministers entertained an ambition to have an University in their city; but this project was so vehemently opposed by the Bishops and the older Universities, that it remained for a long time without effect. However, in 1578, " by the earnest dealing of James Lawson, minister of Edinburgh," the High Grammar School was compleated, "with some intention, if more could not be obtained, to make it Scholam illustrem, with profession of logic, and the parts of philosophy in private classes." But, at length, in 1581, prelacy being extirpated in Scotland, the advocates for an University availed themselves so well of the opportunity, that they obtained permission to effect their purpose.
The Kirk of Field was purchased and enclosed with a wall for the erection of the new building. Mr Robert Rollack, a professor, in the University of St Andrews, was, with general approbation, chosen principal; and he, with Mr Duncan Narne, second master, constituted then the whole University. Soon after, a third master was named; and in 1590, the Lords of Session, the practitioners at the
the Bar, and the Town Council, ad- bation lately used to be too slender; vanced each a thousand libs. for the there being only prescribed to the canmaintenance of a professor of Law.didats an ode of Horace, to be explained It so happened, however, (for what in publick for the space of 3 quarters of reason is not stated,) that the two first fore, it was resolved, with the consent an hour, after some 4 or 5 days. Hereprofessors of this science "did only of the judges, that the tryal should be in professe Humanity publicly in the most part of Latin and Greek authors colledge, without any mention of the ad aperturam libri; whereby diverse lying Lawes." Yet in the same year, a Chair aside, at the day appointed by the proof Humanity was also established by gram, Munday 27th March, appeared the same public bodies. New Profes- only Mr John Armor and Mr Thomas Craufurd. sors of Philosophy and Divinity were afterwards established, either by the Town Council, or by private mortifications; and the salary of those already established was augmented by the same methods.
It by no means appears, however, that these appointments were of the same desirable and respectable nature which they now are. The church, as at present in England, seems to have drawn from them on all occasions.We find constant mention of the Professors, and even the Principals, receiving and accepting calls to the Ministry. Nay, even the Grammar Scohol seems to have been considered as a higher situation, for thither Mr Ray, after having taught for eight years with reputation, as Professor of Humanity, was transported. At a subsequent period, Mr Alexander Gibson, "to the admiration of his friends, embraced a call to the Grammar School of the Canongate." Several anecdotes on the subject of this chair, give us not very high ideas of the classical learning of that period. A vacancy having taken place in 1625, was filled up, as indeed all others in this class seem to have been, by a competition of learned men. So great a number presented, that the labour of examination threatened to be enormous, till the following expedient was devised, which effectually thinned
The Primar, (who by the foundation hath great stroke in the tryal of the Professor of Humanity,) and sundry of the Regents thought the manner of pro
This regulation, however, appears to have been thought too severe to continue long, and a new vacancy occurring in 1630,
There appeared two competitors for the vaking chair of Humanity, Mr John Armour (mentioned before) and Mr Humphrey Hood. Both refusing the strict tryal ad aperturam libri, an Ode of Horace was prescribed to them, up n which they were to discourse 3 quarters of an hour. P. 117.
Both the emoluments and respectability, however, of these livings, appear to have gradually increased, and, in consequence, a singular case takes place, of Mr Henry Charteris, who was first removed from being Principal of the College to the Church of North Leith, and then returned from thence to be Professor of Divinity.The Professors appear to have associated more, and to have had more family connection, than now, with the Bailies and other members of the Town Council, which opened a source of undue election that does not exist at present. An instance is given in the following passage:
Mr Patrick Sands returning from his travels, by advice of his patron the Earle of Lothian, followed the Colledge of Justice, but finding there less satisfaction then he expected, David Aikenhead, (whose sister he had married,) being Dean of Guild, and having great power in the Council, began to project a way to get him made Primar of the Colledge. In the end of the year 1618, Mr Henry Charteris having only 500 libs. of stipend, desired augmentation equal to the ministers,
ministers, as had been conditioned, David Aikenhead told him, that he thought it was most reasonable which he sought; but in respect of the present condition of the patrimony of the Colledge, it could not be effectuat, and therefore, (being a preacher,) he should do well to embrace some call to the ministry elsewhere. The good man smelling his intention, took resolution to withdraw himself; yet the Regents with earnest dissuasives kept him still for one year. In the beginning of this year 1620, having a call to the ministry at North Leith, he dimitted his charge upon the 20th day of March.
witty compliments paid by his Majesty to the different Professors.
The Philosophy taught at this time seems to have consisted entirely in ex, pounding and commenting upon Aristotle: accordingly, King James, at his interview with the Professors, said, as the highest compliment which could be paid, "These men know Aristotle's mind as well as himself did while he lived." Since we have mentioned this visit, we shall entertain our readers with the author's account of the
After the disputation, his Majesty went to supper, and, after a very little time, commanded the Maisters of the College of Edinburgh to be brought before him. In their presence, he discoursed very learnedly of all the purposes which had been agitated. Then he fell to speak of the actors. "Methinks (said he) these gentlemen, by their very names, have been destinated for the acts which they have had in hand to-day. Adam was father of all; and very fitly Adamson had the first part of this act. The defender is justly called and he sustained them very fairly, and Fairly his theses had some fair lies, with many fair lies given to the oppug
be the first to enter the sands; but now And why should not Mr Sands I clearly see, that all sands are not barren, for certainly he hath shewn a fertile wit. Mr Young is very old in Aristotle. Mr Reid needs to be red with blushing for his acting to-day. ted very kingly, and of a kingly pur Mr King dispupose, anent the royal supremacy of reason over anger and all passions. I am that I will be godfather to the Colledge so well satisfied with this day's exercise, of Edinburgh, and have it called the Colledge of King James; for after the founding of it had been stopped for sundry years in my minority, so soon as I held hand to it, and caused it to be es came to any knowledge, I zealously tablished; and although I see many look upon it with an evil eye, yet I will have them to know, that having given it this name, I have espoused its quarrel."
One who stood by, told his Majestie, that there was one of the company of whome he had taken no notice, Mr Hen ry
Charteris, Principal of the Colledge, (who sate upon the President's right
hand,) a man of exquisite and universpeak in publick, in so august an assal learning, although not so forward to sembly." Well," answered the King, "his name agreeth very well to his nature, for charters contain much matter, yet say nothing, but put great purposes in men's mouths."
commended his Majestie's wittie alluThese who stood by the King's chair, sions to the actors names; whereupon his Majesty pressed, that the same
Hereupon the intended project was set a work, and to make it less invidious, the Primar's charge, (who before had been Rector and Professor of Divinity,) was divided. The Council and Ministers chuseing Mr Andrew Ramsay, minister, to be Rector of the University and Professor of Theology, and Mr Patrick Sands, Primar of the Philosophy Colledge; and albeit an augmentation latelie could not be found to Mr Henry Charteris above 500 libs., there was now appoynted to Mr Andrew Ramsay 500 libs., to Mr Patrick Sands 1000 merks, with 100 lib. for his house-rent, and the 2 eldest Regents, Mr Andrew Young, was created public Professor of the Mathematicks, and Mr James Reid, public Professor of the Metaphysicks, 250 merks being appoynted to either of them for their stipends in these faculties, besides 250 merks as ordinary Regents. The 2 youngest Regents, (Mr James Fairly and Mr. William King,) had ei ther of them an augmentation of 100 merks, making them up 150 merks in all; and to give some satisfaction to Mr Henry Charteris, there was a gratuitie of 2000 merks bestowed upon him for his long and faithfull service. P.
The reason of prevention of the diet of this solemnity, was the King's Ma. jesty being in the Citie, and the sitting of the Parliament upon the 15th day of Junij. His Majesty, comeing from Dalkeith, by Lastalrig, and the Long Gate, about half-six at night, came to the West Port. Upon the south side of the port, upon a pretty pageant, the draught of the City of Edinburgh, and suburbs belonging thereto, being exceedingly well powrtrayed, was object. ed to his Majesty's eye; and a vale be. ing removed, the Nymphe Edina, (accompanied with two other nymphes,) after a short speech of congratulation to his Highness, delivered the keys of the Citie, to be disposed of at his pleasure. After this his Majesty entering the port at the Grassmarket, the Magis trates of the Citie, being richly habited, did give his Majesty the welcome off an little stage made for the purpose. In the strait of the West Bow was erec
ted a stately pageant, (arched beneath for passage,) having the country of Caledonia, or Scotland, according to the old topographie, with excellent artifice represented; off the pageant the Lady Caledonia, in ancient, but rich habit, de livered an congratulatorie speech to his Majesty, full of pathetical expressions, Upon the west wall of the Tolbooth, (where now the Goldsmiths' shops do stand,) there stood an vast pageant, arched above, having on an large map the pourtraites of rog Kings of Scotland. In the cavitie of the arch, Mercury was represented bringing up. Fergus the First King of Scotland, in an convenient habite; who delivered to his Ma. jesty a very grave speech, containing many precious advices to his Royal suc
At the Tron, from the middle of the way southward, the Mount Parnassus was reared up in a vast frame of timber," the superfice representing all the varieties of rocks and vegetables, which are to be seen on mountains; upon the middle betwixt the two tops was erected an pyramide of great height, with, an globe of glass on the top thereof; out of the cavity hereof did spring out a source of clear water, representing Hippocrene. In the belly of this mountain sat a considerable number of quiristers of choise singing vioces, an organist also, with some other musicians; who, at the King's approaching, in a sweet harmony, emodulated an pleasant air, composed for the purpose, called Caledonia. On the foreside of the mountain, looking to the north, sat Apollo and the Nine Muses, habited conveniently. The song being ended, Apollo uttered a panegyric to the King's Majesty, and at the closeing thereof delivered to him an book of panegyricks, and other poems, composed by the University. Thence he removed to the " streight of the Netherbow, where there was erected a stately arch, representing so much of the heavenly constellations and planetary influences as could conVeniently be applied to the purpose ; and from off this pageant the seven planets, (one after another,) delivered acclamatory and congratulatory speeches, with pithy sentences, agreeing as well to the purpose as to the persons.
This exhibition is said to have been accompanied by some sanguinary preliminaries, which may give an idea of the state of academical manners. >>
In the morning, when the speakers were conveened in the lower publick hall of the Colledge, to receive their particular directions, the Primar and the rest who were to put them to that which they were to act, being out of the room, the first and last speaker, falling by the ears, did so tear and deforma one another's faces, that neither of them could be discerned; which was like in all probability to have marred the whole bussieness; every act being linked to another. The Primar having a balm of soveraign vertue, bound up their faces, annointed therewith, and kept them close: So that the King's entry falling