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dual interest; the same activity in bu- could be encouraged, wherever merit siness, with the same generosity in its could be exalted, or melancholy could conduct; the same independence to be relieved. But, in the scenes of wards the powerful, and the same hu- wretchedness and distress, where the manity towards the lowly; the same widow and the fatherless were found, dignity in public life, with the same and where they lay who had none to gentleness in private society. In some helfi them, it assumed then a higher asof these qualities of mind, he was in- pect, and wore a more majestic form. ferior to few; in others, he was equal On this magnificent subject I will not to many; but, in the union and com- speak; because something of it is bination of the whole, he was superior known to us all; and because there is to all. There was a balance and pro- a voice yet to reach us, which will tell portion among the attributes of his us, what is now known only to God. mind, which made them all harmo- I will say only, that there is scarcely nize together; and there was some an abode of human misery in this thing in his nature, which seemed al- great city, which his pity has not ways superior even to the very virtues reached ; that there are few of as, he was called to exercise. The minds whom duty has called to visit the of most men are distinguished only by scenes of wretchedness, who have not particular qualities : and when we say found his known, or his unknown that they are learned, or generous, or steps to precede us ; that no vulgar active, we give them all the praise of boundaries, of faith, or country, or their character. In him, on the con- climate, limited the boundless humanitrary, there seemed always some great- ty of his mind : that, even in an age er substance, as it were, to which these of benevolence, the charities of the qualities belonged; some higher prin- proudest and greatest among us, sunk ciple, from which they flowed at his before his ; that there is scarcely a obedience, and by which they became, province of our land, which has not not the measures of his character, but known his protection, or his benignithe occasional instruments of his will. ty; and that the noblest records which
In this discipline of his mind, there this city can leave to posterity, conwas one quality alone, to which he tain, at the same time, the records of imposed no limits. You know, my his wisdom, his labours, and his benebrethren, that it was the quality of volence. CHARITY; not that feeble and hypo The character, however, of a chriscritical spirit, with which men often tian, like that of the leader of his saldeceive the world and themselves ; but vation, can only be made perfect by sufthat high and holy spirit, which is fering. During the course of this long learnt from the gospel; that charity and beneficent life, it pleased God to which is the end of the commandment; leave him to his common share in the that charity which is kindled by once sorrows of mortality He had to looking firinly at the Author of good, know, at different times, the anguish and which then returns to the world of disease, and all the weakness of into be its minister and dispenser. It firmity. He had to follow to the was the habit that was fitted to the grave many of the friends of his youth, original character of his mind; and he and of bis manhood; to sce his chilwore it with the grace of a thing that dren taken from him, in the hour was natural, and with the ease of a when they met his love, and looked thing that was habitual. It accompa- up for his instruction ; and, as life was nied him into every scene of business, declining, and the snows of or of pleasure ; wherever happiness falling upon his head, to lose the kincould be given, wherever modesty dred mind that had so long been the
partner of his feelings, and of his vir- tions of heaven were borne ; the ge! tues. Amid all these scenes, the cha- nuine resignation with which he preracter of his mind was the same ; and, pared himself either to live, or to die; in the deep convictions of his heart, the ardent devotion with which, in there was a faith which was able to the hours of struggle and of suffermeet distress, and resist misfortune.- ance, he walked humbly with his God; He was afficied, but not subdued. He and the unabated zeal with which he knew that afflictions rise not from the employed the temporary cessations of dust; that there are ends they serve, aflliction, in every labour in which he which one day the faithful mind will could yet do justice, or shew mercy unknow; and that around the childhood
I wish rather to remember, of humanity, there are yet the Ever- that while the last trial was approachlasting arms. These, indeed, are the ing, and ere the silver cord was loosed common, and the blessed convictions for ever, the mercy of heaven granted of the pious; but in him, amid such to the prayers of his family, one partscenes, there was something more:- ing gleam of tranquillity and repose;
in his sorrows, no selfish- that a ray, as of celestial light, came ness, no ostentatious pride of suffering, to irradiate the closing scene ; and no abandonment of the business of that, in his last hours, he seemed to life, for the indulgence of solitary have conquered the infirmities of morgrief. In the midst of his misfortunes, tality, and to have experienced his time, his advice, his exertions, were earnest of eternal peace. still at the command of all who needed them : while he gave way to the sensibility of his private nature, he Evidence collected at BRISTOL on the lost nothing of the perseverance of his
subject of the SLAVE TRADE. duty; and there was no hour of calamity, in which he was incapable of From Clarkson's History of the Abolition of happiness, when he could be the author, or the minister, of happiness to A MONG the persons whom I found others.
out at Bristol, and from whom It was in this manner, withdrawing I derived assistance, were Dr Camplin, himself gradually from the love, but and the celebrated Dean Tucker. The not from the duties, of mortality, and former was my warm defender; for feeling the call of a higher being, as
the West-Indian and African merthe ties of the present were dissolving, chants, as soon as they discovered my that life led on to its final scene; to errand, began to calumniate me. The that scene which has been ended since Dean, though in a very advanced age, we last met in this house, and which felt himself much interested in my many of us will forget only with the pursuit. He had long moved in the last remembrances of our being. Up- political world himself, and was desiron this subject I dare not expatiate; ons of hearing of what was going forI dare not remember the lengthened ward that was new in it, but particusufferings with which it pleased hea- larly about so desirable à measure as ven to try his last days; the vicissi- that of the abolition of the Slavetudes of hope and fear, which the trade *. He introduced me to the prayers of this place have so long ex
Custompressed ; and which have been ex
* Dean Tucker, in his Reflections on pressed in many a midnight. prayer the Disputes
between Great Britain and from those who had none else to help Ireland, published in 1785, had passed a them. I dare still less to remember severe censure on the British planters the fortitude with which the visita- for the inhuman trealment of their slaves,
the Slave Trade,
Custom-house at Bristol. He used now mentioned, joined in sending to call upon me at the Merchants' several letters to the inhabitants of Hall, while I was transcribing the Old Town, but particularly to Ephrainz muster-rolls of the seamen there. In Robin John, who was at that time a short; he seemed to be interested in all grandee or principal inhabitant of the my movements. He became also a place. The tenor of these letters was, warm supporter both of me and of my that they were sorry that any jealousy
or quarrel should subsist between the Among others, who were useful two parties; that if the inhabitants of to me in my pursuit, was Mr Henry Old Town would come on board, they Sulgar, an amiable minister of the gos- would. afford them security and propel belonging to the religious society tection ; adding at the same time, of the Moravians in the same city. that their intention in inviting them From him I first procured authentic was, that they might become mediadocuments relative to the treacherous tors, and thus heal their disputes. massacre at Calabar. This cruel tran- The inhabitants of Old Town, hapsaction had been frequently mentioned Py to find that their differences were to me; but as it had taken place likely to be accommodated, joyfully twenty years before, I could not find accepted the invitation. The three one person who had been engaged in brothers of the grandee just mentioned, it, nor could I come, in a satisfactory the eldest of whom was Amboe. Robin manner, at the various particulars be. John, first entered their canoe, attend. langing to it. My friend, however, ed by twenty-seven others, and, being, put me in possession of copies of the followed by nine canoes, directed their real depositions which had been taken course to the Indian Queen. They in the case of the King against Lip- were dispatched from thence the next pincott and others, relative to this e- morning to the Edgar, and afterwards vent, namely, of captain Floyd, of the to the Duke of York, on board of city of Bristol, who had been a wit- which they went, leaving their canoe ness to the scene, and of Ephraim Ron and attendants by the side of the same bin John, and of Ancona Robin Robin vessel. In the mean time, the people John, two African chiefs, who had on board the other canoes were either been sufferers by it. These deposi- distributed on board, or lying close to, tions had been taken before Jacob the other ships. Kirby, and Thomas Symons, Esquires, This being the situation of the commissioners at Bristol for taking three brothers, and of the principal afhdavits in the court of King's Bench. inhabitants of the place, the treachery The tragedy, of which they gave a now began to appear.
The crew of citcumstantial account, I shall present the Duke of York, aided by the capto the reader in as concise a manner tain and mates, and armed with pisas I can.
tols and cutlasses, rushed into the caIn the year 1767, the ships Indian bin, with an intent to seize the persons Queen, Duke of York, Nancy, and of their three innocent and unsuspiciConcord, of Bristol ; the Edgar, of ous guests. The unhappy men, alarmLiverpool, and the Canterbury of Lon- ed at this violation of the rights of don, lay in old Calabar river. hospitality, and struck with astonish
It happened at this time, that a ment at the behaviour of their suppoquarrel subsisted between the principal sed friends, attempted to escape thro? idhabitants of Old Town and those of the cabin windows, but being woundNew Town, Old Calabar, which had ed, were obliged to desist and to submit originated in a jealousy respecting to be put in irons. Laves. The captains of the vessels In the same moment, in which this
atrocious attempt had been made, an him into the canoe, where his head order had been given to fire upon the was immediately struck off in the sight canoe, which was then lying by the of the crew, and of his afflicted and side of the Duke of York. The ca- disconsolate brothers. As for them, noe soon filled and sunk, and the they escaped his fate ; but they were wretched attendants were either seiz- carried off with their attendants to ed, killed, or drowned. Most of the the West Indies, and sold for slaves. other ships followed the example. I determined to inquire into the Great numbers were additionally kill- truth of the reports that seamen had ed and drowned on the occasion, and an aversion to enter, and that they others were swimming to the shore. were inveigled, if not often forced in
At this juncture the inhabitants of to this hateful employment. For this New Town, who had concealed them- purpose I was introduced to a landselves in the bushes by the water-side, lord of the name of Thompson, who and between whom and the command- kept a public-house called the Seven ers of the vessels the plan had been Stars. He was a very intelligent man, previously concerted, came out from was accustomed to receive sailors, when their hiding-places, and embarking in discharged at the end of their voyages, their canoes, made for such as were and to board them till their vessels swimming from the fire of the ships. went out again, or to find them births The ships' boats also were manned, in others. He avoided however all and joined in the pursuit. They but- connection with the Slave-trade, dechered the greatest part of those whom claring that the credit of his house they caught. Many dead bodies were would be ruined, if he were known soon seen upon the sands, and others to send those, who put themselves unwere floating upon the water; and in- dcr his care, into it. cluding those who were seized and From him I collected the truth of carried off, and those who were drown- all that had been stated to me on this ed and killed, either by the firing of subject. But I told him I should not the ships, or by the people of New be satisfied until I had beheld those Town, three hundred were lost to scenes myself, which he had described the inhabitants of Old Town on that to me; and I entreated him to take day.
me into thein, saying that I would reThe carnage, which I have been ward him for all his time and trouble, now describing, was scarcely over, and that I would never forget him when a canoe, full of the principal while I lived. To this he consented; people of New Town, who had been and as three or four slave-vessels at the promoters of the scheme, dropped this time were preparing for their soy. along-side of the Duke of York. They ages, it was time that we should begin demanded the person of Amboe Ro- our rounds. At about twelve at night bin John, the brother of the grandee we generally set out, and were emof Old Town, and the eldest of the ployed till two and sometimes thret three on board. The unfortunate man in the morning. He led me from one put the palms of his hands together, of those public houses to another and beseeched the commander of the which the mates of the slave-vessels vessel, that he would not violate the used to frequent to pick up theits rights of hospitality by giving up an hands. These houses were in Marsh unoffending stranger to his enemies. street, and most of them were then kept But no entreaties could avail. The by Irishmen. The scenes witnessed commander received from the New in these houses were truly distressing Town people a slave, of the name of to me; and yet, if I wished to know Econg, in his stead, and then forced practically what I had purposed, 1
could not avoid them. Music, danc- during the voyage, the wages then ing, rioting, drunkenness, and profane due to them should be paid in the swearing, were kept up from night to currency where the vessel carried her aught. The young mariner, if a stran- slaves, and that half of the
due ger to the port, and unacquainted with to them, on their arrival there, should the nature of the Slave-trade, was sure be paid in the same manner, and that to be picked up. The novelty of the they were never permitted to read voyages, the superiority of the wages over the articles they had signed. By in this over any other trades, and the means of this iniquitous practice, the privileges of various kinds, were set wages in the slave trade, tho' nomibefore him. Gulled in this manner, nally higher, in order to induce seahe was frequently enticed to the boat, men to engage in it, were actually which was waiting to carry him away. lower than in other trades, All these If these prospects did not attract him, usages I ascertained in such a mannen he was plied with liquor till he became that no person could doubt the truth intoxicated, when a bargain was made of them. I actually obtained possesover him between the landlord and the sion of articles of agreement belonging mate. After this his senses were kept to these vessels, which had been signin such a constant state of stupefaction ed and executed in former voyages. I by the liquor, that in time the former made the merchants themselves, by might do with him what he pleased. sending those seamen, who had claims Seamen also were boarded in these upon them, to ask for their accounts houses, who, when the slave-ships were current with their respective ships, going out, but at no other time, were furnish me with such documents as encouraged to spend more than they would have been evidence against them had money to pay or; and to these, in any court of law. On whatever when they had thus exceeded, but one branch of the system I turned my eyes, alternative was given, nainely, a slave. I found it equally barbarous. The vessel, or a gaol. These distressing trade was, in short, one mass of iniquiscenes I found myself obliged frequent- ty, from the beginning to the end. ad to witness, for I was no less than I employed myself occasionally in ineteen times occupied in making the Merchants-hall, in making copies these hateful rounds. And I can say of the muster-rolls of ships sailing to from my own experience, and all the different parts of the world, that I inforination I could collect from might make a comparative view of the Thompson and others, that no such loss of seamen in the slave trade with practices were in use to obtain seamen that of those in the other trades from for other trades.
the same port. The result of this emThe treatment of the seamen em- ployment showed me the importance ployed in the Slave-trade had so deep- of it: for, when I considered how imly interested me, and now the manner partial the inhabitants of this country of procuring them, that I was deter- were to their fellow-citizens, the scamined to make myself acquainted with men belonging to it, and in what estitheir whole history; for I found by mation the members of the legislature, report, that they were not only person- held them, by enforcing the navigation ally ill treated, as I have already pain- act, which they considered to be the fully deseribed, but that they were bulwark of the nation, and by giving røbbed by artifice of those wages bounties to certain trades, that these which had been held up to them as so might become so many nurseries for superior in this service. All persons the marine, I thought it of great im. were obliged to sign articles, that in portance to be able to prove, as I was rase they should die, or be discharged, then capable of doing, that more per,