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Letter from his Majesty the King of SWEDEN to the Emperor of RUSSIA.
"Honour and humanity enjoin me to make the most forcible remonstrances
to your Imperial Majesty against the numberless cruelties and the injustice committed by the Russian troops in Swedish Finland. These proceedings are too well known and confirmed, to require from me any proof of their reality, for the blood of the ill-fated vics tims still cries aloud for vengeance against the abettors of such enormities. Let not your Imperial Majesty's heart be insensible to the representations which I find myself compelled to make to you in the name of my faithful subjects in Finland. But what is the object of this war, as unjust as it is unnatural? It is not, I suppose, to excite the strongest aversion for the Russian name. Is it criminal in my subjects in Finland
not to have suffered themselves to be seduced from their allegiance, by pro mises as false as the principles on which they are founded? Does it become a Sovereign to make loyalty a crime? I conjure your Imperial Majesty to put a stop to the calamities and horrors of a war which cannot fail to bring down on your own person, and your government, the curses of Divine Providence. Half of my dominions in Finland are already delivered by my brave Finnish troops. Your Majesty's fleet is shut up in Baltic Port, without hopes of ever getting out, any otherwise than as a conquest. Your flotilla of gallies has recently sus tained a very severe defeat, and my troops are at this moment landing in Finland, to reinforce those who will point out to them the road to honour and glory.
Given at my head-quarters,
NAVAL INTELLIGENCE. A very gallant action has been fought in the Baltic, between two ships of the British fleet under Sir Samuel Hood, aided by the Swedish fleet, and a Russian fleet of 12 ships of the line, which sailed from Cronstadt about the middle of August, for the purpose of attacking the Swedes; but from the result the Russians do not appear to have had any intention to fight.
The following is Sir Samuel Hood's report to Sir James Saumarez, dated Centaur, off Rogerswick, August 27 :
"SIR-It is with pleasure I acquaint you, that the Russian squadron, under the command of Vice Adm. Hanikoff, ter being chased 34 hours by his SweAdm. Nauckhoff, accompanied by this dish Majesty's squadron, under Rearship and the Implacable, under my orders, have been forced to take shelter in the port of Rogerswick, with the loss of one ship of 74 guns. I shall have great satisfaction in detailing to you the services of the captains, officers, seamen, and marines under my command; and have also to state, that in no instance have I seen more energy displayed than that by his Swedish Majesty's squadron, which, although from the inferiority of their sailing, were prevented from getting into action, Rear-Adm. Nauckhoff and the captains under his command, from their perseverance and judicious conduct, were enabled to give confidence to his Majesty's ships.
"My letter of the 25th will have acquainted you of the Russian squadron having appeared off Oro Road on the 23d. The arrangements for quitting that anchorage, after his Swedish Majesty's ships from Jungfur Sound had completed on the evening of the 24th. joined Rear-Admiral Nauckhoff, were Early the next morning the whole force fleet was discovered off Hango Udd, the put to sea; soon after the Russian wind at N. E. Not a moment was lost in giving pursuit, and every sail pressed by his Swedish Majesty's squadron. From the superior sailing of the Centaur and Implacable, they were soon in advance, so that at theclose of the evening the enemy were not far off, and noticed in the greatest disorder, apparently to avoid a general battle. In the morning of the 26th, about five o'clock, the Implacable was enabled to bring the leewardmost of the enemy's line-of-battle to close action, in a most brave and gallant manner; and so decided and judi cious was this manoeuvre executed, that the Russian Admiral, who bore up with the whole of his force, could not prevent that marked superiority of discipline and seamanship being eminently distinguished. Although the enemy's ship fought with the greatest bravery, she was silenced in about 20 minutes; and
and only the near approach of the ene my's whole fleet could have prevented her then falling, her colours and pendant being both down; but I was obliged to make the signal for the Implacable to close me.-Captain Martin's letter, stating the brave and gallant conduct of Lieut. Baldwin, his other officers and men, I send herewith; and it would be needless for me to add more to you on their meritorious conduct. If words of mine could enhance the merit of this brave, worthy, and excellent officer, Captain Martin, I could do it with the most heartfelt gratification, and the high esteem I have for him as an officer and a friend, no language can sufficiently express.
"The Russian Admiral having sent a frigate to tow the disabled ship, again hauled his wind, and the Implacable being ready to make sail, I immediately gave chace, and soon obliged the fri gate to cast off her tow, when the Russian Admiral was again under the ne cessity to support her by several of his line-of-battle ships bearing down, and I had every prospect of this bringing on a general action, to avoid which he availed himself of a favourable slant of wind, and entered the port of Rogerswick.
"The line-of-battle ship engaged by the Implacable having sailed to leeward, grounded on a shoal just at the entrance of the port; there being then some swell, I had a hope she must have been destroyed, but the wind moderating to wards the evening, she appeared to ride at her anchor, and exertions made to repair her damage. At sunset, finding the swell abated, and boats sent from the Russian flect to tow her into port, I directed Captain Webley to stand in, and endeavour to cut her off; this was executed in a manner that must ever reflect the highest honour on Captain Webley, the officers and ship's company of the Centaur, for their valour and perseverance in the support of my orders. The boats had made a considerable progress, and the enemy's ship was just entering the port, when we had the good fortune to lay her on board; her bow sprit taking the Centaur's fore rigging, she swept along with her bow grazing the muzzles of our guns, which was the only signal for their discharge, and the enemy's bows were drove in by this ra
king fire; when the bowsprit came to the mizen-rigging, I ordered it to be lashed; this was performed in a most steady manner by the exertions of Captain Webley, Lieut. Lawless, Mr Strude, the master, and other brave men, under a very heavy fire from the enemy's mus kerry, by which, I am sorry to add, Lieut. Lawless is severely wounded. The ships being in six fathoms water, I had a hope I should have been able to have towed her out in that position, but an anchor had been let go from her unknown to us, which made it impossible to effect it; at this period much valour was displayed on both sides, and several attempts made to board by her bowsprit, but nothing could withstand the cool and determined fire of the marines under Capt. Bayley and the other officers, as well as the fire from our stern-chace guns, that in less than half an hour she was obliged to surrender. On this occasion I again received the greatest aid from Capt. Martin, who anchored his ship in a position to heave the Centaur off, after she and the prize had grounded, which was fortunately effected at the moment two of the enemy's ships were seen under sail standing towards us, but retreated as they saw the ships extricated from this difficulty.
"The prize proved to be the Sewolod, of 74 guns, Capt. Roodneff; she had so much water in her, and being fast on shore, after taking out the prisoners and wounded men, I was obliged to give orders for her being burnt, which service was completely effected under the direction of Lieut. Biddulph, of this ship, by seven o'clock in the morning."
Sir Samuel highly praises the brave and gallant conduct of Capt. Webley and his officers and men. Capt. Martin's note, above referred to, merely expresses his high sense of the conduct of Lieut. Baldwin, Mr Moore, the master, and all the officers and crew of the Implacable. Three men were killed, and two officers (Lieut. Lawless, and Mr Morton, boatswain) and 25 men wounded, in the Centaur. Six were killed and 26 wounded, in the Implacable. The Russian ship Sewolod had 43 killed and So wounded in the action with the Implacable. On her anchoring near Rogerswick, 100 sailors and soldiers were put on board her from the port, to supply the loss in the action. In the subsequent
attack by the Centaur, she had 180 killed, wounded, and missing. Total 303 kil led, wounded, and missing. The Swedish fleet consisted of 10 sail of the line (the two English making 12) five frigates, and a brig; the Russian squadron of nine sail of the line, three fifties, eight frigates, two corvettes, and two cutters,
Sir James Saumarez arrived on the 30th Aug. off Rogerswick, with four sail of the line, and joined Sir S. Hood and the Swedish squadron. Captain Martin, with a small squadron, was detached to blockade Cronstadt. Fire ships were preparing to assist in the destruction of the Russian ships, one of which carries 120 guns, and another 118, but Sir James, in his letter to the Admiralty, says, “The present position of the Kussian fleet, within the batteries at the entrance of the harbour, leaves but slender hopes of their being attacked with any probability of success. Admiral Nauckhoff has requested a body of lahd forces to be sent from Finland, with a view of taking possession of the island of East Raga, which would effectually command the harbour; but as the enemy have been occupied in placing it in the best state of defence, it is very doubtful if a descent upon the island could be effected. But every endeavour will be practised with the force under my or ders, jointly with the Swedish squadron, that can tend to the further defeat of the enemy."
The Swedish papers are filled with accounts of this action, and express their admiration and astonishment at the daring gallantry displayed by Sir S. Hood and his brave companions, in attacking the whole Russian fleet with only two ships, unsupported by any other ship. Sir S. Hood is equally liberal in his commendations of the Swedes, whose skill and bravery, and zealous exertions to bring their ships into action, inspired with confidence all the officers and men under his command.-Sir Samuel presented the colours of the Sewolod to his Swedish Majesty, but the latter returned them with the following note, which affords a satisfactory proof that a perfectly good understanding conti. nues to subsist between the British and Swedish Governments:-" The above colours his Swedish Majesty transmits to his Britannic Majesty, because they
were taken by his ship of war; and as an additional proof of the peculiar satisfaction which his Swedish Majesty feels on account of the distinguished gallantry displayed by Rear-Admiral Hood, and the officers and men under his orders, which his Majesty considers as the most unquestionable proof of the close connexion which unites the two nations."
By later accounts, it had not been found practicable to attack the Russian fleet in Port-Baltic, as they had strongly fortified both sides of the harbour, but they appeared to be in great consternation and confusion, had struck yards and top-masts, and moored so close to the shore, that the first strong breeze from the west would, it was believed, drive them all on shore. They were daily harrassed and annoyed by our squadron; and, on the 5th September, on throwing shells, a powder magazine blew up with a very great explosion. It is added that the Russian Admiral had sent out a flag of truce, offering to give up all his ships, on condition of their be ing restored on the conclusion of peace; or, according to another account, on condition of their being allowed to remain at Cronstadt, and to be laid up till after the peace. The offer was refused, and some fire-ships were preparing to attack the fleet. Sir J. Saumarez had written to Mr Thornton, at Stockholm, that he expected the Russian fleet must surren der, or be destroyed.
The latest dispatches, brought by Capt. Martin of the Implacable, however, state, that their hopes were likely to be disappointed. The Russians had fortified the entrance to the port on both sides so strongly, as to bid defiance to the attack of fire ships. In the mean time, we learn that a Russian messenger had arrived under a flag of truce with some communication to the King of Sweden, and Admiral Sir James Saumarez; of which notice was sent by the Admisal to Mr Thornton, the English minister at Stockholm, who immediately sailed for the English fleet. He was on board the Engli Admiral's ship at the date of the last accounts, and it appears that some pacific proposals had been made to the King; for an armistice was concluded on the 29th of September, in North Finland, for an unlimited time.
COURT OF SESSION. CASE of great importance to the community has lately been decided in the Court of Session, As most of our readers will feel themselves materially interested in the result, we presume it will be gratifying to lay a short account of it before them.
In the year 1800, a number of indivi. duals in the town and neighbourhood of Perth formed the design of baking their own bread. As very few of them had accommodation for baking in their own houses, they formed themselves into a society, purchased ground in the neigh. bourhood of Perth, and out of the jurisdiction of the town, and erected thereon the necessary buildings for the baking of bread. They purchased the materials, and hired servants for manufac. turing the bread; and this bread, when manufactured, was distributed among the members of the society, some of whom resided within, and some without the town of Perth.
This society was found to answer so well the purpose for which it was designed, that a second society, of a similar nature, was lately instituted. The bread which was baked by these societies was allowed to be equal to any manufactured by the bakers, and was got by the members at a comparatively cheap rate. In evidence of this, it need only be mentioned, that while the price at present charged by the bakers for the quartern loaf of wheaten bread is twelve pence halfpenny, and of household bread ninepence halfpenny, the members of the societies are supplied with the first at eightpence, and with the second at sevenpence the loaf.
It will not appear surprising that these societies should not have been very much liked by the bakers. They suf fered the first one, however, to exist for four years without any challenge; but at last they thought fit to complain of it, as encroaching on their exclusive privileges. We have not room to detail the different pleas urged by the ba
kers. It is sufficient to observe, that they admitted that each inhabitant of the burgh might bake his own bread separately; but they contended, that a number of persons were not entitled to associate and club together for this purpose. It was said that such an associa tion was a mere device to evade the privileges, and, it sanctioned, might end in the annihilation of all the corporations of Scotland.
The bakers accordingly presented a petition to the Sheriff of Perthshire, wherein they craved his Lordship to discharge the members of the societies
from baking bread for the use of themselves." As the Sheriff (the present Lord Advocate) considered the question to be of very great importance, he al lowed a proof to the parties; and afterwards (September 10th, 18c6,) on con• sidering the proof and whole process, he" dismissed the action, and assoilzied the defenders."
The bakers brought this interlocutor of the Sheriff under the review of the Court of Session by advocation; and, at the same time, they raised a summons of declarator, for having it found and declared that the societies in question were illegal. These processes of advocation and declarator were conjoined, and the Lord Ordinary appointed the case to be stated in mutual memorials.— On advising these memorials, his Lordship (May 30th, 1807) pronounced an interlocutor, dismissing the two actions, and assoilzying the defenders. The bakers having thus lost their cause both before the Sheriff and Lord Ordinary, applied, by petition, to the whole Lords, and their petition was appointed to be answered. On advising the petition and answers, the Court, by a great majority (May 19th, 18c8,) refused the desire of the petition. A second petition was presented by the bakers, and, as the Court considered the case to be of great importance in point of precedent, and therefore worthy of mature consideration, they appointed the petition to be
answered. Answers were accordingly put into the petition, and the case came again to be considered by the Court on Tuesday (July 5th), when the whole fifteen judges were present. A considerable time was spent in deliberating on the question, and some difference of opinion prevailed on the Bench; but it carried, by a majority, to refuse the petition. So that it is now finally settled, by a solemu judgment of the Supreme Court of this country, that the inhabitants of royal burghs are entitled to bake bread for their own consumption, either separately or in company.
Counsel for the corporation of bakers, the Dean of Faculty and George Joseph Bell, Esq.
For the inhabitants of Perth, David Cathcart, Adam Gillies, and John Shank More, Esqrs.
Aberdeen, Sept. 7.-Before Lord Armadale. James Findlay, shoemaker in Portsoy, accused of committing a rape. The diet against him was deserted pro loco et tempore, and he was recommitted on a new warrant. There was no other business.
Inverness, Sept. 13.-Before Lord Armadale-Alexander Lawson, in the united parishes of Cromdale and Inverallen, accused of murder, and James Mackay, shoemaker in the parish of New Spy. nie, county of Elgin, accused of housebreaking, were outlawed for not appearing-Walter Ker Boston, late schoolmaster in Contin, accused of housebreaking and theft; the libel being restricted to an arbitrary punishment, he was found guilty, and sentenced to transportation for 14 years.-Elspet Begg, parish of Speymouth, also accused of house-breaking and theft, was found guilty on her own confession, and sen. tenced to transportation for seven years. -In this case the Court repelled an objection of a misnomer in the verdict, stated by the pannel's counsel, viz. that she was named Elspet in the indictment, and Elizabeth in the verdict. The Advocate-depute said that Elspet and Elizabeth were the same name, and addu. ced the qnly similar instance on record, which was as far back as 1728.-Janet Ross, alias Oag, and Andrew Ross, alias Bain, of Tain, accused of the murder of
John M'Gregor-the diet was deserted pro loco et tempore, and they were re-committed on a new warrant.
Perth, Sept. 20.-Before Lords Craig and Armadale.-Wm. M'Lean, and John M Lean, his son, accused of deforcing
revenue-officer. John was outlawed for not appearing. The diet against William was deserted pro loco et tempore, and he was recommited on a new warrant. John M'Laren, was found guilty of the same offence, and sentenced to be imprisoned for 12 months, and to keep the peace for two years thereaf ter. John Galloway, accused of wilful fire-raising; Alexander Robertson, accused of fraud and imposition; Margaret Coaze, accused of child-murderthe diet against all the three was deserted. Galloway and Coaze were recommitted, Margaret Cramond, accused of child murder, was outlawed for not appearing.
Stirling, Sept. 7.-Before Lords Cullen and Hermand.--John Forsyth, at Bucklyvie, Walter Bartison, at Cashlie toll, and Walter Forsyth, indicted for assaulting and deforcing Excise-officers in the execution of their duty. The two first were outlawed for not appearing. Walter Forsyth was found guilty, and sentenced to three months imprisonment, and to find security to keep the peace for three years.
Inverary, Sept. 12.-Before Lords Cullen and Hermand.-Archd. M'Callum, lately weaver in Clachan, and Archd. M'Lean, in Tynloan, accused of forgery,
outlawed for not appearing. James M Glashan, inn-keeper in Knockrioch, accused of murder-the diet deserted pro loco et tempore, and he was recommitted on a new warrant.
Glasgow, Sept. 17.-Before Lords Cullen and Hermand.-Rachael Wright, an Irishwoman, accused of stealing Flora Amos, a child of about three years of age, was found guilty upon her own confession. Counsel was afterwards heard as to the extent to which the pains of law should go in inflicting punishment on her. The Court, considering that the case in question had very rarely occurred in this country, and merited the most deliberate attention of the High Court of Justiciary, remitted the consideration of the case to that Court, and granted warrant for transmitting the prisoner to Edinburgh, to hear the sentence of