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VII. and his rights and sovereignty; that you will promote the preservation of our rights and privileges, our laws and usages, and especially those relative to the succession of the reigning family, and those also which are particularly laid down in the same laws; and, finally, that you will promote every thing conducive to the general welfare and happiness of this kingdom, and the amelioration of its customs, keeping secret every thing that should be so, protecting the laws from every evil, and persecuting their enemies even at the hazard of your life, safety, and proper ty:-So I swear."
"If you do so, God be your helper; and if not, may he punish you as one who has taken his holy name in vain." Amen.
A solemn Te Deum was sung by the community of Barefooted Monks of St Pasqual of this place; and this religious act being concluded, the Junta passed in front of the battalion of light troops of Valencia, which was formed in two files from the entrance of the Chapel to the staircase of the Royal Palace, and adjourned to one of the principal halls destined at present for the sitting of the Junta.
In this public proceeding, and among the multitude of people of all classes and conditions who were assembled, the greatest interest and enthusiasm were discovered in favour of Ferdinand VII. His name resounded on all sides, together with that of the Junta, who had sworn, before God and men, at the hazard of their lives, to restore to his throne a Sovereign so beloved, to defend our holy religion, and our laws, usages, and customs. The opening of the gates of the Royal Palace, which had been so long shut, the melancholy solitude of the magnificent habitation of our Kings, and the remembrance of the epoch at which, and of the reasons for which they were shut up, drew tears even from the firmest of the spectators, who perform ed the most affectionate and interesting action, and the most useful in exciting vengeance against the causes of those evils, and a just confidence in the subjects who, after incurring such danger in so just a cause, nevertheless present themselves in as great number as is ne cessary to bring it to a happy termination. Such, doubtless, is what we ought
to hove from the union and fraternal af tection with which the united kingdoms are mutually animated. The enthusi asm and interest felt by the people increased, when the most Serene Deputies proceeded to the great gallery of the principal front of the palace, from which the actual President ad interim, Count Florida Blanca, again proclaimed our beloved King Ferdinand, and the peo ple followed, often increasing their lively acclamations, joy, and the affections with which they were inspired by a body who were to fulfil such great hopes, which were the more properly conceived, in proportion to the dignified sincerity with which the most august proceeding which the nation has ever wit nessed has been celebrated.
The most Serene Deputies being placed in their respective stations, and the President having pronounced a short but appropriate discourse, the Junta declared itself legitimately constituted, without any prejudice to the absentees; who, according to the agreement of yes terday, are to compose the Junta of Government, in absence of our King and Master, Ferdinand VII, and ordered a literal certification of this act to be drawn up, and directed to the President of the Council, for his information and that of the Tribunal. In the mean time, communications are made to him of the last orders agreed upon.
MARTIN DE GAROY, General Secretary ad Interim. Royal Palace, Aranjuez, the 25th Sept. 1808.
The Patriots are again in a state of full activity, and their affairs are still proceeding in a promising manner. In several skirmishes they have had the advantage; but the principal affair that has taken place since our last details, was on the 20th September at Bilboa, which was again wrested from the French by a division of General Blake's army, headed by the Marquis de Portzago, after an engagement of three hours. The enemy's force consisted of 5000 men, who were attacked so suddenly and vi gorously by a superior body of Spaniards, that after having 2000 killed and wounded, the remainder surrendered at discretion. On the expulsion of the French, the inhabitants immediately pro
claimed Ferdinand VII. Gen. Portzago afterwards proceeded against St Sebas. tian, which it was his determination to storm, and the French found it necessary to evacuate Burgos, after spik. ing their artillery, and destroying their powder.
We regret, however, to learn that the success of the brave Marquis del Port zago was only temporary, and that he was obliged to retreat from Bilboa, a few days after his victory over the French division posted there. In the beginning of September, the French Marshal Ney, accompanied by four Ge. nerals of Brigade, several aids-de-camp, and an escort of cavalry, entered Irun from Bayonne. He set out for Tolo sa, where he took the command of the French army, and concentrated a force of 30,000 men, according to the Spanish accounts. It appears that the French attach much value to the possession of Bilboa, as affording a more certain means of communication with France. Accordingly, the Marshal marched with his whole force, with the view of surprizing Portzago; but the latter having notice of the approach of the enemy, collected his small corps, which consisted only of 6000 men, and effected his retreat with all his artillery and baggage, and without losing a man. The French again entered the town on the 27th of September, with 14,000 men. All the principal inhabitants had left Bilboa, after being completely pillaged by the French. Gen. Blake was advantageously posted on the heights about ro miles from Bilboa. His army amounted to 50,000, and he was preparing to make a general attack upon the French at that place.
One more attempt seems to have been intended to have been made on Saragossa. A column of 18,300 men was detached from the main body of the French army towards Saragossa. Palafox was at that time advancing to co-operate with the other armies under Blake and the Marquis de Castellar. Not wishing, however, to risk a general engagement, he crossed the Ebro, and descended to Borja. The French, however, did not carry their intentions into execution. Blake was advancing so rapidly from Leon, that Marshal Bessieres thought it advisable not to have so large a corps separated from the main body, and
therefore recalled it after it had reached Tudela.
The Spanis papers contain a circumstantial detail of the brave and successful defence of Gerona, in Catalonia. The French force under Duhesme consisted of from 7000 to 8000 infantry, and about 600 cavalry, with a complete train of artillery. The Count de Caldagues, commanding at Gerona, received orders to raise the seige. He could only muster about 6000 men, of whom only 300 were regulars. With this force he attacked the enemy on the 16th August. The action continued the whole day. The Spaniards attacked the batteries with the bayonet with incredible ardour and gallantry; the enemy were again and again defeated, and as often returned to the charge, but in the evening, beaten at all points, they precipitately sought for safety in the centre of the plain of Sarria, on the other side of the river, and under the protection of their cavalry; the want of cavalry on the part of the Spaniards alone saved their ar my from destruction. Next morning the enemy retreated in two divisions, leaving behind large quantities of arms, ammunition, cannon, shells, mortars, wheat, and other articles, the fruits of their rapine. One division took the route to Barcelona, the others to Figueras, and both were pursued by the Spamards. The former encountered oppo sition at every step, and lost about 1200 men on their march. Those marching by the coast, were so much annoyed by some English frigates, that they abandoned their artillery (six pieces of cannon and a howitzer) and 70 waggons with provisions. Their loss before Gerona had not been ascertained, but it was very considerable. The Spaniards had 22 men killed, 108 wounded, and 13 missing. The enemy have now no place of strength in Catalonia, except the fortresses of Barcelona and Figue. ras, from whence the Spaniards expected soon to expell them.
The latest accounts from Catalonia state, that from 6000 to 8000 French were still in Barcelona, and their position was so strong that there was little hope of their speedy retreat. The inhabitants were reduced to great misery, rich and poor had been indiscriminately plundered, and many of them murdered in cold blood. All the French houses
On the 22d September the French evacuated Burgos, and fell back to the Ebro. They now occupy a line along that river, which extends fram Miranda de Ebro to Cient ruinigo, a small town on the left bank of one of those numerous small rivers that run into the Ebro. This line is about 60 miles in length. Behind Cientruinigo, after crossing the Ebro, the road runs direct to Pampe Juna. Their whole force amounts to about 40,000 men. On the Ebro, it should seem as if they had received orders to maintain themselves, if possible, until reinforcements reach them. We do not hear, however, of any having yet pas sed the Pyrenees. The enemy expect to be attacked by the Spaniards, and have therefore taken a position which is best calculated to receive that attack. In the rear is the Ebro; their left flank extends to the river near the little town of Cientruiuigo; their right is at Miranda, on the Ebro,where there is a castle on a mountain of considerable strength.
From the preparations and positions of the Spaniards, it would seem to be their intention to attempt cutting off the retreat of the enemy to the Pyrenees, and to force them to surrender, by depriving them of the power of getting supplies. On their right flank no Spanish force is stationed to watch them, because there is no danger of their making a movement to the west of their position, and thus abandoning the Ebro; but on every other side there is a strong Spanish force. In their front the Castilian army is advancing by Aranda and Osma; Blake is on the left of that army at Quintanilla. Palafox's army, or the army of Arragon and Valencia, (now under the command of Cuesta,) is on the other side of the Ebro, and its headquarters are at Sos, a little to the south. cast of Sanguessa. This position shows clearly that the army of Arragon is to attempt to interpose itself between Pampeluna and the Pyrenean frontier.
The total amount of the Spanish armies on the above stations, is estimated
The great subject of political specu lation on the European Continent, is the meeting of these two mighty personages at Erfurth, in Saxony. It was naturally to be expected that the primary attention of Bonaparte would be called to the adverse situation of his arms in Spain. But the views and designs of this extraordinary man set all reasonable conjecture at defiance. Turkey, Austria, and Poland, have been for some time objects of his jealousy, and he will endeavour to remove any cause for disquietude from these quarters, before he set seriously about the subjuga tion of Spain.
The Paris papers accordingly an nounce, that "His Imperial and Roya Majesty, at five o'clock in the morning of the 22d September, set cut from the Palace of St Cloud for the States of the Confederation of the Rhine. He was accompanied by the Prince of Neufchatel, Minister Secretary of State; the Duke of Frioul, Grand Marshal of the Palace; General Nansouty, Premier Esquire; by the Aides-de-camp, the
Duke de Rovigo (Gen. Savary) and Lauriston; by the Chamberlain, M. Remurat; and by the Esquire, M. Calvaletti. The Prince of Benevento and M. Champagne had preceded his Majesty." Erfurth, Sept. 28. "Yesterday, at nine o'clock in the morning, arrived here his Majesty the Emperor of the French. The Commandant of the town, the Magistrates, the Deputies of the Livery, the University, and the Clergy, met him without the gates; the President of the Senate tendered him the keys of the gates of the city, and presented an address, expressing the fidelity and attachment of the inhabitants to his person and goverament. The Emperor having perused the address, and testified his satisfaction, entered the town on horseback, amidst the firing of guns, ringing of bells, and joyful acclamations of the inhabitauts, and alighted at the hotel prepared for his reception. Soon after the Emperor mounted his horse again, to pay a visit to his Majesty the King of Saxony, who arrived on the preceding day. He afterwards inspected the troops quartered in this town, and then proceeded on horseback on the road to Weimar, to meet his Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Russia. About three o'clock in the afternoon the two great Monarchs entered the town on horse. back, attended by a great number of persons of the first distinction, and escorted by two regiments of foot and two of horse. At night the whole town was illuminated.-At Weimar 300 men of the Imperial Russian Guards are expected. His Majesty the King of Westphalia, his Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Constantine, and the Duke and Hereditary Prince of Weimar, have arrived in this place.”
The Emperor Alexander left Petersburgh on the 1st of Sept. accompanied by the Grand Duke Constantine, Count Romanzow, his Prime Minister, and the noted Caulincourt, the French ambassador. His Majesty must have left his capital privately; for private letters assure us, that the Russiau nation is almost universally disgusted at the war, in which the blood and honour of the empire are so profusely wasted, and from which nothing great or good can result. The journey to Erfurth has
Private accounts state the object of the meeting at Erfurth to be, a partition of the whole of the eastern part of Europe. of which Austria will be offered a considerable portion. The Emperor Francis, however, we are assured, has declined all participation in this project of spoliation; and it is even supposed, that should an attempt be made to carry it into execution, he will make common cause with the Ottoman Forte. It is added, that the plan of the grand conspirators is most deeply laid, and that its first effects will be visible in Asiatic Turkey, where a formidable revolutionary movement has long been organised in concert with the court of Persia. In the mean time, Napoleon appears to continue the exercise of his baleful influence over the Ottoman councils, and to have induced the new government to adopt the rigorous sys tem be has so generally prescribed, relative to the exclusion of British commerce from their ports.
It seems to be at least certain that the Emperor of Austria (though pressed by the French minister Andreossi, and another special envoy from Paris) does not attend the interview at Erfurth, nor does his Ambassador attend Bonaparte; yets
yet, according to the French statements from Vienna, all is harmony with the three imperial courts, and all the military movements of Austria are only the completion of previous details no way connected with the present state of things! The circumstances adduced in proof of these statements, are such as have been a thousand times repeated in a thousand different shapes. Time will try their value.
FRANCE AND AUSTRIA.
The opinion that Europe is on the eve of a general war, is strengthened by the language of the French official documents before alluded to (p. 711.); the tenor of which, as far as they relate to Austria, is to the following effect :
"The best understanding subsists between the two powers: Austria has shewn every disposition to second the views of Napoleon against England; she is making no extraordinary prepa rations; and as for France, her troops are in cantonments at more than 100 miles from Austria, properly so called; she is indeed sending 40,000 conscripts to Germany, but it is to replace double the number of veteran troops which have been drawn off for Spain. In this same article, however, a jealousy of Austria is apparent, and it is broadly hinted, that she must expect to have Russia against her, should she break with France. "The closest union," it is said, "exists between France and Russia, and those two great powers are resolved to combine their forces, and to consider as an enemy every friend to EngLand." This jealousy and apprehension of Austria are more strongly marked in the report of the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the Senate, and in Bonaparte's message. "Austria," says the Minister, "has carried its armaments beyond measure its military force is out of all proportion to its population and finances. Your Ministers, Sire, only wish to re mark this, in order that your Majesty may perceive the necessity of augment ing your force, for the purpose of still preserving the relative superiority which exists between the powers and the population of the two empires." And Na. poleon, in his message to the Senate, says "My alliance with the Emperor of Russia extinguishes every hope which England can entertain from her projects.
I have no doubt respecting the peace of the Continent; but I neither will nor ought to rely upon the false calculations and errors of other Courts; and, since my neighbours increase their armies, it is a duty incumbent on me to increase mine."
This is not very pacific language, and the bustle of military preparation, appa rent on all sides, is the best comment upon it.
The military preparations of Austria are on a scale so extensive as to place it beyond a doubt that war is regarded as inevitable. The greater part of the Austrian troops, forming the cordon on the Turkish frontiers, are recalled into the interior of Hungary. A fresh levy of between 60 and 70,000 men, to be called the Militia of Reserve, has been or dered in the Austrian dominions. There are thus two armies of reserve, consisting of nearly 180,000 men, besides numerous corps of drivers, &c. The regular army comprises upwards of 450,000 men. In several provinces, the government, taking advantage of the late ab undant corps, is forming extensive me gazines. Various other measures have been adopted for the security and defence of the country, and the zeal and ardour of the people keep pace with the vigour and activity of the govern ment. Every thing, even the amusements of the children, has as med a military character. At Vienna almost all the boys are enrolled on Sundays and holidays in corps.
Official accounts by the last mail state, that asanguinary action took place on the 17th Aug. between Bijonborg and Christianstadt, in which the Russians were defeated with a great loss of killed, and 1300 wounded and prisoners. The Swedes had 200 killed, and among the wounded is Gen. Cronstedt. Another account says, the Russians left 2000 dead on the field, and the Swedes had 22 officers and Soo privates killed and wounded. An attack, it is also officially announced, was made on the Russian flotilla in Jangfursund on the night of the 17th Aug. and three of their vessels taken. The Russians, it is said, in consequence of these reverses, had retired beyond the frontiers of Finland, Letter