Obrazy na stronie
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P. 239.

for the purpose. I thought I should Time, stern huntsman! who can bautky have sunk into the earth, when I was Staunch as hound, and fleet as hawk; addressed with all the insolence that low Think of this, and rise with day, minds could dictate, and at the same

Gentle lords and ladies gay, time found myself entirely in the power

VOL. IV. p. 47. of those who so cruelly insulted me. The following also displays great To remonstrate was in vain ; and at last I assumed sufficient courage to say,

powers, though in a different style: "! Why do you use such unbecoming lan.

ODE. guage to me, you who have murdered

Froni yonder ever dark and dreary cave, my brother? I beseech you, therefore,

I hear the loud mysterious notes resound! to be merciful, and kill me also." " We List how the thunder roars along the wave, murdered your brother!" retorted the Or, big with fury, tears the yielding inn-keeper; “po, no, we be no muro ground! derers; we be as honest, ay, by iny There, darkling see the lofsy king appears troth, and honester too, than many that

'Tis Harold, who explores the book vi wear surcoats of cendal, and mantles lin. Fate; ed with minever,"

His magic spells, the airy spirits hear, The last volume contains a drama,

And Odin's will unerringly relate. entitled, “ Ancient Times," and found

“ Harold," they cry,

for others woe

Thy conquest far shall spread; ed on a supposed invasion of the Danes.

Unsheath thy sword, and charge the foe, We cannot say, however, that Mr

Mail'd, at thy warrior's head. Strutt's dramatic poetry, unless on a

“ Success awaits thy every blow; few occasions, rises much above me- For thee shall Odin fight; diocrity. It is otherwise, however, Thy sword shall plunge the barnessed foe with the songs and lyric pieces, inter- In shades of endles night. spersed through these volumes. The " Affrighted spectres, from afar, following is one of the most agreeable

In armis ascend the sky;

And in the air, a deathless war, hunting songs we remember to have

Forbodes, thy foes must fly. met with :

" Behold, the wolf sculks forth in day, Waken lords and ladies gay,

And writhes his jaws with rage!
On the mountain dawns the day, Above, the vulture waits her prey,
All the jolly chace is here,

And views the host engage.
With hawk and horse and huntiug spear;
Hounds are in their couples yelling,

• The air is filled with dying groans Hawks are whistling, horns are knelling. The dying cries, the feeble moans,

Rejoicing, Gondel stands Merrily, merrily mingle they, " Waken lords and ladies gay."

Add fury to the bands. Waken lords and ladies gay,

'The keen sword flashes :o the sky; ! The mise has left the mountain gray,

The bloody torrents run; Springlets in the dawn are streaming, Like darkening clouds che arrows fly, Diamonds on the brake are gleaming;

And shade the beaming -un." And foresters have busy been,

Vol. IV. p. 209. To track the buck in thicket green ; Now we come to chaunt our lay, " Waken lords and ladies gay." Waken lords and ladies gay,

II. CHALMERS'S CALEDONIA. To the green wood haste away; We can shew you where he lies,

(Continued from p. 283.) Fleet of foot, and tall of size, We can shew the marks he made, MR CHALMERS, having brought to When 'gainst the oak his antlers frayed ; a termination the Roman period, You shall see him brought to bay, proceeds in Book II. to that of the " Waken lords and ladies gay."

Picts.' Who this people were, whethLonder, louder chaunt the lay,

er native or foreign, forms one of the Waken Jords and ladies gay! Tell them youth and mirch and glee,

most celebrated controversies connecRuu a course'as well as we;

ted with Scottish history. By some

they

they are referred to a Teutonic or satisfaction, though we doubt whether Scandinavian origin, while others sup- in a subject, already of such great expose them to be merely Britons, the na- tent, it does not occupy rather a distives of the country, and the same who proportionate placc. The Scottish formerly went by the name of Cale, chroniclers, Fordun and Wyntown, donians. This latter opinion is deci- Boece and Major, trace the Picts dedly adopted by our author. He “ from Scythy to Ireland, and from 0:werves that Scudland, at the time of Ireland io Britain." Buchanan was Agricola's invasion, was undoubtedly the first who made a stand against this possessed by a number of British circuitous derivation ;' still however tribes, whom the Romans comprehen- he adopted the vulgar opinion that ded under the name of Caledonians. either the Picts or Caledonians were Now, from this period to that in migrants from abroad. The 'Teutonic which the Picts begin to be named, side of the question was also adopted there is no account of any foreign settle- by Usher, in his Ecclesiastical Antiment or invasion, such as the Teuton- quities ; StillingAcet, in his Origines ic hypothesis necessarily supposes. Britannicæ; the Macphersons, John Yet it such an event had taken place, and James, who attempt to disprove we can hardly suppose that no men- the existence of the Picts altogther; tion whatever should have been made Pinkerton in his Enquiry into the of it in the Rowan annals. A still History of Scotland; Sibbald, in his stronger proof is drawn from the Chronicle of Scottish Poetry: and Irnames of the Pictish Kings, a list of ving, in his Lives of the Scottish Poets. 40 of whom is given from Innes, and The first supporter, on the other which are significant only in the hand, of the British side of the quesBritish language. The Pictish topo tion, was Camden, the venerable augraphy likewise he endeavours to thor of Britannia, who in 1586, afprove was entirely British. This ter an attentive consideration of the however cannot be considered as so subject, declared his opinion, “ that decisive a proof as the preceding, the Picts were very Britons, indeed, since, if we admit the original popu- by the demeanour, name, and speech lation to be British, we niay suppose of the Picts.” Selden, and Speed, that their successors merely adopted concurred with this opinion of Camthe names previously imposed. Nor den. Lloyd, in his Account of are we disposed to lay much stress on Church Government, and Lhuyd, in his the characters of rudeness and disu- Archaiologia, supported the same cnion exhibited by the Picts, in com- pinion. It was maintained by Innes, mon with other Celtic tribes, which in his Critical Enquiry, with a degree are too common to all tribes bordering of industry and success surpassing on the savage state, to be considered as those of any who had gone before peculiar to any particular nation or race. him. Whitaker stood up in opposition At the same time, it appears to us that to Macpherson, and Ritson to Pinker, Mr Chalmers, by his other arguments, ton. The last name in this list of has established the strongest presumg. True Britons, is Edward King, author tion, if not absolute certainty, on the of the Munimenta Antiqua. We side of his hypothesis. He has given conclude with observing that Mr a list of the different writers on both Chalmers derives the name Picti from sides of the question, with an estimate the British Word Peithi, signifying (somewhat biassed perhaps by their those that are out, also inhabitants of coincidence with his own opinion) of the desart, plunderers. This the Rotheir talents and qualifications. This mans changed into a word in their hst is curious, and will be read with own language, which resembled it,

ang

and which had also a meaning not al. British hill-fort, that is of an elliptical together inapplicable.

form, and is defended by two ditches, That part of Scotland which lay and two ramparts of earth and stone.beyond the Forth was never perman

From the Pink-bill, the Piciswork ditch ently subdued by the Roman arms ; it proceeds, in a south-west direction, a

cross the Tweed, near the influx of the remained chietiy in the possession of Howden pot burn; and continues its the natives. But the Southern part course to a British fort, on the west side of Scoiland, that which lies between of this stream. From this fort, the Solway and Tweed on one side, and Pctsworkiditch passes Cribsluill; and is Forth and Clyde on the other, was again discovered, several miles westcompletely romanized.

So long as

ward, passing along the south east declithe Romans continued in Britain, it Henhillhope, where it is distinctly seen,

vity of Minchmour, whence it passes formed the province of Valentia ; but in its obvious course, for a quarter of a when by their departure it was resto- mile. It afterwards clearly appears, as red to independence, it was called the it ascends the Swinebrachill, above YarCumbrian kingdom, and oftener the run kirk; and passirg the Yarrow river, kingdom of Strathcluyd. The Otta- near Redhawse, it is again observobic dine and Gadeni, however, were early burn, on the south side of Eurrick river.

several miles, southward, near Delorain. expelled by the Saxons from Merse From this position, it has been traced and Lothian, so that the Cumbrian

across Coplaw; and thence, southward, kingdom consisted only of the Middle by the base of Stanhopelaw, where its and Western counties. It included singular remains are pretty distir.ct. For also Duubartonshire.

some distance, southward, of StanhopeThese more civilized British tribes law, it cannot uow be waced, ouing to seem to have borrowed from the Ro

the swampiness of tbe country ; but the mans the plan of fortifying an exten- woody common; whence it proceeds, in

Pictsworkditch again appears on Hen. sive tract of country. From the Picts

a south-west direction, across Bortb. they were defended, so far as such wick water, past a farmstead, called

efence could avail, by the wall of Broadlee, where the remains of it beAdrian. Afterwards, however, they come very distinct, for the course of a were exposed to the incursions of a mile and a baif, till it reaches Slatehill. new and still more formidable

From this position, it proceeds

enemy. The Saxons had established them- Teviot river, thro' the farm of North

forwards, in a south-east direction, across selves in the north of England, and house to Dockcleugh-hill, where its resoon began to make incursions beyond

mains are very distinct : from Dock. the Tweed. With the view of impo- cleugh hill, it continues a south.cast sing a check upon these new enemics, course, in a slaunting form, across Alianthe Valentians appear to have formed water, to a place named Dod, passing an extensive line of defence, called the

two hill-forts on the left. From Dod,

where its remains are distinct, the PictsCatrail, or Pictsworkditch, of which Mr Chalmers has collected a very dis- ther British fort, called Whitehillbrae ;

work ditch proceeds eastward, past anotinct and satisfactory account, which and it there ascends the Carriage hill, we shall present to our readers. on which its remains are very perfect,

From Carriage hill it proceeds across a The Picts workditch first appears, on rivulet, called Langside-burn; and here, the north, at a farm, called Mosalee, a says Gordon, the tourist, “it becomes mile westward from Galasbields, near “ihe land mark betwixt the Duke of the obvious remain of a British fort.- Buccleugh's estate, and Sir Gilbert From Mosalee, it runs, southward, by “ Eiliot of Stobs.” From Langsidethe west side of Boghali; and, at the burn, its remains appear very distinct, end of two miles, arrives at the Rink- as they pass along the northern base of hill, on the summit of which there are the Maiden Paps to the Leapsteel; and the remains, as the name implies, of a thence passing Robertslin, it traverses :

Moss.

tract

tract of boggy ground, called Cockspart: ced a high earthen rampart, and large crossing the hills into the upper paris of fosse, running off from a British fort on Lidsdale, the remains of it again appear a height, near Channel Kirk, on the on Dawsiane burn; and thence passing west, in a north-east direction, across the Abbey, it goes on to Dawstane-sig: the highest source of Leader water, for from this position, faint vestiges of it the exient of a mile ; and thence castwere traced nearly to the Peel-fell, which ward through the Lamermoor hills : and is one of the chain of mountains that the inhabitants, on its tract, assured this forms a natural barrier between Nor. ingenious surveyor, that the remains of thumberland, on the south, and Teviot. this singular wurk may be traced, at in. dale, and Lidsdale on the north. tervals, throughout Lamermoor, to the

The whole course of the Carrail, which ncighbourhood of Dunbar, Upwards of has been thus traced, from the vicinity fifty years ago, the intelligent john Spotof Gaiashiels to Peel-fell, is upwards of tiswoode, the old Laird of Spoitiswoode, forty-five miles. The most entire parts traced a similar rampart and fosse, from of the Catrail show, that it was original- a British strength, called the Haerfaulds,' ly a broad and deep fosse ; having on on a hill, two miles north-west of Spoteach side a rampart, which was formed tiswoode, throughout the country, to the of the natural soil that was thrown from vicinity of Berwick-on-Tweed. In that the ditch, intermixed with some stones. age, it was, in various places, very disa 1:s dimensions vary, in different places. cernible; and was known to the people This variation may be partly owing to

by the name of Herrit's dyke. In the ascerits remains being more or less perfect. tained track of this ancient fence, there la those parts, where it is pretty entire, are several British strengths, situated as on the north of the Rink hill, on Dock- usual on their several heights. Whether cleugh-hill, on Carriage-hill, at Leap. those several ramparts which traversed steel, and at the Abbey, the fosse is Berwickshire le the same as the Catrail, twenty six, and twenty-five feet broad: is not quite certain : but there cannot in one place, which was measured by be any reasonable doubt, whether they Dr Douglas, the fosse was twenty-seven were all made, by the same British hands, and a half feet broad. But, in those for the same purpose of defence, during parts, where the rampart has been most the same obscure age of hostile intrudemolished, the fosse only measures sion. twenty two and a half feet, i wenty, and eighteen, and in one place, only sixteen In this kingdom, at the beginning jeet wide. In some of the most entire of the sixth century, reigned the celeparts, Gordon found the ramparts, from brated Arthur, who has been so much six to seven, and even nine, or ten feet the theme of ancient history and song. high, and from eight to ten and

twelve He appears to have been raised to the ject thick. The accidents of time, and the improve dents of tillage, have, how- throne by the favour of his countryever, destroyed much of them, and les- men, and their powerful chiefs, at a sened the height of those, which remain, time when the exigencies of the nathe singular objects of rational curiosity. tion required a strong hand to guide

Of this curious remain, no traces have it. This renowned chief has left mabeen ascertained beyond Mosalee, on the north. It is, however, probable, that it ny traces of his fame in North Brimay have proceeded, as indeed some

tain, various places and natural obantiquaries have supposed, in a north. jects in this country having derived Cast direction, across the Gala-water in their name from him. The castle of to Upper Lauderdale ; and thence ath. Dunbarton, anciently Alcluyd, and want the country to the eastern sea. the metropolis of the Cumbrian moThé separate remains of such a work, narchy, went by the name of Castrum proceeding eastward to the sea, have

Arthuri. Arthur's seat, which has been discovered, by different persons, at several times. The very accurate Kingced by Mr Chalmers to a very high,

been supposed a modern name, is traremaies, in Lauderdale, during Novem. antiquity. The Strathcluyd Britons ber 1903, informed me, that he had tra- were as distinguished for learning as

for

P. 239.

for valour. In this period, flourished But at Dun Nechtan, now Dunnichells the celebrated names of Aneurin and he was encountered by Bredei, the of Merlin, or Myrrdin; the last of Pictish king, and after an obstinate whom appears to have been Pictish battle, was de eated and slain. The by birth. Living in an age of misfor- Picts being afterwards encouraged by tune, their muse indulged chieily in this success to invade the Northumplaintive strains. They sung the ca- brian territories, were themselves delamities of their country, and the ha- feated, and their king slain. Norvock of foreign invaders. The inha- thumberland having fallen into a state bitants of Valentia, pressed on one of anarchy, and being afterwards side by the Saxons, and on the other by verned by Earls in subordination to the Caledonians or Picts, sustained a the English crown, ceased to give any succession of defeats and disasters, which disturbance to its neighbours; the gradually annihilated their political Saxons remained in Lothian, and the importance, and subjected them to the Picts in the north; while the Strathneighbouring kingdoms into whose ter- cluyd Britons divided the wester ritory they were finally incorporated. parts with some tribes which had re

From the romanized" Britons, Mr cently come over from Irelar.d. Chalmers proceeds to the “ Saxons in The Orkney islands, there is reaLothian " The first irruption of a son to believe, were early inhabited Gothic people into Scotland, took by Celtic planters. They are suppo. place in the year 449. At that pe- sed, however, to have become uninhariod, the Angles, with a body of their bited, and are so described by Solinus. confederates, landed in the Frith of This does not appear to us a very Forth, in the Ottadinian country.-- probable circumstance; and it may This territory was then so much dis- easily be supposed that the report of united, that it could oppose no power- their being wholly destitute of inhaful resistance. The Saxons, however, bitants, might arise from navigators, rather overran, than subdued it: they who found particular parts of them in then retired, without making any last- that condition. The Celtic possessors ing settlement. They do not seem to were doubtless few, and were comhave repeated their descents upon this pletely supplanted by the Scandinacoast, but to have been attracted by vian rovers, who early began to haunt the nearer and more fruitful territo- these islands, and who gave names, ry of England. In 547, Ida Janded from their own language, to almost in Northumberland, and founded the all the objects which they presented. kingdom of Deira. He then turned Very few Celtic names have been rehis arms northwards against the Otta- tained; and the former existence of dini, and notwithstanding the gallant that people is chiefly proved by arms efforts of Dutigern their chief, carried and druidical monuments. In Shethis viciorious arms to the Forth. The land, every thing is completely ScanSaxons then formed a permanent es- dinavian ; probably, therefore, these tablishment in Merse and Lothian. islands were never inhabited till the In this war probably took place the arrival of that people. battle of Cattraeth, celebrated and la- The Hebrides appear to have been mented by Aneurin, who shared its planted, partly by the Scoto-Irish, or misfortunes. The Northumbrian kings Gaelic people, and partly by the Scancontinued to extend their conquests to dinavians : the interior range, Mull

, the west and north. In 685, Egfrid Jura, &c. chiefly by the former ; the crossed the Forih, and invaded the exterior, Lewis, Harris, &c. chiefly country of the Picis. He then cros- by the latter. Very few traces resed the Tay, and entered Angus.- main of a British origin.

After

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