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EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For OCTOBER 1808.
Description of CALDER CASTLE. ed undiscovered. Indeed it is even
on the top of the castle, one day, tho' dor, is a place of very high antiquity. this seems scarcely credible. It gave, in the 11th century, to the The castle is surrounded by a large guilty Macbeth, his second title of wood, which, with a rivulet that runs Thane of Cawdor; and a very an- through it, affords most delightful and cient oaken bed of curious construc- romantic scenery. It is situated about tion is still shewn, as being that in a mile to the south-east of the town which the good and innocent king of Naim. Duncan was murdered; this fact, however, may admit of being questioned, since it seems scarcely to be as yet Hints on the Introduction of COFFEE, ascertained, from the very meagre
in lieu of TEA, as a Beverage. knowledge of the times, where Mac COFFEE, as a beverage, possesses beth himself was slain. Calder castle qualities which may operate as bears the marks of having formerly inducements for its general adoption been of great strength: the tower is in this country. Indeed, it is strange, very ancient, and its walls of immense considering its superiority, that the athickness, arched at top,
and surround- doption of it, in the place of tea, has ed with battlements. Even the later not already been carried into effect. additions are of very considerable an- If we allow to physicians that influtiquity : in a vault, or cellar, there is, ence which they are supposed to have, at present, a very singular thorn tree, in directing our conduct in regard to of a large size, which grows wholly diet, it pays no compliment to their within the walls of the house, the arch earnestness, to say, that tea has hiat top, over it, being complete and per- therto supplanted coffee as fect; and this uncommon circumstance of life. is the subject of many romantic fic- Although, like every other species tions throughout the neighbourhood. of food, coffee, when taken immoder
At a more recent period, this cas- ately, has very pernicious and pecutle afforded a retreat for a fortnight to liar effects, yet it is superior to tea, in Lord Lovat, wha fled to it after the many particulars. A subtle oil that battle of Culloden : the place of his prevails in its composition is highly concealment is still shewn near the useful in rarifying the blood, and in top of a stair, and behind a chimney; stimulating the solids : coffee also proand although his pursuers had the most motes digestion, and is esteemed for positive information of his being in strengthening the stomach, as well as the castle, and in consequence made a gentle diuretic. Tea, no doubt, posmany searches for him, yet he remain- sesses its uses, but its ill qualities are
many; and these are heightened by ing the matter as giving a vent to : the immoderate heat of the infusion. certain branch of our trade, and, as Indeed, with tea-drinkers, it is a rule, conducive to health, it wears a favourthat the tea shall be drunk as warm as able aspect. There are only two it can possibly be swallowed. The ill points which might lead to doubt upa consequences of hot liquids are obvi- on the subject, and as they are conous, and have been recently attested nected with some important reasonby the opinion of an ingenious physi- ings, it may be proper to state them, cian: he observes, of individuals whose for the consideration of those who are system of diet abounds in soups, gruels, better versed in such calculations: and teas, that the stomach is soddened ist, It may afford matter for serious in the same manner as a washing-wo- discussion, whether, in the present siman's hand is by a habit of tepid ab- tuation of commerce, or, indeed, at lution. On this subject, the words of any period, it is proper for the legislaDr Buchan are explicit and decided : ture to confer particular advantages he avers, that “ Tea will induce a to- on one branch of trade at the expence "tal change of consution in the of another : 2d, It is probable that
people of this country. Indeed it the evil pointed out in the first objec“ has gone a great way towards effect-. tion may be realised ; as, by giving "ing that evil already. A debility, coffee a preference in the competition " and consequent irritability of fic with tea, we may shut up that vent “ bre, are become so common, that for our manufactures which exists in “ not only women, but even-men, are the market where we buy our tea. “ affected with them.” These evils, This seems not altogether a theoretiaided by the dreadful effects of a too cal objection : as a test, we must exacommon disease, have almost fully re- mine our own rule of policy in such a alised the prophetic sentence of Dr casc. Holland will trade with BriBuchan. That change of constitution, tain on these conditions: she will aided by a casual irregularity of the send her produce to Britain, and will weather, sometimes presents to modi- take none of Britain's produce in recal skill such anomalies as threaten to turn, but will have specie; the consebewilder and defeat the power of sci- quence follows, that Britain declines ence, Among the population of the this trade upon such terms. The paContinent, tea is rarely used, coffee rallel may be stated thus : Britain being preferred. I am told by well. sends a cargo of her staple produce to informed foreigners, that their coun- China, and is offered the staple of trymen express commiseration with China in return, the value of which any one who drinks tea, in the same being depreciated by the competition tone as we do for a sick person, If of coffee, it is of course refused, as an truth, in a matter of this sort, be ma- unprofitable commodity: if the paral. nifested by the force of custom, this lel be just, the consequence will be calassertion is corroborated by the fact 'culated to fall as above. Those to of foreigners preferring coffee, even in whom the science of political economy this country, where, from novelty and is familiar, will be best able to discrie complaisance, they might be induced minate as to the connection which the to follow a different course,
present subject has with the dogmas From this comparison, it may be of that science, and to calculate the conceived, that the considerations above effects of the measure, if it ever attains * stated, and the determination of the the magnitude of one. From such, we legislature to dispense with the duties have reason to expect an advice, and on coffee, will lead to its general a- I think I could point out those whose doption as a substitute for tea. View- , opinions and reasonings will have
weight in the present question; if it shower of snow fell, which, in the seceives from them that elucidation neighbourhood of the city, lay for which ihey are accustomed to give to some hours' on the ground, to the public measures, we may hope to view depth of about half a foot.« 'This has the matter in all its bearings, and in been the first snow-storm of the seaits most extended relations. What I son, and no doubt sufficiently early. aimed at when I sat down to write, About half-past 7 in the evening of was to shew my fellow-citizens, that, the same day, a meteor passed over if at this period they adopt coffee as a the city : its appearance was highly beverage in place of tea, they co-ope- luminous, and its motion extremely rarate with the legislature; while, at pid. the same time, they make a change 15. After uncommonly viofor the advantage of their health. lent gales, (chiefly from the N. E.),
Alexr. Henderson. of several days continuance, our frith Edinr. 17th Oct, 1808.
seems to have become the resort of sea-birds that do not usually haunt it.'
We refer, particularly, to the Stormy Mathly Memoranda in Natural Hiss Petrel or Storm-finch (Procellaria pe. tory.
lagica,) the least of the webfooted Sept. 24. 7 'HE first influences of sort. A good many of these were this
1808. the nightly frosts were morning, at the time of flood-tide, to discernible on the flower-border ; the be observed skipping along the waves, more tender annuals appeared droop- or fluttering over the breakers, at the ing and flaccid.
mouth of Leith harbour, and occasio27. The frost has now com- nally seeking shelter, by retreating pletely discoloured, and in many cases within the range of the pier: The destroyed, all those annuals. The Stormy Petrel is truly a bird of the stalks of potatoes in the fields, which ocean ; coming to land only in the were green two days ago, are now, in breeding-season, and scarcely ever apgeneral, blackened
proaching ships at sea, but in boisterOct. 1,-8. An early and severe ous weather, when it probably finds winter seems already to be announ- some protection by keeping under ced, by the premature arrival of large their lee. It is well known to sailors, Hocks of Fieldfares and Redwings. by the whimsical name of Mother CaAo intelligent naturalist informs us, rey's Chicken, and its appearance is, that these winter visitors had, this sea- by them, considered as the sure indison, arrived in our neighbourhood, be- cation of a storm. It breeds in Fair fore our summer friends, the chimney Isle, Foulah, and some of the other swallow and martin had wholly left northern islands; and is there known us. The Wood-cocks have likewise by the various appellations of Alamouappeared very early on our shores. ty, Mytie, and Spensy. Some must have been shot in Fife
17. Another large and bright, shire on the last days of September; meteor appeared to-night, about 15 for we understand, that a dish of wood. minutes past 8 o'clock. lts course cocks was presented at the public dine was nearly from S. E. to' N. W.ner, held by the gentlemen of the When first observed, it appeared to county, on the 1st inst., in celebration descend obliquely in the manner of of the victories of Debidos and Vimi. the small meteors, called falling stars ; era, in which, their representative in and, when near to the earth, it seemParliament, General Ferguson, so emi ed to fly off in a horizontal direction, Dently distinguished himself.
increasing in brilliancy, with a light It. This morning, a heavy of the colour of port-fire, till it sud..