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Scots Magazinė,



Description of CALDER CASTLE. CALDER (or Cawdor) CASTLE, the seat, in Scotland, of Lord Cawdor, is a place of very high antiquity. It gave, in the 11th century, to the guilty Macbeth, his second title of Thane of Cawdor; and a very ancient oaken bed of curious construction is still shewn, as being that in which the good and innocent king Duncan was murdered; this fact, however, may admit of being questioned, since it seems scarcely to be as yet ascertained, from the very meagre

knowledge of the times, where Mac

beth himself was slain. Calder castle bears the marks of having formerly been of great strength: the tower is very ancient, and its walls of immense thickness, arched at top, and surrounded with battlements. Even the later additions are of very considerable antiquity; in a vault, or cellar, there is, at present, a very singular thorn tree, a large size, which grows wholly within the walls of the house, the arch at top, over it, being complete and perfect; and this uncommon circumstance is the subject of many romantic fictions throughout the neighbourhood.


At a more recent period, this casthe afforded a retreat for a fortnight to Lord Lovat, who fled to it after the battle of Culloden: the place of his concealment is still shewn near the top of a stair, and behind a chimney; and although his pursuers had the most positive information of his being in the castle, and in consequence made imany searches for him, yet he remain

ed undiscovered. Indeed it is even

pretended that they actually saw him on the top of the castle, one day, tho' this seems scarcely credible.

The castle is surrounded by a large wood, which, with a rivulet that runs through it, affords most delightful and romantic scenery. It is situated about a mile to the south-east of the town of Nairn.

Hints on

the Introduction of COFFEE, in lieu of TEA, as a Beverage. COFFEE, as a beverage, possesses

qualities which may operate as inducements for its general adoption in this country. Indeed, it is strange, considering its superiority, that the adoption of it, in the place of tea, has not already been carried into effect. If we allow to physicians that influence which they are supposed to have, in directing our conduct in regard to diet, it pays no compliment to their earnestness, to say, that tea has hitherto supplanted coffee as a necessary of life.

Although, like every other species of food, coffee, when taken immoderately, has very pernicious and peculiar effects, yet it is superior to tea, in many particulars. A subtle oil that prevails in its composition is highly useful in rarifying the blood, and in stimulating the solids: coffee also promotes digestion, and is esteemed for strengthening the stomach, as well as a gentle diuretic. Tea, no doubt, possesses its uses, but its ill qualities are



many; and these are heightened by the immoderate heat of the infusion, Indeed, with tea-drinkers, it is a rule, that the tea shall be drunk as warm as it can possibly be swallowed. The ill consequences of hot liquids are obvious, and have been recently attested by the opinion of an ingenious physician: he observes, of individuals whose system of diet abounds in soups, gruels, and teas, that the stomach is soddened in the same manner as a washing-woman's hand is by a habit of tepid ablution. On this subject, the words of Dr Buchan are explicit and decided: he, avers, that "Tea will induce a to"tal change of consution in the people of this country. Indeed it "has gone a great way towards effect"ing that evil already. A debility, "and consequent irritability of fi"bre, are become so common, that "not only women, but even men, are "affected with them." These evils, aided by the dreadful effects of a too common disease, have almost fully realised the prophetic sentence of Dr Buchan. That change of constitution, aided by a casual irregularity of the weather, sometimes presents to medical skill such anomalies as threaten to bewilder and defeat the power of science. Among the population of the Continent, tea is rarely used, coffee being preferred. I am told by wellinformed foreigners, that their countrymen express commiseration with any one who drinks tea, in the same tone as we do for a sick person. If truth, in a matter of this sort, be manifested by the force of custom, this assertion is corroborated by the fact of foreigners preferring coffee, even in this country, where, from novelty and complaisance, they might be induced to follow a different course,

From this comparison, it may be conceived, that the considerations above stated, and the determination of the legislature to dispense with the duties on coffee, will lead to its general adoption as a substitute for tea. View

ing the matter as giving a vent to a certain branch of our trade, and, as conducive to health, it wears a favourable aspect. There are only two points which might lead to doubt ups on the subject, and as they are connected with some important reasonings, it may be proper to state them, for the consideration of those who are better versed in such calculations:1st, It may afford matter for serious discussion, whether, in the present situation of commerce, or, indeed, at any period, it is proper for the legislature to confer particular advantages on one branch of trade at the expence of another: 2d, It is probable that the evil pointed out in the first objection may be realised; as, by giving coffee a preference in the competition with tea, we may shut up that vent for our manufactures which exists in the market where we buy our tea.This seems not altogether a theoretical objection: as a test, we must examine our own rule of policy in such a case. Holland will trade with Britain on these conditions: she will send her produce to Britain, and will take none of Britain's produce in return, but will have specie; the consequence follows, that Britain declines this trade upon such terms. The parallel may be stated thus: Britain sends a cargo of her staple produce to China, and is offered the staple of China in return, the value of which being depreciated by the competition of coffee, it is of course refused, as an unprofitable commodity: if the parailel be just, the consequence will be calculated to fall as above. Those to whom the science of political economy is familiar, will be best able to discri minate as to the connection which the present subject has with the doginas of that science, and to calculate the effects of the measure, if it ever attains the magnitude of one. From such, wẹ have reason to expect an advice, and I think I could point out those whose opinions and reasonings will have


weight in the present question; if it receives from them that elucidation which they are accustomed to give to public measures, we may hope to view the matter in all its bearings, and in its most extended relations. What I aimed at when I sat down to write, was to shew my fellow-citizens, that, if at this period they adopt coffee as a beverage in place of tea, they co-operate with the legislature; while, at the same time, they make a change for the advantage of their health.

Alexr. Henderson.

Edinr. 17th Oct. 1808..

Monthly Memoranda in Natural His tory.

Sept. 24.

ΤΗ HE first influences of 1808. the nightly frosts were discernible on the flower-border; the more tender annuals appeared droop ing and flaccid.

27. The frost has now completely discoloured, and in many cases destroyed, all those annuals. The stalks of potatoes in the fields, which were green two days ago, are now, in general, blackened.

Oct. 1,-8. An early and severe winter seems already to be announced, by the premature arrival of large flocks of Fieldfares and Redwings. An intelligent naturalist informs us, that these winter visitors had, this season, arrived in our neighbourhood, before our summer friends, the chimney swallow and martin had wholly left us. The Wood-cocks have likewise appeared very early on our shores. Some must have been shot in Fifeshire on the last days of September; for we understand, that a dish of woodcocks was presented at the public din ner, held by the gentlemen of the county, on the 1st inst., in celebration of the victories of Oebidos and Vimiera, in which, their representative in Parliament, General Ferguson, so eminently distinguished himself.

14. This morning, a heavy

shower of snow fell, which, in the neighbourhood of the city, lay for some hours on the ground, to the depth of about half a foot. This has been the first snow-storm of the season, and no doubt sufficiently early. About half-past 7 in the evening of the same day, a meteor passed over the city: its appearance was highly luminous, and its motion extremely rapid.

15. After uncommonly violent gales, (chiefly from the N. E.), of several days continuance, our frith seems to have become the resort of sea-birds that do not usually haunt it. We refer, particularly, to the Stormy Petrel or Storm-finch (Procellaria pelagica,) the least of the webfooted sort. A good many of these were this morning, at the time of flood-tide, to be observed skipping along the waves, or fluttering over the breakers, at the mouth of Leith harbour, and occasionally seeking shelter, by retreating within the range of the pier. The Stormy Petrel is truly a bird of the ocean; coming to land only in the breeding-season, and scarcely ever approaching ships at sea, but in boisterous weather, when it probably finds some protection by keeping under their lee. It is well known to sailors, by the whimsical name of Mother Carey's Chicken, and its appearance is, by them, considered as the sure indication of a storm. It breeds in Fair Isle, Foulah, and some of the other northern islands; and is there known by the various appellations of Alamouty, Mytie, and Spensy

17. Another large and bright meteor appeared to-night, about 15 minutes past 8 o'clock. Its course was nearly from S. E. to N. W.-When first observed, it appeared to descend obliquely in the manner of the small meteors, called falling stars ; and, when near to the earth, it seemed to fly off in a horizontal direction, increasing in brilliancy, with a light of the colour of port-fire, till it sud


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