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attack of the enemy on our advanced guard by their own exertions, they were attacked in flank by Brigadier-General Ackland's brigade in its advance to its position of the heights on the left, and a cannonade was kept up on the flank of the enemy's columns by the artillery on those heights. At length, after a desperate contest, the enemy was driven back in confusion from this attack with the loss of seven pieces of cannon, many prisoners, and a great number of officers and soldiers killed and wounded. He was Pursued by the detachment of the 2 oth light dragoons, but the enemy's cavalry were so much superior in numbers, that this detachment has suffered much, and Lieut.-Col. Taylor was unfortunately killed. “Nearly at the same time the enemy's attack commenced upon the heights on the road to Lourinha. This attack was supported by a large body of cavalry, and was made with the usual impetuosity of the French troops. It was received with steadiness by Major...Gen. Ferguson's brigade, consisting of the 36th, 40th, and 71st regiments; and these corps charged as soon as the enemy approached them, who gave way, and they continued to advance upon him, supported by the 32d, one of the corps of Brigadier Gen. Nightingale's brigade, which, as the ground extended, afterwards formed a part of the first line, by the 29th regiment, and by Brigadier Gen. Bowes's and Ackland's brigades, while Gen. Crawford's brigade, and the Portugueze troops, in two lines advanced along the height on the left. In the advance of Maj.-Gen. Ferguson's brigade, six pieces of cannon were taken from the enemy, with many prisoners, and vast numbers were killed and wounded. “The enemy afterwards made an attempt to recover part of his artillery, by attacking the 71st and 82d regiments, which were halted in a valley in which it had been taken. These regiments retired from the low grounds in the "alley to the heights, where they halted, faced about, fired, and advanced upon the enemy, who had by that time arrived in the low ground, and they thus obliged him again to retire with greatloss. “In this action, in which the whole of the French force in Portugal was
employed, under the command of the Duke D'Abrantes in person, in which the enemy was certainly superior in cavalry and artillery, and in which not more than half of the British army was actually engaged, he has sustained a signal defeat, and has lost 13 pieces of cannon, 23 ammunition waggons, with powder, shells, stores of all descriptions, and zo, ooo rounds of musket ammunition. One general officer (Bernier) has been wounded and taken prisoner, and a great many officers and soldiers have
been killed, wounded and taken. “The valour and discipline of his Majesty's troops have been conspicuous upon this occasion, as you who witnessed the greatest part of the action must have observed ; but it is a justice to the following corps to draw your no. tice to them in a particular manner.” Here the General particularly mentions the 50th, 2d batt. 95th, 5th batt. Goth, ad batt. 43d, 2d batt. 52d, 97th, 36th, 40th, 71st, and 82d; and after warmly praising the conduct of Gen. Spencer, and the other General and staff officers, and stating that a French General Officer (supposed to be Thiebault, chief of the staff) had been found dead on the field of battle, gives the following return of the killed, wounded, and missing: Killed, Royal artillery, 2 privates –2 oth Light Dragoons, Lieut.-Col. Taylor, 19 privates, 30 horses—39th Foot, 7 privates—42th, 6 privates— 71st, 12 privates-29th, 2 privates— 82d, Lieut. R. Donkin, and 7 privates -50th, Capt. G. A. Cooke, 1 serjeant, 18 privates-5th batt. 6oth, 14 privates –2d batt. 95th, 1 serjeant, 5 privates —ad batt. 43d, 1 serjeant, 26 privates –2d batt. 52d, 3 privates—97th, 4 privotes—roth, Lieut. Brooke. PWounded. G-neral Staff, Capt. Hardinge. 57th Foot, Deputy-Assistant-Quarter-Master-General—Royal Artillery, 2 privates, and two horses—zoth light dragoons, 2 seljeants, 22 privates, to horses—36th, Capt. Hobart, Lieuts. Hart, Lought, and Edwards, and Easign Bosell, all slightly, Lieut. and Adjutant Povah, severely, I serjeant, 1 drummer, and 34 privates—45th, Capt. Smith and Lieut. Frankly, slightly, z serjeants, and 28 privates–71st, Capt. A. Jones, Major M'Kenzie, Lieuts. W. Hartly, R. Dudgeon, and A. S. M'Intyre, and Ensign W. Campbell, all slightly ;
slightly; Lieut. Pratt, and acting Adjutant R. MacAlpin, severely, 6 serjeants, and 86 privates—29th, BrigadeMajor A. Creagh, 1 serjeant, to privates —82d, 2 serjeants, and 51 privates— Soth, Major Charles Hill, Lieuts. John Kent, John Wilson, and Robert Way, 1 serjeant, 1 drummer, and 61 privates —5th batt. 66th, Lieuts. G. Kirk, Lewis Raith, 1 serjeant, 2 1 privates—zd. Latt. 95th, Lieut. Pratt, Lusign W. Cox, 13 privates—2d batt. 9th, 1 serjeant, 14 privates—2d batt. 43d, Major Hearne, Capts. Ferguson, Brock, and Haverfield, Lieut. Madden, Ensign Wilson, 5 serjeants, 2 drummers, 6S privates—2d batt. 52d, Capt. Ewart, Lieut. Bell, 2 serjeants, 31 privates—97th, Major J. Wil
privates—2d or Queen's, 1 serjeant, 6 privates—zoth, Lieut. Hog, 5 privates. Misring. Royal Engineers, first Lieut. Wells—3 oth. Light Dragons, Capt. Eustace, I drummer, 9 privates, 1 horse— 36th Foot, I serjeant. 1 private–40th, 6 privates—56th, 2 privates-5th batt. 6cth, 1o privates—2d batt. 96th, 3 privates—2d batt. 43d, 1 drummer, 12 privates—2d batt. 52d, 3 privates—zoth, 1 private. Abstract of the Return—4 officers killed, 37 wounded, 2 missing—3 noncommissioned officers and drummers killed, 31 wounded, 3 missing, 12S rank and file killed, 446 wounded, 46 missing—43 horses killed, wounded and missing. Total officers, non-commissioned officers and drummers, rank and file, and horses, killed, wounded and missing, 783. Ordnance and Ammunition taken—six 1 pounder, 4 four pounders, 2 three pounders, 6 five and half-inch howitzers, 2 ammunition waggons, 21 Portugueze ammunition cars, 40 horses, 4 mules. This only the artillery received in the park; 8 more were taken. The ammunition waggons and cars contained a portion of powder, shells, and stores of all descripticns, and about 20,0co pounds of musket ammunition.
Thus far the Gazette.-The following particulars are communicated in letters from officers who were engaged in the battle of the 21st :—
Junot harangued his troops in the morning, and immediately before the battle, said to them—“Comrades, there
are the English, and behind them is the sea—be cool and steady, you have only to drive them into it !” The order issued by Sir Arthur Wellesley was briefly and simply this:—“My brave countrymen: drive the French out of the passes on the road to Lisbon." When the French General Bernier fell by his wound, the soldiers of the 71st regiment, who were immediately upon him, in the heat of their fury, were about to bayonet him, when corporal Ross interfered to restrain his comrades, and to save the fallen General. Bernier immediately offered his purse to his protector, who nobly refused it, saying, that to save a fallen enemy was a principle of feeling, as well as of duty in a British soldier. When Bernier was conveyed to Col. Pack, the commander of Ross's regiment, he expressed his admiration and gratitude for this generous conduct in the strongest terms ; and at the samt time evouced considerable surprise that a French General, having on his full uniform and epaulets, should not have been plundered or maltreated, Col. Pack informed him, that if such was the practice the French soldiers were accustomed to, he hoped that many of their officers would, like him, have the opportunity of teaching them a better system, from the experience of the more honouralle habits of Britons. When Gen. Ferguson led his men to the attack, he advanced some distance in front, took off his hat, and waved it, that his person might be distinguished by the whole brigade. Col. Lake fell most nobly, as he led his grenadiers through one of the passes, the difficulties of which defy all description. The 36th, commanded by Col. Burne, performed prodigies. He had enjoined his men, it seems, to withhold their fire, but as the enemy continued firing with great effect, one or two young soldiers discharged their muskets—Col. Burne immediately called out, “If I knew the fellow who has just fired, I would knock him down.” This remark, at a moment when so many were knocked down by the enemy's bullets, excited no small degree of merriment amonghis men, notwithstanding the awfulness of the scene. The charge of the zoth dragoons was most masterly; had there been a larger force of to, the whole of the enemy's force must have been aulio, At the conclusion of the battle, such was the enthusiasm excited by the result among our Generals, that they all to a man went up to Sir A. Wellesley, congratulating him on his success, and exclaiming, “This, General, is all your work!"—The men sympathised with their leaders, and loudly expressed their satisfaction that their old General, as they called him, had won the battle. It is but justice to say, that in both battles the French fought with great bravery, particularly the grenadiers of Junot's guard, nearly 300 of whom were found lying dead on the very spot on which they were drawn up. By the official dispatches, (tho’ not mentioned in the Gazette) we learn, that Gen. Kellerman came to the British camp on the morning of the 22d of August, with a flag of truce from Gen. Junot. in order to treat for a capitulation. The General remained till the 24th, when he set out for the head-quarters of Junot with the terms proposed by the British Commander. In the mean time a truce had been granted to the French for six days from the 24th. The head quarters of the British army were at Torres Vedras on the 26th, the Portuguese were posted at Maceira, and the French at Mafra. The following proclamation was issued by Admiral Cotton and Sir Arthur Wellesley, previous to military operations, :— ProclamATION, By the Commander in Chief of his Britannic Majesty's forces employed to assist the Loyal inhabitants of the Kingdom of Portugal. People of Pok'rucAL : The time is arrived to rescue your country, and to restore the Government of your lawful Prince. His Britannic Majesty, our most gracious King and Master, has, in compliance with the wishes and ardent supplications for succour from all parts of Portugal, sent to your aid a British army, directed to cooperate with his fleet, already on your Coast. The British soldiers who land upon your shore do so with equal sentiments of friendship, faith, and honour. The glorious struggle in which you are e.g.ged is for all that is dear to man—the protection of your wives and
children; the restoration of your lawful Prince ; the independence, nay, the very existence of your kingdom, and for the preservation of your holy religion; objects like these can only be attained by distinguished examples of fortitude and constancy. The noble struggle against the tyranny and usurpation of France, will be jointly maintained by Portugal, Spain, and England; and in contributing to the success of a cause so just and glorious, the views of his Britannic Majesty are the same as those by which you are yourselves animated. (Signed) CHARLes Cotton. ARTHUR WELLEsley. Lavor, Aug. 4th, 1808.
The proclamation of Admiral Cotton and Sir A. Wellesley was accompanied by the following address to the French army from the Portugueze General:—
PRoclam Ation, Of the General commanding the Portugueze Army, to the Soldiers of the French army in Portugal.
“Soldiers of the French army — The moment is now arrived to speak openly to those who have hitherto refused to listen to the language of reason. Open your eyes, Soldiers, to the deep abyss of evils which is formed under your feet, through the foolish ambition of your EMPERoR, the impolicy, the avarice, the sanguinary barbarity, of your Generals. Listen to the voice, the cry of an army, which has proved, that a man may be a soldier, and yet humane; that in the same heart may be united the most intrepid bravery with religion and morality. What do you hope for, from the Portugueze armies, the brave English, or the high spirited Spaniards, our dear allies, sworn enemies to your government, which, by the greatest atrocity, has outraged the one and persecuted the other; to forge chains for your country, or to perish in the field of battle 2 What a frightful alternative : It is nevertheless your fate. But an allied and betrayed Prince: But an hospitable and pillaged people! But a pacific and assassinated nation . These demand our vengeance. There remains but one way of avoiding so cruel a calamity. Abandon your colours; come and join our army; if you do so, in the name of the Prince, in the name of the People, People, I promise that you shall be treated as friends, and that you shall one day have the pleasure of returning to your homes and to your families, who are distracted with grief at having lost you. This advice can neither be considered as contrary to duty or honour, if it is properly understood. But, soldiers, if there be any among you that are so insensible to the sweet emotions of religion and humanity, that they will not leave their posts, such monsters are at best a heavy burden to the universe; they are well worthy of the cause they defend, and the recompence that awaits them. Soldiers, make your determination while you have an opportunity; ours is made,-(Signed.) “BENARDIN FREIRE D'ANDRADA.
* Dated at the Head-quarters of the Portuguese Army, August 1o. 1808.
New AND OLD CASTILE.
The Spanish Gazettes contain a va. riety of particulars respecting the evacuation of Madrid by the French, but there is nothing new in them. There were some popular disturbances after the departure of the French, but order was soon restored, and the people came forward in multitudes to be embodied, in pursuance of an order for the enrolment and arming of all from 16 to 50. Gen. Castanos, with the first division of the patriots from Andalusia and Valencia, entered Madrid on the 9th of Aug. and, after making the necessary arrangements for the maintenance of public tranquillity, proceeded to follow the route of the enemy. The latter made no halt at Segovia; evacuating also Valladolid and Placentia, they feil back upon Burgos, Penurvo, and Vittoria.Joseph Bonaparte had left the army, and returned to France. The Gailician army, the head-quarters of which were at Astorga, had advanced in pursuit of Bessieres, who, with 15,0:o men entered Burgos on the 12th, where he found the rear-guard of Joseph's army, under Gen. Moncey; but subsequent accounts state that the French left Burgos on the 17th, in consequence of a summons sent them by Generals Cuesta and Blake, who were to enter the town next day. The advances of the Gallician army, however, have been so slow, as to war
rant a belief that it was not in sufficient force to hazard a contest with the French army, which is stated to exceed 40,000 men; and the Corunna Gazette states that the French, learning that Gen. Blake was still at Astorga, had re-possessed themselves of Burgos. The Gal. lician army consists of 30,2co men.— Cuesta was at Valladolid with about 2009 cavalry. Gen. Castanos had lett Madrid to join him. The IJuke del Infathtado and Col. Doyle, who was with the Gallician army, had set out from Astorga for Madrid on business of great importance. ARRAGoN. It has been supposed that it is not the intention of the French to evacuate Spain, but to occupy the line of the Ebro, from its source to its mouth, which almost intersects the north of Spain, from the mountains of Asturias to the Mediterranean. The possession of Saragossa would however be necessary to the execution of this plan, and that they are not likely to obtain. They have been defeated in another, and we believe a last attack on that city. In the Madrid Gazette Extraordinary of the 18th of August is a letter from Gen. Palafox to the Governor of the Council, dated head quarters, Saragossa, August 14th, in which he says—“I have the satisfaction to inform you, that the French army which, during two months, afflicted this city, practising the most shameful conduct ever witnessed, abandoned, early this morning, an immense quantity of artillory, ammunition, provisions, and other articles. The enemy attempted, during the night, a new attack on the narrow position which I occupied, but was defeated by the brave troops under my command, who defended it with such courage that he was obliged to fly with precipitation.” He adds, that he had sent 4ooo men to cut off the enemy from the road to Navarre, where other troops and armed peasantry were to assemble : and that 4ooo more, with 6coo which had that day arrived from Valencia, were to continue the pursuit of the rear-guard, to prevent them at least from committing their usual excesses in the towns through which they might pass. There was a great rejoicing at Saragossa on occasion of this final triumph, and a solemn thanksgiving was grdered for the 15th.
Biscay. We have now to announce the rising of this province in the patriotic cause, so long withheld from declaring itself by its local circumstances and situation. The chief persons of the province formed themselves into a junta at Bilboa, and their first act was to issue a spirited declaration, calling on the people to emu. late their brethren in arms, and to imitate the conduct of their ancestors, and exhorting them to hurl vengeance and destruction on the head of their oppressors. At first they were in want of arms and ammunition, but the supplies furnished by our squadron enabled a considerable body to take the field. Their rising seems, however, to have been still rather premature. The moment it was heard of, Soo 2 French troops were detached from Vittoria against Bilboa, about the 14th of Aug. The inhabitants, unsupported by regular troops, after a galiant resistance, were obliged to yield, but obtained honourable terms of capitulation; but these were totally disregarded by the French, who, on entering the city, plundered it of every thing valuable, and returned to Vittoria with their booty. Subsequent accounts from Gijon state, that another attack had been made by the enemy on Bilboa, but that they had been forced to make a speedy retreat, having lost 1400 men. On the same day that they first entered the place, Capt. Towers, of the Iris frigate, is said to have landed, spiked 43 pieces of cannon, and destroyed 500 barrels of powder. On the rising of the inhabitants of Bilboa, they sent to Major Roche, requesting him to hasten to them with succours. He complied, but arrived on the 16th of Aug. only to witness the defeat of the Spaniards, of whom only about 3220 were engaged with the French force (about 8ooo) from Vittoria. The Major returned to Gijon on the 27th. The French committed the most horrible atrocities in Bilboa.-They continued in possession on the 29th. The Spaniards were preparing to attack them, but it was believed that they would previously evacuate the city. Major Roche, it appears, has since repaired to Biscay with ample supplies of arms and ammuhitton. CATALONIA. The Spaniards are besieging BarceloSept. 1808.
na, with every prospect of success.-From the extreme scarcity of provisions, the disaffection of the inhabitants, and the desertion of the troops, it is believed that it cannot long hold out. Several bodies of troops advancing to its relief have been cut off by the Spaniards. To supply the present necessities, and provide for the wants of the patriotic army, the Junta of the province have ordered the estates situated in it belonging to Bonaparte's minion the Prince of Peace, to be sold by auction, or let out at rent. His valuable flocks of sheep in Asturias have been sold by order of the Junta of that province. ANDALUsta.
The Madrid Gazette states, that Dupont having pressed for the immediate embarkation of his troops, agreeably to the capitulation, the Governor of Cadiz answered, that the want of transports rendered it impossible, and besides that it was not likely that the English would permit their passage, Gen. Castands not having undertaken positively to obtain their consent, but merely to use his influence with the English Government for that purpose. According to another account, however, Dupont had arrived at Port St Mary on the 14th of August, for the purpose of embarking there, and his baggage having set out for the came place, some of the plunder, consisting of church-plate, fell out of the cases, the appearance of which so enraged the populace, that they immediately stopped the waggons, and repossessed themselves of their own property. Although the British Government would be warranted in preventing the return of the French to Rochefort, yet, out of deference to the Spanish Commander, it is, we understand, determined not to interfere with the execution of the capitulation. The prisoners, on their march, were obliged always to encamp in the open fields, being in constant apprehension of an attack from the people, whom their multiplied excesses had extremely exasperated. Dupont was to have been Governor of Cadiz, and had with him a numerous train of rapacious rascals, to fill all the lucrative employments, civil and military.
In consequence of the attack of the populace, as above stated, upon what Dupont called his baggage, he wrote an insolent letter to Don Thomas *:::