Obrazy na stronie

At the conclusion of the battle, such was the enthusiasm excited by the result among our Generals, that they all to a man went up to Sir A. Wellesley, congratulating him on his success, and exclaiming, "This, General, is all your work!"-The men sympathised with their leaders, and loudly expressed their satisfaction that their old General, as they called him, had won the battle. It is but justice to say, that in both battles the French fought with great bravery, particularly the grenadiers of Junot's guard, nearly 300 of whom were found lying dead on the very spot on which they were drawn up.

By the official dispatches, (tho' not mentioned in the Gazette) we learn, that Gen. Kellerman came to the British camp on the morning of the 22d of August, with a flag of truce from Gen. Junot. in order to treat for a capitulation. The General remained till the 24th, when he set out for the head-quarters of Janot with the terms proposed by the British Commander. In the mean time a truce had been granted to the French for six days from the 24th. The head quarters of the British army were at Torres Vedras on the 26th, the Portuguese were posted at Maceira, and the French at Mafra.

The following proclamation was issued by Admiral Cotton and Sir Arthur Wellesley, previous to military operations:

PROCLAMATION, By the Commander in Chief of his Britannic Majesty's forces employed to assist the Loyal inhabitants of the Kingdom of Portugal.

PEOPLE OF PORTUGAL! The time is arrived to rescue your country, and to restore the Government of your lawful Prince. His Britannic Majesty, our most gracious King and Master, has, in compliance with the wishes and ardent supplications for succour from all parts of Portugal, sent to your aid a British army, directed to cooperate with his fleet, already on your


The British soldiers who land upon your shore do so with equal sentiments of friendship, faith, and honour.

The glorious struggle in which you are erg-ged is for all that is dear-to man-the protection of your wives and

children; the restoration of your lawful Prince; the independence, nay, the very existence of your kingdom, and for the preservation of your holy reli gion; objects like these can only be attained by distinguished examples of fortitude and constancy.

The noble struggle against the tyranny and usurpation of France, will be jointly maintained by Portugal, Spain, and England; and in contributing to the success of a cause so just and glorious, the views of his Britannic Majesty are the same as those by which you are yourselves animated.

(Signed) CHARLES COTTON. ARTHUR Wellesley.

Lavos, Aug. 4th, 1808.

The proclamation of Admiral Cotton and Sir A. Wellesley was accompanied by the following address to the French army from the Portugueze General:—


Of the General commanding the Portugueze Army, to the Soldiers of the French army in Portugal.

"Soldiers of the French army!The moment is now arrived to speak openly to those who have hitherto refused to listen to the language of rea


Open your eyes, Soldiers, to the deep abyss of evils which is formed under your feet, through the foolish ambition of your EMPEROR, the impolicy, the avarice, the sanguinary barbarity, of your Generals. Listen to the voice, the cry of an army, which has proved, that a man may be a soldier, and yet humane; that in the same heart may be united the most intrepid bravery with religion and morality. What do you hope for, from the Portugueze armies, the brave English, or the high spirited Spaniards, our dear allies, sworn enemies to your government, which, by the greatest atrocity, has outraged the one and persecuted the other; to forge chains for your country, or to perish in the field of battle? What a frightful alternative! It is nevertheless your fate. But an allied and betrayed Prince! But an hospitable and pillaged people! But a pacific and assassinated nation! These demand our vengeance. There remains but one way of avoiding so cruel a ca. lamity. Abandon your colours; come and join our army; if you do so, in the name of the Prince, in the name of the


People, I promise that you shall be treated as friends, and that you shall one day have the pleasure of returning to your homes and to your families, who are distracted with grief at having lost you. This advice can neither be considered as contrary to duty or honour, if it is properly understood. But, soldiers, if there be any among you that are so insensible to the sweet emotions of religion and humanity, that they will not leave their posts, such monsters are at best a heavy burden to the universe; they are well worthy of the cause they defend, and the recompence that awaits them. Soldiers, make your determination while you have an oppor tunity; ours is made.-(Signed.)

"BENARDIN FREIRE D'ANDRADA. "Dated at the Head-quarters of the Portuguese Army, August 10. 1808.


NEW AND OLD CASTILE. The Spanish Gazettes contain a va riety of particulars respecting the evacuation of Madrid by the French, but there is nothing new in them. There were some popular disturbances after the departure of the French, but order was soon restored, and the people came forward in multitudes to be embodied, in pursuance of an order for the enrolment and arming of all from 16 to 50. Gen. Castanos, with the first division of the patriots from Andalusia and Valencia, entered Madrid on the 9th of Aug. and, after making the necessary arrangements for the maintenance of public tranquillity, proceeded to follow the route of the enemy. The latter made no halt at Segovia; evacuating also Valladolid and Placentia, they fell back upon Burgos, Penurvo, and Vittoria. Joseph Bonaparte had left the army, and returned to France. The Gallician army, the head-quarters of which were at Astorga, had advanced in pursuit of Bessieres, who, with 15,0co men entered Burgos on the 12th, where he found the rear-guard of Joseph's army, under Gen. Moncey; but subsequent accounts state that the French left Burgos on the 17th, in consequence of a summons sent them by Gene als Cuesta and Blake, who were to enter the town next day. The advances of the Gallician army, however, have been so slow, as to war

rant a belief that it was not in sufficient force to hazard a contest with the French army, which is stated to exceed 40,000 men; and the Corunna Gazette states that the French, learning that Gen. Blake was still at Astorga, had re-possessed themselves of Burgos. The Gallician army consists of 30,000 men.Cuesta was at Valladolid with about 2000 cavalry. Gen. Castanos had lett Madrid to join him. The Duke del Infantado and Col. Doyle, who was with the Gallician army, had set out from Astorga for Madrid on business of great importance.


It has been supposed that it is not the intention of the French to evacuate Spain, but to occupy the line of the Ebro, from its source to its mouth,

which almost intersects the north of Spain, from the mountains of Asturias to the Mediterranean. The possession of Saragossa would however be necessary to the execution of this plan, and that they are not likely to obtain. They have been defeated in another, and we believe a last attack on that city. In the Madrid Gazette Extraordinary of the 18th of August is a letter from Gen. Palafox to the Governor of the Council, dated head quarters, Saragossa, August 14th, in which he says "I have the satisfaction to inform you, that the French army which, during two months, afflicted this city, practising the most shameful conduct ever witnessed, abandoned, early this morning, an immense quantity of artillery, ammunition, provisions, and other articles. The enemy attempted, during the night, a new attack on the narrow position which I occupied, but was defeated by the brave troops under my command, who defended it with such courage that he was obliged to fly with precipitation." He adds, that he had sent 4000 men to cut off the enemy from the road to Navarre, where other troops and armed peasantry were to assemble; and that 4000 more, with 6000 which had that day arrived from Valencia, were to continue the pursuit of the rear-guard, to prevent them at least from committing their usual excesses in the towns through which they might pass. There was a great rejoicing at Saragossa on occasion of this final triumph, and a solemn thanksgiving was ordered for the 15th.


We have now to announce the rising of this province in the patriotic cause, so long withheld from declaring itself by its local circumstances and situation. The chief persons of the province formed themselves into a junta at Bilboa, and their first act was to issue a spirited declaration, calling on the people to emu. late their brethren in arms, and to imitate the conduct of their ancestors, and exhorting them to hurl vengeance and destruction on the head of their oppressors. At first they were in want of arms and ammunition, but the supplies furnished by our squadron enabled a considerable body to take the field. Their rising seems, however, to have been still rather premature. The moment it was heard of, Sooo French troops were detached from Vittoria against Bilboa, about the 14th of Aug. The inhabitants, unsupported by regular troops, after a gallant resistance, were obliged to yield, but obtained honourable terms of capitulation; but these were totally disregarded by the French, who, on entering the city, plundered it of every thing valuable, and returned to Vittoria with their booty. Subsequent accounts from Gijon state, that another attack had been made by the enemy on Bilboa, but that they had been forced to make a speedy retreat, having lost 1400 men. On the same day that they first entered the place, Capt. Towers, of the Iris frigate, is said to have landed, spiked 43 pieces of cannon, and destroyed 500 barrels of powder.

On the rising of the inhabitants of Bilboa, they sent to Major Roche, requesting him to hasten to them with succours. He complied, but arrived on the 16th of Aug. only to witness the defeat of the Spaniards, of whom only about 2000 were engaged with the French force (about 8000) from Vittoria. The Major returned to Gijon on the 27th. The French committed the most horrible atrocities in Bilboa. They continued in possession on the 29th. The Spaniards were preparing to attack them, but it was believed that they would previously evacuate the city. Major Roche, it appears, has since repaired to Biscay with ample supplies of arms and ammunition.


na, with every prospect of success.From the extreme scarcity of provisions, the disaffection of the inhabitants, and the desertion of the troops, it is believed that it cannot long hold out. Several bodies of troops advancing to its relief have been cut off by the Spaniards. To supply the present necessities, and provide for the wants of the patriotic army, the Junta of the province have ordered the estates situated in it belonging to Bonaparte's minion the Prince of Peace, to be sold by auction, or let out at rent. His valuable flocks of sheep in Asturias have been sold by order of the Junta of that province. ANDALUSIA.

The Madrid Gazette states, that Dupont having pressed for the immediate embarkation of his troops, agreeably to the capitulation, the Governor of Cadiz answered, that the want of transports rendered it impossible, and besides that it was not likely that the English would permit their passage, Gen. Castanos not having undertaken positively to obtain their consent, but merely to use his influence with the English Government for that purpose. According to another account, however, Dupont had arrived at Port St Mary on the 14th of August, for the purpose of embarking there, and his baggage having set out for the came place, some of the plunder, consisting of church plate, fell out of the cases, the appearance of which so enraged the populace, that they immediately stopped the waggons, and repossessed themselves of their own property. Although the British Government would be warranted in preventing the return of the French to Rochefort, yet, out of deference to the Spanish Commander, it is, we understand, determined not to interfere with the execution of the capitulation. The prisoners, on their march, were obliged always to encamp in the open fields, being in constant apprehension of an attack from the people, whom their multiplied excesses had extremely exasperated. Dupont was to have been Governor of Cadiz, and had with him a numerous train of rapacious rascals, to fill all the lucrative employments, civil and military.

In consequence of the attack of the populace, as above stated, upon what Dupont called his baggage, he wrote an

The Spaniards are besieging Barcelo- insolent letter to Don Thomas Morla, Sept. 1808.


Governor of Cadiz, demanding full and immediate restitution. To this the Governor returned a very spirited answer. He expresses his concern at the conduct of the populace, not so much from the badness of the action, as because they had been wanting in respect to the Magistrates, and had taken the administration of justice into their own hands. He had written to him, he says, to have his baggage properly registered before he left Debrija, and that he could only avoid the indignation of the people by the most prudent and cautious conduct; "but never," says he, "was it my intention, and still less that of the Supreme Junta, that your Excellency and your army should carry out of Spain the fruit of your rapacity, cruelty, and irreligion. How could your Excellency imagine such a thing? or suppose us so stupid and insensible? Can a capitulation, which only stipulates for the security of baggage, protect the plunder which has been obtained by violence, assassination, and profanations of every kind, from Cordova and other cities? Is there any law, principle or reason, which prescribes that faith or even humanity should be observed towards an army which has entered an allied and friendly country under false and deceitful pre, texts; which has by treachery got into its power an innocent and beloved King and all his family, and then believe themselves authorised to sack his palaces, profane and plunder his temples, murder his ministers, oppress his people, steal all they can carry off, and destroy all they cannot? Is it possible that such men, when deprived of the horri. ble fruits of their iniquity, should ap peal to the principles of honour and probity. My natural moderation has induced me hitherto to write to your Excellency with a certain attention; but I could not refrain from giving a slight sketch of your conduct, on seeing your extraordinary demands, which are equivalent to a proposition that I should violate and plunder the churches of Cadiz, to compensate you for what the populace have taken from you, that is, what you took with atrocious and profane violence from the city of Cordova.--Your Excellency will banish such illusions, and content yourself with the assurance, that the Spanish nation, from its nobleness of character, will ne

ver act the part of an executioner,- I will do ali that shall be possible to provide for your personal security and regular subsistence; and I will use the utmost diligence to cause you to be conveyed to France."

The following proclamation, addressed to the French armies in Spain, has been circulated in the Spanish and French languages. It is dated from Ciudad Rodrigo.

"BRAVE SOLdiers of the FRENCH ARMY!-The time is arrived in which you should know your real happiness, Napoleon, the base Napoleon, has raised himself to the throne of France, upon the ruins of your fathers and your fellow citizens; in promising you the blessings of a good Government, he has only deceived you by means the most infamous. The blood which, during ten years, has flowed from the veins of your comrades, has only served to augment the splendour of his individual greatness; and the Imperial Crown has nothing for its support but the tombs of Frenchmen, misled and dazzled by his brilliant chimeras. France, after a revolution which will make her name resound to the latest posterity, agitated by violent storms, expected that the morning of her felicity was drawing near by means of the great Napoleon. Yes, France expected it; but has it appeared? On the contrary, her plains have been robbed of the vigorous hands of her peasants, in order to fill Italy, Germany, and Holland with their dead bodies. The youth has been snatched away from the bosom of his mother, in order to sacrifice him to the fire and sword, to the relentless ambition of one who is the ferocious enemy of his country, His treachery has practised the most seducing arts. He has pretended to re. verence the God of Heaven, in order to elevate himself as a god upon earth. In sporting with the lives of men, he has outraged the most sacred names of virtue and humanity, to deceive the simple and well meaning, France expected to see in Napoleon her liberator, but she has only found in him her tyrant. Her worthy citizens weep in silence the miseries of their slavery; but the Great Man, instead of breaking the fetters which oppress them, has also sought to enslave-whom? Oh God,


the avenger of ingratitude! Spain! That nation which has always been the affec tionate friend of the French people; a nation more easy to exterminate than to disgrace; a people who, having im bibed the sentiments of true religion, mingled with the maxims of a philosophy that supports and comforts, are placed beyond the dread of the tomb.

"He wishes to enslave Spain; that is, he wishes to chain to his triumphal chariot ten millions of souls. Mighty Napoleon mighty project! But the emissaries of this splendid exhibition are already rendered incapable of harming us. General Dupont, a prisoner himself, has seen his whole army overwhelmed and perishing under the thunder of Boetic valour. Another, who was at Oporto, is also a prisoner; and the perfidy and villany of the great Protector of Spain, exposed to the light, have been no longer able to ensure him success. Soldiers! for what, then, do you hope? Four hundred thousand men, with arms in their hands, invite you with brotherly friendship. The Spaniard, the friend of every true and virtuous Frenchman, while he embraces him with one hand, will stretch out the other to divide with him his bread and his wine. Burst asunder, then, Soldiers, the chains of ambition by which you are bound; quit the bloody standard of tyranny to enrol yourselves under that which is the protector of humanity and of reason. Affluent Spain offers you peace and abundance, and will you refuse them? It is not the false and perfidious Napoleon that addresses you; it is the generous, the rich, and the powerful Spain."

SPANISH ARMY IN DENMARK. Intimately connected with the affairs of Spain, are the contents of important dispatches received by Government from the Baltic, which were published on Wednesday, August 24, in a London Ga sette Extraordinary, and which communicate the important and pleasing intel. ligence of the fortunate liberation of a great part of the Spanish troops in Denmark, &c.

The dispatches consist of copies of letters from Rear Admiral Keates to Vice Admiral Sir Jas. Saumarez, which are in substance as follow:

"On the 5th of August, Rear Admiral Keates, then in the Superb, off

Langeland, addressed a letter to the of ficers of the Spanish troops, informing them, that he had received from his Government the most positive instructions to endeavour to communicate with the officers commanding the troops of Spain in the vicinity of his command, and to concert with them measures for securing their retreat from any place of embarkation which they might possess, and for placing them in a state of security, until transports could be provided for their conveyance to Spain, for which, as well as the necessary provisions, measures had already been taken, and their arrival was hourly expected. Until that period he offered them a share in the accommodation and provisions of his ships; but as that might be insufficient until the arrival of the commander in chief, he recommended, under the pressure of circumstances, the removal of the troops to some of the islands in the Belt, for their better security. He requested, in the mean time, an unreserved and confidential communication, as a concerted plan would be necessary, for combining, as far as possible, the interest of the Spanish troops in Jutland and Zealand with those in Funen and Langeland. He assured them, in conclusion, that altho', in his present circumstances, he could lay down no fixed plan, he entered ardently into the views of his Government and of the Spanish nation, and that his services, and those of every man under his command, were devoted to their cause.

"Previous to the date of this letter, a Spanish officer had effected his escape to the squadron, and his arrival had greatly facilitated the means of commu nication. By him also the Admiral was convinced, that no doubt could be entertained of the honour and patriotism of the Spanish soldiers, who, indignant at the proposal of deserting their allegiance, though surrounded by hostile bands, planted their colours in the centre of a circle which they formed, and swore to be faithful to their country. The Marquis de la Romana, commander in chief of the Spanish forces in Denmark, &c. and who was with the troops in Funen, returned a verbal answer by a confidential officer to the above letter, accompanied with an accurate report of the state and distribution of the Spanish troops in Denmark and its dependen

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