Obrazy na stronie

coals, and transmits them to the ma- laid aside, and sold separately at an nager. This person then arranges inferior price. The Glasgow colliers, with each carter the precise time when on the contrary, make no distinction he is to receive his load, for which, of this kind, but accommodate their therefore, he never has occasion to customers with a mixture of both, as wait. In Edinburgh, on the contrary, produced in the course of working.the carters receive the orders, or bring Now, this mixture appears to be the in the coals upon chance. When only way in which Scots coal can prothere is a great demand, they go in duce a comfortable fire. Chews afcrowds to the hill, and have to wait a ford the strongest heat, but burn too long time, sometimes a whole day, fiercely and rapidly ; while large coal before they are supplied. Here the form a lasting, but dull and dead fire. superiority of the Glasgow system is It is only by mixing the two, that a evident, and the remedy so obvious, fire, at once strong and durable, can that we cannot but consider it as a be produced. Upon this subject, Mr reproach upon the coal proprietors in Bald makes the following pertinent our neighbourhood, that it should not remarks, which entirely accord with before this have been applied. The our own observation. consequence is, that while the Edin

To burn such masses of coal as are in burgh carter usually makes only one

the cellars is quite impossible, as they journey a day, carrying 12 cwt., the would not kindle by any ordinary means. Glasgow carter makes three journeys, If, therefore, in a winter morning, atcarrying 24 cwt. each, or 72 cwt. in tention is paid to what is going on in all. It is true, the one is paid 10s. the coal.cellar of each family, where a 6d. the other only 4s. Id.; still the number of fires are to be put on, nothing former amounts only to 8 d. per

is to be heard but' hard blows; and u

ton, for each mile, while in Edinburgh, ment of those who have attended to the

pon entering, what must be the astonish. we pay 1s. 5d. Thus every one suf- wbole detail of keeping the coal in large fers by this blundering system ; the masses, to see them at last violently at. proprietor, the carrier, and most of tacked with every kind of destructive all, the public. That all parts of the implement, such as beavy cavron balls, operation may be equally ill conduct- double and single - headed shot, bamed, the weighing is performed on coin

mers of all descriptions, axes, crows, poman beams, by 4 cwt. at a time ; in

kers, picks, and pieces of whinstone, or stead of by weighing machines, as in lence against the other; all with a view

by one piece of coal dashed with vioGlasgow

to reduce part of them to chews, which Still, however, the price of coals, was previously so much avoided, and even at the hill, is considerably lower which could be bought 30 percent. cheaat Glasgow than at Edinburgh. In per than the great coal. Of the above the former, it is only 8s. 4d. per ton,

inplements actually used for breaking

coal, not one is adapted for the purpose in the latter, Ils. Sd. A considera

except the pick : all the rest not only ble

part of this difference, however, break the coal into chews, tut absolateMr B. imputes to the groundless and ly bruise much of it into a powder of no exclusive predilection, which the in- use; and therefore, while the predilection habitants of this city entertain, for for great coal continues, no family ought what is called great coal. To accom

to allow their coals to be broken by any modate themselves to this taste, the other implement than a light sharp pick. miners are at incredible pains to di. vide the coal only into large pieces; Upon the whole, though the coal while the chevs, or small coal, which of Mid Lothian appears, even in the are necessarily produced, to the amount first instance, to be somewhat higher of about one third of the whole, are than that of Lanarkshire, it seems fair

P. 31.

to infer, that by proper management, crative, but more agreeable employand by merely following the example mients,

Under these circumstances, set by Glasgow, we may reduce our we really think that Mr Bald's procoals 20 or 30 per cent., to the great posal deserves consideration, of exbenefit of the proprietors, and the einpting colliers from the militia balpublic. The former might thus be lot, which would both remove a conenabled to undersell their maritime stant drain upon their numbers, and competitors, and to check that propen- would act as a bounty upon a trade sity to the use of English coal which 'so necessary, and, at the same time, so seems rapidly gaining ground. We disagreeable. Our author insists, that must remark, however, that the use of they “ fight a much better battle for mixed coal does not promise to pro- their country, when driving vigorousduce any augmentation of the supply, ly at the coal wall, than when chargsince all the chews appear to be at ing the enemy sword in hand.” present consumed in our manufacto Another important point which ocries.

cupies the attention of the author, is With regard to the use of coal in respecting the free exportation of coal. families, our author advises a fire of To this he is decidedly inimical; and chews in the inorning, to heat the really, with all our attachınent to the house, and then recommends that, af- principles of commercial freedom, tre ter breakfast, a large coal should be must own ourselves somewhat staggerlaid above them, which will keep up ed by his arguments, and at least ada comfortable fire during the day. mit, that if such a prohibition be adHe censures the use of gathering coals, missible in any instance, it is in the and recoinmends, that both the kit- present. In the first place, he mainchen fire, and the others in the house, tains that the coal field of Scotland is should be lighted every morning by limited; that the drain from it is immeans of wood. We doubt, however, mense and continually increasing, and that in this country there would be a that therefore it must, in a certain pedeficiency of the article, unless the riod of time, be exhausted. With repurpose could be answered by shav- gard to theories of its reproduction, ings, or thin flakes separated by car

our author insists that this process, if penters in the operation of sawing. it really takes place, has been imper

We are next presented with some ceplible for the space of five hundred important facts respecting the mode years, (though we hardly see how the of procuring labourers for the coal. thing can be traced quite so high;) mines. Till the year 1775 the col- that the completion of it must thereliers were slaves, adscripti glebe; and fore belong to a period indefinitely reupon the abolition of this degrading mote. He, enquires what we are to system, it was expected that the trade do in the interval between the exhaus. might attract labourers from other tion of the present beds and the forprofessions. This expectation has not mation of the new; and alledges that been realized. So uncomfortable and our posterity will think the transmislaborious is the trade, that not even sion of an ingenious system, a poor subthe allurement of double wages has stitute for the comforts of a good coal yet induced any one to enter into it, fire. When in addition to this we who has not been, from infancy, ha consider the manifold uses of coal in bituated to its hardships. Indeed Mr agriculture (for lime,) in machinery, Bald seems to thiok, that no other and in directly promoting the accomwould be capable of enduring them. modations of life; when we consider On the other hand, persons are daily the serious blank which its cessation seen passing from it to other less lu- would leave in this country, we must


admit, that there is no article of which shire, and at S.nquhar in Dumfries shire, it is more important to be economical. but they are not of great extent. Cual Encouragement to production, there- strata are also to be found lying underfore, the chief advantage of free ex

neath the precipices of greenstune ruck

at Abbey Craig, Stirlog Castle, and poriation, is here scarcely desireable. Craigforth, in Stirlingshire; but these We admit this reasoning, however, are beyond the line of the- main field, not without reluctance; and we rather and only very thin seams of coal destiincline to suspect, that the freight on

tute of bitumen,termed islind.coal, have sza bulky an article will, even during been found there.

Even within these boundaries are peace, confine its export within narrow limits, and to cases in which it is the intervention of hills, and the conval.

tracts of country without cual, owing 10 of great and indispensable utility. So sion of the sorata by whinstone, and long as this is the case (which at pre- those troubles and dyiés so common in sent it avowedly is, in consequence of coal fields.

P.98, the war) we do not see sufficient ground In the last chapter, our author comto recommend the adoption of so chur- plains grievously of the present unlish and illiberal a system.

settled state of mineralogical nomen. In the course of this discussion Mr clature. He proposes that a general B. gives the following statement of society should be formed, for the pure the extent and direction of the coal pose of agreeing upon a common lanfield of Scotland.

guage. We suspect,

suspect, however, that

the evil arises necessarily from the pre'The coal-field of Scotland is confined sent unsettled and polemical state of to a certain district of country. It crosses the island in a diagonal line from the science ; few, at least, will anwest to east. Beyond this belt, either ticipate much union from a general to the north or south, little or no coal is meeting of Edinburgh mineralogists. to be found; and the inhabitants who The mind of the learned is, upon this are removed at any distance from the subject, in a state of agitation, from cual-field feel the greatest hardships, by which great improvements in the scithe high price and scarcity of fuel. The north boundary of the coal field which necessarily produces, in the mean

ence may, we hope, result in time, but extends from the banks of the river Eden, near St Andrew's, to the south time, a good deal of confusion. parts of Kinross-shire, from whence it Our author concludes with remonsweeps towards the Ochil mountains at strances on the hardships endured by Dollar, and keeps close upon their base the class of women called Bearers, who westward till it arrive at Craigleith, one bring up the coal from the pits, and reof the hills of that beautiful range, when commends the use of horses in their it suddenly turns southward, and cross stead. The difficulty is, that they conses the river Forth below Stirling; from thence it is traced by Kilsyth, Campsie, sist of the wives and daughters of the Witch-hill and Kilpatrick, till it fall in colliers, who are there at all events, to the river Clyde above Dumbarton. and are willing to perform the work at The south boundary commences near

a moderate rate. Haddington, and stretches by Linton, Douglas Mill, Glenbuck, Muirkirk, New Cumnock, and froni thence down the water of Giryan, till it join the II. The Cottagers of Glenburnie, a

Tale for the Farmer's Ingle-nook. These boundaries are not minutely cor. By Elizabeth Hamilton. 2d edit. rect, but they certainly contain the whole 8vo. 78. Od. of the Maini Coal-field of Scotland which is of any importance. Detached insula. THIS little work, with its ingenious ted fields are no doubt to be found beyond satire on certain parts of our nathese lines, as at Brora in Sutherland. tional character, has excited an extra



ordinary sensation in this metropo- The dialogue (a department in which lis. The charges which it advances Mrs Hamilton excells,) exhibits perare such as we have been long accus- haps the purest colloquial Scots that tomed to hear from our English neigh ever appeared in print; the most free bours, and have, shrough custom, be- from that English mixture, with which come somewhat callous to. But this compositions in that language are uis the first time that the attack has sually softened or corrupted. Retainbeen made by one of ourselves, and ing such an attachment as we do to by one who appears to be intimately the language and manners of our acquainted with all the penetralia of country, with all their imperfections, our household economy. When so we are glad that they should thus be strong a part of the garrison is thus handed down to posterity in full purity. found co-operating with the enemy, We shall now proceed to lay before there seems reason to apprehend that our readers a few specimens; which the fortress of national prejudice will will probably excite a desire to pernot be long able to hold out. use the whole. Mrs Mason, after

The features particularly noticed having acted as an upper domestic in are want of cleanliness in the whole some English families, is led by cirmanagement of the household; an in- cumstances to take up her residence dolence which, if we may so speak, for some time with her relation Mrs appears not in the gross, but in the M'Clarty, who lives in the village of detail, which performs with activity Glenburnie. The following descrip all great and necessary work, but can- tion is given of the entrance to the not submit to minute attentions, es- house : pecially to such as require thought or contrivance; in the treatment of chil.

It must be confessed, that the aspect dren, a weak and blameable indul- of the dwelling, where she was to fix her

residence, was by no means inviting. gence; and an inveterate attachment

The walls were substantial; built, like io old habits. These faults, it must

the liouses in the village, of stone and be remarked, though by no means e- lime ; but they were blackened by the radicated, have yet for some time, nud which the cart wheels had spatterand in the more cultivated parts of ed from the ruts in winter; and on one the country, been gradually diminish- side of the door completely covered ing. We should be much deceived, from view by the contents of a great from the title

dungbill. On the other, and directly un

der ihe window, was a squashy pool, gine that the picture applies to Scot- formed by the dirty water ihrown from fish farmers in general. In the opu- the house, and in it about twenty young lent farmers of Lothian and Ber- ducks were at this time dabbling. wickshire, no one certainly would be Al the threshold of the dour, room able to recognise it, but would rather had been left for a paving-stone, but it suspect tendencies of an opposite kind. had never been laid; and consequently It still applies however to the little

the place became hollow, to the great

advantage of the younger ducklings, farmers in remote districts, and to who always found in it a plentiful sup. most of the peasantry.

It is drawn

ply of water, in which they could swim in a masterly stile, and no one who without danger. Happily' Mr Stewart bas an opportunity of observing the was provided with boots, so that he originals, that is, no Scotsman, can

could take a firm step in it, while he fail to recognize the most striking re

lifted Mrs Mason, and set her down in

safety within the threshold. But there semblance. Even where, as in what relates to the treatment of children, there the great whey put had stood since

an unforeseen danger awaited her, for the outline belongs to all countries, morning, when the cheese had been still the colouring is completely Scotch. made ; and was at the present inom nt.

Frere we,

page, to ima

filled with chickens, who were busily how I learned to clean our tables when picking at the bits of curds, which had I was a girl like you." hardened on the sides, and cruelly mock: Meg continued to make lines with ed their wishes. Over this Mr Stewart her fore finger. and Mrs Mason unfortunately stumbled. " Come," said Mrs Mason, “ stall I The pot was overturned, and the chick- teach you ?" ens cackling with hideous din, flew a- “ Na," said Meg, “ ] sal dight nane bout in all directions, some over their o't. I'm gain' to the schul." “ But heads, and others making their way by that need not hinder you to wipe up the pallion (or inner duor) into the house. the table before you go,” said Mrs Ma.

P. 135. son.“ You might have cleaned it up as Mr Stewart having remonstrated bright as a louk ing.glass in the time that on the absence of the fagstone, recei- you have spent in spatiering it, and dir

tying your fingers. Would it not be ved the following answer :

pleasanter for you to make it clean, tban " Indeed, I kenna, Sir," said Mrs

to leave it dirty ?" MacClarty; "the gudeman just cauna

" I'll no be at the fash," returned be fash'd."

Meg, making off to the door as she “ And cannot you be fash'd to go to spoke. Before she got out, she was thet the end of the house to throw out your by her mother, who, on seeing her, exdirty water? Don't you see how smal claimed, “ Are ye no awa yet, bairns! a drain would from that carry it down I never saw the like. Sic a fight to get to the river, instead of remaining here, you to the schul! Nae wonner ye learn to stagnate, and to suffocate you with little, when you'r at it. Gae awa like intolerable stench?"

good bairns; for there's nae schulin the “ 0, we're just used to it,” said Mrs morn ye ken, its the fair day." Mac Clarty, " and we never mind it.

Meg set off after some farther parley; We cou’dna be fash'd to gang sae far but Jean continued to catch the flies at wi' a'the slaistery."

P. 148.

the window, taking no notice of her The interior of the house, and par- peated in pretty nearly the same terms.

mother's exhortacions, though again reticularly of the bed-room was entirely “Dear me !" said the mother, “what's suitable to the entrance. Next mor- the matter wi'the bairn! whatfore winning, finding no washing implements na ye gang, when Meg's gane ? Rin, in her room, she goes into the kit. and ye'll be after her or she wins to the chen to enquire for them ; upon which end o' the loan.” the following truly admirable scene

" I'm no ga'an the day," says Jean,

* And what.

turning away her face. takes place.

fore are ye no ga'an, my dear ?" says She there found Meg and Jean; the her mother. " Cause I hinna gotten my former standing at the table, from which questions,” replied Jean. the porridge-dishes seemed to have been “O, but ye may gang for a' that," just removed; the latter killing flies said her mother; “the maister will no at the window. Mrs Mason addressed be angry. Gang, like a gude bairn." herself to Meg, and, after a courteous “Na," said Jean, “but he will be angood-morrow,asked her where she should gry, for I did no get them the last time find a hand-bason? “ I dinna ken,” said either.” Meg, drawing her finger through the “ And whatfore did va ye get them, milk that had been spilled upon the ta: my dear," said Mrs MacClarty, in a ble. " Where is your mother?" asked soothing tone. “ Cause 'twas unco kitMrs Mason. “I dinna ken,” returned tle, and I cou'd no be fashed;" replied the Meg, continuing to dabble her hands hopeful girl, catching, as she spoke, athrough the remaining fragments of the nother handful of fies. Her mother,

finding that intreaties were of no avail, “ If you are going to clean that ta. endeavoured to speak in a more peremp, ble," said Mrs Mason, “ you will give tory accent; and even laid her com. yourself more work than you need, by mands upon her daughter to depart im daubing it all over with the porridge; mediately : but she had too often per bring your cloth, and I shall shew you mitted her commands to be disputed, to



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