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EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For SEPTEMBER 1808.
Description of MAULDSLIE Castle. it is not easy to ascertain amidst so MA
AULDSLIE Casti.E, the seat of many buildings; but which the nathe Earl of Hyndford, is beauti
tives say amount to seven, like those fully situated on the banks of the of ancient Rome. It may rather be
said to stand upon an arm of the sea, Clyde, in a fine lawn, surrounded by rising grounds. It lies in the parish into which the Tagus falls, than upon of Carluke, about four miles froin La the Tagus itself; that river not being nark, in the road to Hamilton and navigable even for boats in all its long Glasgow. The country round may leagues of Lisbon, and the water be
till within twelve or fourteen vie, for beauty and fertility, with
any fore the town being salt, and frequentin Scotland The mansion was built upon a plan by the late Robert Adams, ly so rough, as to endanger the ships which is generally considered as the
at anchor there. The inhabitants of
Lisbon, however, who are jealous of most compleat plan of a modern cas
the honour of their river, affirm this tle of any designed by that celebrated architect. The hill, or law, of Maulds
to be a frivolous distinction, and that lis, is reinarkable for the antiquities in the time of the rains, an immense found in it, which consist of cairns, in body of fresh water is here brought which are found urns, containing hu
down, so as often to cause more daman bones.
to the shipping than is ever occasioned by the wind and tide from
However that may be, the
situation is admirable, and the town, SKETCH of Lisbon.
full of churches, palaces, domes, and (From Semple's Travels.)
spires, rising from the edge of the wa
ter up the ascents and over the tops THIS city can never cease to be a of so many hills, presents from the
place of consequence whilst trade bay one of the noblest views that can and commerce flourish in Europe.-- be imagined, and superior perhaps to Had it not been for political events that of any city in the world. In and considerations, it would probably whatever situation we view it during have become the capital of Spain, our approach, it is imposing, but when there being no situation possessed of we land the delusion vanishes
. The equal advantages in the whole Penin- streets are badly paved and full of sula, as it may be called, of Europe, filth; the houses, with here and there south of the Pyrences. It is built up- a latticed window, have a melancholy on several hills, the number of which appearance, and the inhabitants, some
and the remainder in dark- houses, and inhabited by a race among coloured clothes, render the whole still whom cleanliness in all its branches more gloomy.
appears wholly neglected, and where The part of Lisbon most deserving swine and miserable dogs are stretchof attention is that which suffered so ed out upon heaps of filth before eveseverely in the dreadful earthquake of ry door. Fortunately this does not 1755. It is not merely that all the last long, and we presently come into flat at the foot of the amphitheatre of the open fields on the north-west side the surrounding hills is rebuilt in a re- of the town. The country, at this sea. gular manner, and excellently paved ; son, looks brown and parched up, and but the ruins of great buildings still re- is wholly destitute of inclosures; a maining on the tops of the heights in number of country seats, however, at the heart of a populous city, have a a little distance, surrounded by trees, singular and striking effect. Other and intermingled with vineyards, must, nations erect monuments at a great immediately after the rainy season, expense, in commemoration of battles, form a beautiful prospect. On the earthquakes, and wide wasting fires. heights to the left is a range of windBut nothing can speak so home to the mills, which being, I suppose, similar heart as these awful remains which to those used in Spain, tend to illusstand in perpetual memento to the in- trate a passage in Don Quixote. Judg. habitants of Lisbon, of what has hap- ing from those on the banks of the pened, and may again happen to the Thames, and throughout England, I city.
had always hitherto considered the acThe churches and the theatres will count of the battle with the windnaturally first attract the stranger ; mills, as too extravagant even for that and the ruins cannot fail to awaken extravagant knight : but those of this serious reflections. Should he be dis- country being little, round, sturdy posed to continue them, he may ascend fellows, of about ten or twelve feet in one of the hills, on the top of which, height, might pass for the ghosts of surrounded by a high wall, and plan- giants, even to a sober English peated thickly with trees, is the English sant, on a moonlight night. Passing burying ground. There is always to onwards, we come to a deep and narme something aflecting in the sight of row valley, over which is thrown the the
grave of a fellow countryman in a noblest aqueduct which has been erecforeign land; how much more when ted in Europe since the time of the they are crouded so thickly together. Romans. It is, perhaps, the last also Among the many who came here for that will be erected for the sole end of health and found a grave, lies Henry carrying water for common purposes ; Fielding, an unrivalled delineator of the discovery, that fluids when conhuman life and manners, and whose veyed in pipes will rise to nearly their name will be remembered as long as level, superseding the use of such stutrue humour shall be relished in Eng- pendous structures.
It consists of land. I could here fill up several thirty-five arches, the centre one of pages with long inscriptions over the immense height, but they are greatly once illustrious dead; but indeed, my too narrow in proportion, when viewgood reader, you and I have a long ed from a little distance. The inhajourney before us, and shall therefore bitants of Lisbon boast that they are leave the drudgery to these who make the highest single arches in the world, books. Quitting the burying ground, which may be true ; but a double or and keeping the heights, we soon find triple row would have been equally ourselves on the outskirts of the town, useful and far more elegant. A nowhich are composed of very mean ble pathway, bordered by a wall of solid blocks of stone, leads across the ing ; yet it must be allowed that their summit, nearly on a level with the frigates are handsomely modelled, and water, which makes a perpetual.run- have every exterior appearance of exning sound on the inside. This sound cellence. is echoed along the arched stone roof Among the peasantry who come in of the aqueduct, and excites a pleasing from the country, especially on Sunsensation in the mind of the passen- days, it is easy to observe a number of ger, who turning to the other hand, particulars in dress and manners which and looking over the parapet, beholds must be referred to a Celtic origin.beneath him, at a great depth, the Instead of hats they frequently wear stony bed of a considerable stream, caps or bonnets ; the ancient plaid, under the center arch, and which, in too warm to be carried in this climate winter, must run with all the fury of as a cloak, is converted into a partya mountain torrent. Over this stream coloured sash, which they wear round a bridge is thrown, and a road leads the middle, and in which they unithrough the valley ; the travellers on formly carry a dirk or long knife; which, when viewed from above, seem and their favourite instrument of mudiminished in size to the circumference sic is the bagpipe, adorned with ribof their hats. Upon the whole, this bons, exactly similar to that used in aqueduct is justly a national boast the highlands of Scotland. To the among the Portuguese ; and in a coun- sound of this very ancient instrument, try where so few great undertakings, two or three of them together dance not connected with religion, are carri- a kind of reel, or if the tune be slow ed to perfection, it stands like a giant and soleitin, the piper walks backward amidst pigmies and abortions. It is and forward amidst a silent and attensingular that the same nation have tive crowd. In their lively dances erected in America the only great, they raise their hands above the head perhaps the only, aqueduct which ex- and keep time with their castanets. ists in all that continent. It is near The Scottish Highlanders observe exthe town of Rio Janeiro, and is thrown actly the same practice, and I am across a valley wider than that near fully persuaded that their strong snapLisbon. I only saw this last at some ping of the fingers is in imitation of little distance, yet I cannot help think- the sound of the castanet. ing that the two were constructed at no great distance of time from each other, and that whichever was the first, served as a model to the second.
SPANISH ITINERARY. At Belem is a castle, and a battery running out into the water, the can- THE following Itinerary of the non of which, in the present circum- principal great roads from M2stances, sufficiently command the en- drid to the chief towns of the trance of the harbour. Their alliance Provinces, will be found very conwith England, however, is the best venient. Many of the distances are bulwark of Lisbon against an attack stated from actual measurement, oby sea ; yet they talk of their navy as thers are taken from the computed being second to that of Great Britain, Leagues of the country, as estimated if not in numbers, at least in courage for the march of Soldiers or hire of and maneuvres. Untried merit, when Travelling Horses, some of which much boasted of, may always be sus- have been corrected from the obser. pected ; and of all the nations that I vations of the late M. Mechain, in have yet seen, the Portuguese appear bis Trigonometrical Survey of Spain, to have the smallest reason for boast- in which he was employed, as well as in measuring a Degree of the Meri- are many places where the linear disdian in that country, some time before tances and the actual length of the his death at Valencia, in 1805. But carriage roads differ at least oneas the country is very mountainous, fourth. The nominal or common and consequently the Roads very league of Spain is not less than four crooked, no Geometrical Survey of English miles, and the distance bethe distances between the chief towns tween villages estimated at a league, as deduced from maps, can deserve the frequently varies from 3 to 41 Eng. least attention ; on the contrary, there lish miles.
47/131|118 39 Cordova
671138|122 52 20 Granada
61120108|56| 141 11 Jaen
831341 32135 98 110 96 Leon
63 102 54102 64 68 54 55 Madrid
9788112 98 50 50 38 1141 59 Murcia
110158 56,161124136 122 26 82139Oviedo
123 67 33 160124 120 112 6060102 86 Pamplona
120176 89181140 16014058 106 159 56 123 Santiago
37 150 140 23 29 35 32112 88 68138 148|156 Seville
511141 66 88 50 54 41 68 12 53 92 72 112 70 Toledo
--110 55 86120 74 73 64107 51 32138 72157 99 59 Valencia
-Zara113 52 52 134 100 105 92 85| 50 80 111 27 125 125 6245 gossa.
This table represents the number of the former, and immediately opposite Leagues between all the capital towns the latter, gives 63 Leagues, or 252 of the Provinces or Kingdoms, and English miles ; if from Badajos to the Metropolis or court of Spain, Zaragossa, we find 113 Leagues, or Madrid. If it is desired to know the 452 English miles; and so with all distance between Badajos and Mad- the others. rid, the angle of the column under N. B. The distances in this Table
are taken on the carriage roads, and at present in flower in the large stove not the bridle roads, which are shor- of the botanic garden, Leith walk. ter, more mountainous, and generally This plant very rarely shews its raimpas able to any thing but asses, cemes of flowers. Professor Martyn, in mules, sheep, or black caitle. his new edition of the Gardener's Dic
tionary, mentions that it flowered at Schoenbrunn, on the Continent, in
1773 ; but, froin the edition of Mr Inthly Memoranda in Natural His. Don's Cambridge Catalogue, publishtory.
ed last year, it does not appear to have
ever before produced its flower in this Sepit, THE weather has been country. One reason may be, that,
1,. very variable, and upon in England, it is generally treated as the whole not the most favourable for a green-house plant, but in the botanthe corn-crops. It now appears, that ic garden here, it has been fostered the long-continued rains in July and with the heat of the tan-bed in the August have considerably damaged stove. the wheat crop, especially in East Lo- Supt. 20.--Mackrel, in considerthian, and the counties of Berwick and able numbers, are at present brought Roxburgh, &c. The stalks and ears to our market. They are taken on of whole fields have been found more the Fife coast, and off Dunbar. or less tainted with the rust, mildew, Or blight, i.e. overrun with the minute P.S.- Opportunities of examining parasitical fungus, so fully and accu- the nature of the mineral strata over rately described and figured by Sir which Edinburgh is built, occur now Joseph Barks. But for information and then, in the course of digging out o the interesting subject of the infe- foundations for houses, &c. in differriority of this year's wheat crop, we ent situations, and at different elevamust refer our readers to the Farmer's tions of the very unequal surface oc-' Magazine, where they will find ample cupied by the city. To assist future details
. One writer in that periodical inquirers, we shall, in our Monthly work seems to think that he has disco- Memoranda, occasionally describe such vered one cause of mildew, in the ope- mineral appearances. Taken individurations of a minute insect which he aly, such observations cannot be exfound infecting the ears of wheat in pected to afford much interest ; but if Berwickshire: the punctures of the in- they be continued for a due length of sect, he supposes, may afford a nitlus time, they may eventually be useful to the impalpable seeds of the micro- in ascertaining the geognostic relascopic fungus above referred to. He tions of the curious rocks which rise has given a magnified sketch of this into eminences in the immediate neighinsect; but this sketch bas either been bourhood, particularly the Castle Rock so carelessly drawn, or so carelessly and the Calton Hill. engraved, that the entomologist will During this month, a considerable eadeavour in vain to ascertain even excavation has been formed on the the genus to which it belongs: possi- west side of Nicolson Street, nearly bir it may be a Thrips. But what- opposite to the Royal Manège, in orever the insect may be, we are certain- der to form cellars below a range of ły inclined to consider its presence ra- several shops about to be erected there. ther as the consequence than the cause The principal mineral which has been of mildew.
here exposed, is a variety of SlateSept. 16.-A fine specimen of the clay, or Argillaceous Shistus, a good Least Fan Palm (corypha minor) is deal tinged of a brownish-red colour.