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division. On the roth of August, Gen. Meade sailed from the same port, in the Decade frigate, with some transports, having on board the 18th dragoons, also for Portugal.
On the 21st of July, Sir Arthur Wellesley was off Corunna, all well, where he landed, and was received by the Spaniards with great rejoicings. He continued on shore about 36 hours, and having learnt the successful progress of the Spanish arms, reimbarked, amidst the huzzas of the populace. On the 25th the fleet was off Oporto, where the Gen. again went on shore, with part of his suite, and waited on the Bishop, now Governor, by whom he was most kindly received. He reimbarked next morning, and sailed in the Crocodile frigate for the Tagus, in order to consult with Sir Charles Cotton.
General Wellesley's expedition arrived in Mondego Bay on the 29th July. On the 30th, the General rejoined the expedition, and signal was immediately made to prepare to land. On the 31st, however, this was found impracticable, from the surf on the beach, which, even in the calmest weather, is very high. The Alfred lost from 15 to 20 of her people in sending boats ashore, and some men belonging to the transports were drowned. The marines were encamped close to the town of Fernigo. On the morning of the 1st of August the 5th battalion of the 60th, the 95th, 36th, and 45th regiments were disembarked, and marched towards Lavos, where they were to be encamped till the whole were landed. The last to land was Gen. Craufurd's division, consisting of the 40th, 71st, and 91st. A proportion of artillery was disembarked every day. The joy with which the troops were received by the Portugueze was excessive; as the boats advanced to the shore, the air was rent by the acclamations of the people on the beach, and nothing was heard but blessings on the name of Great Britain, the deliverer of the oppressed. Gen. Spencer arrived off the Tagus on the 1st, with 5000 men from Gibraltar, and was still detained there on the 3d by adverse winds. He was to take the first opportunity of proceeding to Figueira. General Wellesley would probably wait for him, and perhaps for the troops under the command of Gen. Sir Harry Burrard.
SUBVERSION OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL ESTATES.
The following extraordinary Proclamation was issued at Bayonne by Bonaparte, and published at Rome on the 21st of May: PROCLAMATION.
"Napoleon, by the grace of God, and by the constitution, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Rhenish Confederacy, considering that the present Sovereign of Rome has constantly refused to declare war against the English, and to co-operate with the kingdoms of Italy and Naples for the protection of the Italian peninsula; that the interest of the two kingdoms, and the relative situation of Italy and Naples, require that their communication should be interrupted by no hostile power; that the gift of the lands which compose the Ecclesiastical States was made by our illustrious predecessor Charlemagne, for the benefit of Christendom, but not for the succour of the enemies of our holy religion; therefore have we, upon consideration of the demand for passports made by the Romish Ambassador at our Court, on the 8th of March, decreed, and do decree as follows:-[Here follow the different articles of the decree, uniting the provinces of the Papal territory to the kingdom of Italy, and presenting various local regulations as to their government.] In pursuance of a second decree, ali Cardinals, Prelates, and other officers of the Romish court, born in the kingdom of Italy, must retire to the place of their birth before the 5th of June, on pain of forfeiting their goods. At Ancona, on the 11th of May, the Papal officers were already dismissed.
A series of official papers have been published at Palermo, by order of his Sicilian Majesty, which give a striking view of the atrocious treachery and violence which has been exercised at Rome against both the person of his Holiness, whom all true Catholics deem sacred, and the rights spiritual and temporal which he possesses." We must, however," says the Italian commentator on these documents," remark at the commencement, that this last act of the French Ruler (viz.the seizure of Rome,)
which violates at once the most sacred principles of our holy religion and the law of nations, evidently proves, that, intending to destroy all ancient Governments, the family of Buonaparte wishes, above all, with a view to establish their atheism, to destroy the Roman Catho. lic religion, being fully aware that it cannot build up his own tyranny, except upon the foundation of impiety; and, in fact, the Emperor of the French had no other intention, in thus endeavouring to destroy the Catholic worship, than to eradicate from the minds of the people whom he enslaves every notion of respect, and every sentiment of obedience to the head of the Church of Christ, whom he has with that view strove to dishonour, by forcing him to enter into a league with himself; or, in other words, to be his accomplice in those robberies which he commits a gainst every kind of property, public and private. But the Spirit of God has given to the Holy Father strength to resist these suggestions of the enemy of men, and has enabled him to display an energy worthy the best ages of the church.
The 4th Note is from Cardinal Gabrielli to Lefebvre, complaining of the behaviour of the French, in imprisoning and banishing of other Cardinals, natives of Italy, as well as of Naples.
The 5th Note requires the Treasurer of his Holiness to give two Cardinals, banished to the north of Italy, 1000
The 6th Note is from Cardinal Gabrielli to Lefebvre, complaining of the French officers having seized a number of the Papal troops, and confining them, and requiring their liberation.
The 7th Note is from the same to the same, signifying, that after the forced incorporation of the Italian and French troops, his Holiness had called those of his troops who still remained faithful to him, to wear a cockade different from the rest, that the public might not as cribe to him the excesses of the French.
to Lefebvre, remonstrating, in the name of his Holiness, against the proceedings of the French commander, in imprisoning and threatening the officers of his Holiness with banishment, because they were averse to unite with the French against the inclination of their Sovereign. The 34 Note is written by the Secretary of his Holiness to such Cardinals as were ordered by the French to quit the Papal dominions.-Their names are Cardinal Guiseppe, Doria Pamfili, and the Pope's Minister, who was replaced by Cardinal Gabrielli.
The 8th Note is from M. Champagny, addressed to Cardinal Caprara. It calls upon the Pope to declare war against England, and in the event of his refus ing to do so, threatens to overturn the Government, and to establish another, which will make common cause with Italy and Naples against the common enemy. The Note then concludes with an expression of regret that the Cardinal Caprara's demand for passports compelled his Imperial Majesty to consider Rome in a state of war with France.
This last Note was followed by a long Declaration in name of his Holiness, and signed by Cardinal Gabrielli. It is a truly eloquent and interesting composition, and we shall give it if possible in our next.
The 1st Note is dated from the PaJais Quirinal, from Cardinal Pamali to M. Lefebvre, and is dated the 2d of March. It complains, in the most glowing language, of the French Commandant, in forcibly depriving the Chevalier Altieri of the government of Rome; of placing a guard at the Post-office, and opening all the letters, in defiance of the public law; of forcibly incorporating the Papal troops with those of France, and placing guards on all the printing houses, and thereby depriving his Holiness of the liberty of the press.
The ad Note is from the same Cardinal ADDRESS OF THE CITY OF LONDON TO
On Wed. July 20. the Right Hon. Lord Mayor, the Aldermen, Recorder, Sheriffs, and Common Council of the ci ty of London, waited upon his Majesty, at the Queen's Palace (being introduced by Lord Rivers, the Lord in waiting,) with the following address, which was read by the Recorder :
To the King's most Excellent Majesty.
men, and Commons of the city of London, in Common Council as
"Most Gracious Sovereign,
"We, your Majesty's loyal subjects, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Cem mons of the city of London, in Common Council assembled, with hearts full of dutiful affection to your Royal Person, and inseparably attached to the honour and prosperity of your Government, humbly desire to approach your throne, and represent to your Majesty the sentiments of a free and faithful people.
"While we contemplate, with horror and indignation, the atrocious perfidy and wanton violence employed by the ruler of France, to reduce under his yoke the Spanish Monarchy and the Spanish people, we cannot refrain from expressing our joy and exultation, at the pure and animating spirit of patriotism, displayed by that high-minded and gallant nati a, in defence of their dearest rights and privileges. They have appealed to the generous feelings of your Majesty for protection and sup port, and they have not appealed in vain. You, Sire, have felt as the Sovereign of a free people, who, by extending his powerful aid to a nation struggling for liberty and independence, holds forth to the world a happy and practical illustration of the blessings which his own subjects enjoy.
"The solemn declaration, by which your Majesty has been pleased to recognise the Spanish nation as a natural friend and ally against the common enemy of all established governments; the frank, dis. interested and inspiriting pledge which you have given, that you have no other object than that of preserving unimpair. ed, the integrity and independence of the Spanish Monarchy; the wisdom, liberality and promptitude of the mea sures consequently adopted by your Majesty's Government, have excited in our breasts the most lively and grateful sensations.
"We have to entreat your Majesty's acceptance of our most cordial thanks for the noble and liberal system of policy by which your councils have been, and continue to be, actuated towards Spain; and we beg leave to assure you, that, in contributing to the success of
your royal interposition in a cause at once so great and glorious, and so peculiarly congenial to the spirit and feelings of your people, no exertion sball be withheld, no sacrifice shall be spared, on our part, to preserve twelve millions of fellow freemen from being accursed with the most galling and profligate despotism recorded in the history of the world.
"In the measures which your Majesty may think proper to adopt for accomplishing this great end, you may, Sire, rely with the firmest confidence u pon the affectionate, zealous, and en thusiastic support of your loyal citizens of London. We feel ourselves identified with the Patriots of Spain; we sympathise in all their wants; we participate in all their wishes; and we humbly beg leave to express our fervent hope, that the glorious struggle in which the Spanish nation is engaged, aided by the energies, resources, and magnanimity of the British empire, may succeed, not only in asserting the independence of the Spanish Monarchy, but in ultimately effecting, under the protection of Di, vine Providence, the emancipation of Europe, and the re-establishment of the blessings of peace."
To which address his Majesty was pleased to return the following most gracious answer:
"I thank you for your very loyal and dutiful address. I accept with pleasure your congratulations on the prospect opened to the world by the brave and loyal exertions of the Spanish nation against the tyranny and usurpation of France, and on the re-establishment of peace between Great Britain and Spain.
"In aiding the efforts of the Spanish nation, I have been actuated by no o ther motive than that of affording the most effectual and disinterested assistance to a people struggling for the maintenance of their ancient Government and national independence.
"I have no doubt I shall continue to receive from you, and from all classes of my people, the same zealous and affectionate support which I have experienced on so many and on such important occasions."
They were all very graciously received, and had the honour to kiss his Majesty's hand. SCOT
ADDRESS OF THE CITY OF EDINBURGH TO THE KING.
To the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
May it please your Majesty, We, the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council of your Majesty's good city of Edinburgh, deeply feeling the momentous importance of the present crisis in the fate of Europe, crave permission to approach your royal throne.
narch and Royal Family. Thus he has at once treated with the foulest perfidy a nation celebrated from its earliest history for rigid adherence to public and to individual faith, and stigmatized with insolence and contumely a people pro honour. verbially jealous of national and of per
aggression, unparalleled in history for May we be permitted to hope that an the treachery in which it commenced, the undisguised effrontery with which it was avowed, and the cruelty by which it was enforced, as it has already converted the most passive and useful ally of France into the most formidable enemy, may teach the other nations of Europe how little is to be expected from submission to such a foe; how much may be hoped from decided, determined, and uncompromising resistance. Above all, from the measures, alike prudent, liberal, and active, already adopted in your Majesty's Councils, we are encouraged to hope, that no aid which the resources of your Majesty'skingdoms can supply will be withheld from those Patriots who are now in arms, not solely in the cause of Spain, but in that of Britain, of Europe, and of the world. If it is the pleasure of God that their noble efforts shall be finally unsuccessful, let it not be recorded as a cause of their failure that Britain was a cold and indifferent assistant in so glorious a struggle. But if, as we hope, trust, and pray, the issue of the contest shall be successful, may it be written in the annals of Spain, that, not alone the wisdom of her patriotic councils, and the enthusiasm of her brave warriors, but the ready, the decided, unconditional, and disinterested succours of Britain, saved her from the yoke of a worse than Moorish conqueror, and aided her to erect, in the preserved independence and renovated energy of her Government, an unsurmountable barrier against his insatiable ambition.
That God may grant your Majesty long and happy reign, and may vouch safe to direct your Councils at this im portant
Representing the ancient metropolis of a kingdom long famous for maintaining its liberties against invasion, and sharing the benefit of your Majesty's paternal Government, it is impossible for us to behold, without the keenest interest, the gallant struggles of the Spanish nation against foreign tyranny, since our own experience teaches us the blessings of legitimate freedom, and the history of our ancestors shews us how it ought to be defended. When we consider the eventful and invigorating spectacle of a gallant and injured people, rising to a man in defence of their laws, their King, and their religion, against unpro voked and treacherous invasion, we cannot but nourish the animating hope that Providence has destined the presumption of the oppressor of Europe to be the instrument of ruining his usurped power. It was, when possessed of all the resources of Spain, when wasting in the extensive plans of his own ambition, but in which she had not the remotest interest, the treasures of her colonies, and the blood of her subjects, it was then that the present ruler of France was pleased, in the wanton insolence and lust of domination, to occupy her capital with his soldiery, to massacre its loyal inhabitants, to deceive, dethrone, and ead into captivity her unfortunate MoAugust 1808.
portant crisis to the weal of Britain, of Spain, and of Europe, is the unfeigned and devout prayer of your Majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council of the city of Edinburgh.
Signed, in our name, by our appointment, and in our presence, and the seal of the said city is hereto affixed. DONALD SMITH, Provost. SPEECH OF THE LORD JUSTICE CLERK, AT THE GLASGOW CIRCUIT, April 30. After his Lordship had, in the usual manner, inquired whether there were any persons present who had cause of complaint against the judicial conduct of the Sheriffs of this District, he, in a highly eloquent and impressive manner, spoke nearly as follows:
"From the silence which prevails after the proclamation now made, I conclude, that no person has any complaint to make against you; this, indeed, is no more than I expected from the character of yourselves, and of your principals This ceremony of calling up the Sheriffs at the conclusion of each Justice Eyre, and making open proclamation for any person to come forward who thinks he has been injured by them in the exercise of their office, is of considerable antiquity in our Law, and was originally of great utility. At the time when the ceremony was enjoined, almost all our She riffdoms were hereditary in the families of great and powerful Barons, who often were the rivals of the King himself, and from whom, therefore, if they were guilty of oppression, the people subject to their jurisdiction were little likely to obtain redress. It was, therefore, wisely provided by our ancestors, that, at the conclusion of each Justice Eyre, before dismissing the Jury, the Sheriffs should be obliged to stand up and answer to any complaint made against them before the Grand Justiciar, invested with the whole Majesty of the Law, and armed with the power of the whole array of the district.
will be abolished. While I sit here, it shall never be omitted. We all must eel how apt the best of us are to become intoxicated with power, and, therefore, how useful it must be from time to time, to remind Magistrates that they are responsible for their conduct. Even if I thought this ceremony might now be safely discontinued as to you, would wish it to be preserved for my own sake-for I cannot thus remind you of your Duty and of your Responsibility, without, at the same time, being reminded of my own; and I am not vain enough to think, that such responsibility is less necessary for me than for you. Perhaps the higher the office and the greater the power, it is the more useful that frequent opportunities should recur of reminding Magistrates that their power is conferred on them for the benefit of others, and that, in the exercise of it, they are accountable to their superiors. "Gentlemen Sheriffs, and you, my Lord
Provost and Gentlemen of the Magis, tracy of the City;
"Thank God, we live in times, when the original cause which led to this ceremony no longer exists. The office of Sheriff is now intrusted to professional Gentle men, qualified by their education to administer justice with ability, and without power, without temptation to transgress the laws; and, besides, from their judgments, there lies a regular appeal to the Supreme Courts of Session and Justiciary.
But, although the original reason for this ceremony has ceased, I am far from thinking that it has become useless. On the contrary, I hope and trust that it never
"Before concluding, allow me to say a few words applicable to the state of the criminal business in this place, and to the si tuation of our Country in general.
"Although, from the list of criminals to be tried at this Eyre, the business had at first rather a formidable aspect, I am happy that it has ended with so little trouble to us all, especially to the Gentlenen of the Jury; but, even in the worst view of it, I must, in justice, say, that the number of criminals in custody for trial was comparatively small, in reference to the immense population of this district of the country. But if reference be made to the list of criminals in other countries, even in our sister kingdom of England, we shall see just cause to be proud and thankful that our lot has been cast in a land, whose inhabitants are so distinguished for the Virtuous Simplicity of their manners.
"A few days before I left home, there was transmitted to me, officially, by the Se cretary of State, a printed list of all the commitments and prosecutions for criminal offences in England and Wales for the three last years; and horrible to tell, the least number of commitments in any of these years was considerably above four thousand, and above three thousand five hundred were actually brought to trial. It is not stated in the document, whether London and Westminster are included in that number; if they are not included, then the number is about fifteen hundred more.
"This is a fact, Gentlemen, which I per ceive fills you with astonishment, and I confess that I could not have believed it myself, if I had not read it in an official document, *་