Obrazy na stronie

will perhaps convince him that the They are as follows :-Transition ; wearing of skins is peculiar to warm Independent Coal; Newest Floetzas well as cold climates.

trap; and Alluvial. When describBRITAIN, i. e. Bri-tan, i. e. the ing the different transition rocks, he High Country. Bri-tan and Albaon, alluded particularly to the granite er Britain and Aibion, are strictly and of Fassnet, (described by Professor literally synonimous, and this very Playfair in his Illustrations of the Hutcircumstance is of more weight than tonian Theory *), which he proved to a hundred supposititious arguments. -- be a stratified bed of Transition GreenThey are as nearly related as Pater stone. The description of the rocks and Genitor, or Mater and Genetrix. of the newest floetz-trap formation was M. M. renders Britain, the benefit of particularly interesting, not only on heuses. If we may credit Cæsar, the account of the beautiful transitions he Gauls were much better lodged than pointed out, but also as it proved the the Britons. They had their regular- existence of a considerable tract of ly fortified towns, &c. The descrip- these rocks in Scotland, where their tion he gives of a British town is nei- occurrence had been disputed. He ther very flattering nor very favour- enumerated and described the followable to the hypothesis of M. M. ing members of this formation:

:-trapIn fine, before he can place his tuff; amygdaloid ; clay-stone; basalt; skinned tribe, or his benefit of houses, porphyry-slate; and porphyry-slate inon even a probable basis, it is necessa- clining to greenstone. He found the Ty that he establish the wearing of trap-tuff, which is a coarse mechanical skins, or the dwelling in houses, to deposite, forming the lowest member have been exclusively, or at least in of the series, and resting immediately 2 superior degree, peculiar to Great on the coal-formation : on this tuff Britain.

rests amygdaloid, containing frag

ments : above this amygdaloid is comProceedings of the WERNERIAN Natural this, in its turn, is covered with ba

mon amygdaloid, free of fragments; History Society.

salt: the basalt gradually passes into, T the last meeting of the Werne. and is covered with, porphyry-slate:

rian Natural History Society, (Ist and the porphyry-slate, in some inAug.) Dr Js. Ogilby of Dublin read a stances, appears to pass into greenvery interesting account of the Miner- stone, which forms the uppermost poralogy of East Lothian, which

tion of the formation :-So that we

appeared to have been drawn up from a se- have thus a beautiful series of transiries of observations, made with great tions from the coarse mechanical, to skill, and was illustrated by a suite of fine chemical; that is, from trap-tuff 350 specimens, laid upon the table. to porphyry-slate inclining to greenAs the county is in general deeply

stone. The Doctor also remarked, covered with soil

, and profusely cloth that the amygdaloid contains crystals cd with vegetables, the determination of felspar, which have an earthy asof the different formations must have pect; the basalt, crystals of felspar, been a work of considerable labour ;

possessing the characters of common and the skill, judgment, and perseve felspar; and the porphyry-slate, glassy rance of the observer, must have been felspar ;-facts which coincide with, frequently put to the trial. The Doc. and are illustrative of the increasing tor, after describing the physiognomy fineness of the solution, from the oldor external aspect of the county, gave est to the newest members of the fora particular account of the different

mation. formation's of which it is composed.

* Page 325.

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mation.-The Doctor announced his the vegetation of the seeds on their intention of reading, at the next meet- rotted surface. The corn-crops are ing of the Society, a description of the noi, it is said, materially damaged. different Veins that occur in East Lo- August 19. After two or three fine thian, and of giving a short stateinentwarm days, the wheat and barley barof the geognostical and economical in- vest is seriously begun. This is more, ferences to be deduced from the ap- carly than the average date of cur pearances which he has investigated commencing to reap in this neighwith so much care. It is indeed only bourhood. by inyestigations like those of Dr 25. The weather continuing Ogilby, that we obtain any certainty, excellent, the harvest is become generespecting the mineral treasures of a ral, and it promises to be abundant,

country; and such alone can afford us FISH-MARKET. A good many of • data for speculating regarding the the Newhaven fishers having, during formation of the globe.

this month, withdrawn themselves to At the same meeting, a coinmuni- the coast of Caithness for a time, to cation from Col. Montague was read, share in the profits of the rich herringdescribing a new species of Fasciola, fishery at present existing there, the of a red colour, and about an inch supply of white fish in the Edinburgh long, which sometimes lodges in the market has been unusually deficient. trachea of chickens, and which the At the saine time, the Good Town Colonel found to be the occasion of has been deprived of the labours of the distemper called the games, so fatal the trawl-net fishers from England; to these useful tenants of the poultry- for these, it seems, have been paid off yard. The knowledge of the true and dismissed, the returns of the fishery cause of this malady, will, it is hoped, not promising to be sufficient to cosoon be followed by the discovery of ver even the ordinary expences which a specific cure: in the mean time, a must necessarily have been incurred in very simple popular remedy is em continuing the experiment. In a for. ployed in Devonshire: the meat of the mer number of this Magazine, while chicks (barley or oat meal) is mere- we announced the experiment, and ly mixed up with urine, in place of gave due credit to the society of genwater, and this prescription is very ge- tlemen who projected and conducted nerally attended with the best effects. it, for the goodness of their motives,

we abstained from making any re

marks that might have tended to disMonthly Memoranda in Natural parage the plan they had adopted, History.

which we always, indeed, considered

as a bad one, but from which we unAug. 1.-5. FROM the 1st to the derstood they could not then easily re

5th of the month, a sile. Among fishermen'in general, we great deal of rain has fallen ; so that, should think it desirable that their reon this last day, the rivers near Edin- ward should be made to depend in burgh have, in several places, risen some measure on their diligence and above their banks, and flooded the success,-on the proceeds of the fish low grounds.

sent to market. The English trawl15. The rain has now conti- net fishers, however, (if we be not nued, with some intervals of sunshine, misinformed,) were sure of their mofor nearly three weeks. Much of the ney, fish or no fish!” We trust we hay-crop remaining on the field is al- may now, without impropriety, subready deeply injured, the ricks, in ma- mit to the society, whether it is not at ny cases, having become green, from least probable that fishers, encouraged


by them, but depending partly on play of the formation of water by the their own exertions, would not have combustion of oxygen and hydrogen sent more cargoes to market in the gas, by means of the electric spark. same space of time? perhaps four in The instrument consists of a strong the week, in place of two ? or whe- cylindrical glass tube to receive the ther, where six pairs of soles were ta- gases, open at the lower end, of the ken, it is not probable that double di- capacity of iwo cubic inches, and graligence might have produced twelve duated into decimal parts ; and a stand pars? In any future attempts, there to which the tube is attached by a fore, we hope that this principle, of clasp and screw, and of a strong iron connecting the interest of the fishers cylinder, containing a strong spiral with the success of the fishery, tll spring, on the principle of the pocket not be overlooked. And we beg leavesteel-yard, the spindle or central bar further to suggest to the society, that of which is fixed on three feet, in orfishermen, every way qualified for the der that it may be firmly secured on trawl-net and well-smack fishery, are the side of a mercurial bath, with the to be found on the shores of our own mouth of the tube immerged in quickfrith, and that, by encouraging these, silver. By this arrangement, the sudevery beneficial purpose may be attain- den and violent expansion, which takes ed, without running any risk of again place at the moment of the combusexciting that jealousy and discontent tion of the gases, is relieved by the ewhich the late employment of stran- lasticity of the spring, which, by gers did not fail to create. We have yielding, allows the glass tube to be yet to learn that there is any great beaved up a little way, without being mystery in this mode of fishing ; and, driven from its situation. The success at any rate, there are, (we are told,) of the experiment is thus secured; and many fishers inhabiting the coast- all danger of accident to the apparatus towns of the frich, who have formerly is effectually prevented. seen and practised it. Our own men It has been asserted by most writmust be better acquainted with the ers and experimentalists, that silver fishing-grounds in the mouth of the burns with a bright emerald green frith, and would probably procure light. In Mr Davy's late lectures at greater quantities of saleable fish, and the Royal Institution, the deflagration be much less incommoded with shoals of silver leaf was attended by the of sea-dogs, drift ware, &c. than emission of a brilliart white light, strangers to the nature of the bottom. 'which the professor ascribed to the The cod, ling, and mackrel fishery, great purity of the silver employed ; might, by the encouragement of such and he expressed an opinion that the 2 society, be also much improved and green flame, usually observed, arose promoted.

from the admixture of copper with Edinburgh, 2

the silver, Mr G. B. Singer has, Aug. 25th, 1808.

however, discovered that this phenomenon proceeds from a different cause.

Having observed that Mr Davy's conMemoirs of the Progress of Manu. ducting wires were terminated by

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, charcoal, he repcated the experiment and the FINE ARTS.

with a similar arrangement ; and ap

plying the charcoal to pure silver MRR: Knight has published a de- leaf, it immediately burned with a

scription of a tiew Eudiometer beautiful white light. Some of the lately made on the suggestion of Mr · same portion of silver having been Davy, for the more commodious dis before employed when the green flame



was produced; it became evident that able quantity of succinic acid, which the white light in this and in Mr Da- no one has ever before thought of vy's experiment proceeded from the turning to any useful purpose, is emit. charcoal; and that this was really the ted. This he proposes to collect, and case, appeared from the immediate e- asserts from experiments made by volution of green light when the con- himself, that every matrass containing tact was made by a metallic wire.- twenty-four ounces, will furnish cighBy the application of charcoal to the ty or ninety grains of acid, without a. extremity of a wire, so bent that ei- ny injury to the quality of the varther the wire or the charcoal may nish. For taking off this acid, he has touch the silver at pleasure, the white invented a kind of tin spoon, differing and the green flame may be alternate- from others in the form of its bowl, ly produced ; and a conclusive de- which is but little concave ; the front monstration of the fact, with a plea- of it forming a segment of a circle, sing variation of a brilliant experi- and adapted to the size of the matrass. ment, will be thus at once afforded. From the observations of M. Planche,

M. RITTER, a meinber of the aca- it appears that varnish-makers, withdemy of Munich, has lately been en- out any alteration in their processes gaged in the investigation of a new or apparatus, may collect a considerainstrument which possesses the reinark- ble quantity of succinic acid, which able property of being affected by the has hitherto been confined to medical smallest degrees of electricity. His uses, but may soon be found beneficial object was to account for the marvel- in other arts. Various trials which he lous circumstances ascribed to the di- has made, give him reason to think vining rod, as it was called, and to re- that its solution in alcohol may be fer them to the electric fluid. His in- employed to imitate the colour of strument is nothing more than a small some valuable woods. bar of inetal, which he places in equi. The following very remarkable fact librium, on the end of one of his fin- relative to the fecundating principle of gers, commonly the longest finger of the palm date-tree, is attested by M. the left hand, holding this vertical, Michaux. This naturalist travelled in and shutting the others. The bar is Persia, when several usurpers were in so placed, that one end is next to the arms contending for portions of that person who holds it, and the other vast empire, The different parties alpointing directly from him. This in- ternately victorious, in order the more strument, which M. Ritter calls the speedily to reduce the inhabitants of balance, varies by position, by contact the provinces into which they peneof metals, or other substances, by the trated, burned all the male-date trees. person holding it, and even by the The most dreadful famine would have contact of persons holding by the desolated these unhappy countries, had hand, for instance, the one who is not the Persians taken the precaution making the experiment. In some ca- to preserve a great quantity of the ses the approach of the hand towards pollen of the antheræ, for the purpose objects affects the instrument; but ac. of fecundating the female individuals. tyal contact is more efficacious. M. This observation proves, that the dust Bitter is engaged in the examination of the date-tree preserves its fecundaof these yariations, which are more ting property for a long time ; for it perceptible with some persons than appears that they kept it eighteen others.

years without its having lost this virM. PLANCNE has found that, in the tue. making of amber varnish, a consider


A Journey through the HIGHLANDS theory and practice. We also, very

and WESTERN İŞLES, in the Sum- kindly, endeavoured to entertain our mer of 1804.- Ine Series of Leiters fellow travellers with appropriate reto a Friend.

marks on the infallibility of the tur

nip husbandry succeeding to a miraBr The Ertrick SHEPHERD.

cle on such lands, and of its infinite

superiority to their present modes of Leiter II.

agriculture : unfortunately none of us DEAR SIR,

could authenticate it, by an appeal to I AM, in these letters to you, always the abundant profits which we dura

studying brevity, and as constant- selves bad reaped from that excellent ly running into the opposite extreme. plan. I will be obliged to quit this epistola- “At Glasgow, we tarried no longry way of coinmunicating my senti- er than to breakfast, and call upon ments to you altogether, as it hath no one of our countrymen; and the mornfixed boundary or limitation, and send ing coaches being all gone, we took you whole essays, or tours, in a parcel our passage for Greenock in the fiywith the carrier.

boat. It is not easy to conceive any " In my last, I was got no farther thing of the same nature more dethan Hamilton, which is a neat, ele- lightful than was our passage down gant little town; and much beauti- the river that day. There was a brisk fied, as well as benefited, by the im- breeze from the south; the atmosmediate vicinity of the mansion-house, phere was pure and light after the and the attachment of the Dukes of rain, and objects discernible with perHamilton to the place from whence spicuity at a great distance ; and tho’ they draw their title. We set out in the vessel run with unusual velocity, the mail coach at eight o'clock, and, yet, so smooth and steady was the moin a short time, found ourselves at the tion, that we were obliged to call in Saracen's Head, in the city of Glas- the aids of philosophy to convince us gow. This is a very cheap convey- that we were not quite stationary ; ance, being only two shillings inside, and that the mountains, rocks, towns, and the distance full nine miles. We and villages, were not all flying away few too fast over this track for me to like chaff before the wind. describe it particularly; for though “ We were landed safely on the we asked abundance of questions at quay at Greenock in less than three the passengers, yet the quick succes- hours from the time we left Glasgow; sion of objects rendered it impossible and Mr G. not being arrived, we took for the memory to retain any traces up our lodgings in Park's tavern.-so distinct as to be depended on. That evening we spent in Mr Park's

“ It is true, we failed not to be con- family, whom I mentioned to you last tinually pushing our heads out at the year, very much to our satisfaction.side-windows, and to pretend a deep Mr James received us with the affecinterest in the appearance of the crops tion of a brother, and favoured us on the different soils; and were very much with Iris company during our attentive to impress upon others a deep stay; a favour that was equally covetsense of our importance and skill as ed by us all, it being impossible to farmers; and made many turn up the carry on a conversation with him withwhite oth eye to our discourse ; out receiving information, let the topic who, if they had seen our own fields .be what it will. at home, would have been capitally “ Mr G. joining us next day, we convicted of the difference betšixt walked out and viewed the environs August 1808.


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