Obrazy na stronie

about 250 yards in a straight line. Bat- Auchnuty's success, and his having taken teries might also have been erected on the 30 pieces of cannon and above 600 prisonlow grounds near the river, and it would ers, the arsenal containing stores and amnot have required more than two hours to munition, and had opened a communication reduce the tort, if battered in breach. with the navy. Sir Samuel Auchmury re

Captain Squires, of the engineers, con- conimended in Gen. Whitelocke to move to firineu Capr. Frazer's statement.

the Plaza, as his head quarters, that night. Leat.-Col. Torrens examined.-Q. Was This witness's cross-examination proyou with Gen. Whitelocke during ihe 5th duced nothing of importance. Asked what of July? A.-Part of the day I was repeat- reason Gen. Whitelocke assigned for not edly absent from him, conveying orders. repairing to the Plaza, according to Gen. Q:-State what orders you received that Auchmuty's wish, he said, he understood day? A.-It having been reported, about that the General would not quit the cennine o'clock that morning, that a body of tre until he received a report from the the enemy's cavalry had formed in our rear, right flank. He knew of no attempo haCapt. Whittingham and I went, by the Ge- ving been made by Gen. Whitelocke, perDeral's orders, to reconnoitre chem, acconi- sonally or otherwise, to co-operate with panied by 16 mounted dragoons of the the columns of the army, except the order 17th, and about 30 dismounted of the 9th, given to Capt. Whittingham, and that the When proceeded a considerable way, I carabineers, and a detachment of the 9th found that this force was more consider. dragoons, were pushed up one of the cenable than I imagined, and I sent Capt. tral streets, but repulsed with loss; and that Blake, the Assistant Adjutant Gener.ed, to Brig.-Major Crossley was sent to force his report that I chought it my duty to pursue way to the right with a few dragoons, but them; we were absent on this duty about he returned in a few minutes, and said it three hours, when we returned to the Co- was impracticable. ral, having succeeded in dispersing this Col. Mabon examined. He received the force, which might have consisted of about orders of the 4th July at Reduction on the 900 horse. About three o'clock Gen. morning of the 5th. He immediately Whitelocke desired me to write a note to marched, and coming to the bridge at the Cape. Whittingham, who commanded in the Chuelo, between five and six in the evencentre, to express his surprise at having ing, and finding it abandoned, he crossed it. been told that the men were plundering from the firing that he heard, he had reathe abandoned houses, and ordering him to son to believe that the British troops were use every exertion to prevent such irregu- attacking the town. His troops (in numlarities. When Capt. Whittingham return- ber 1800) were in a state to have co-opeed from having reported Sir Samuel Auch, rated with the actacking columus. His muty to be in possession of the Plaza del column passed the night of the 5th in a 'Toros, the General desired me to write to village near the bridge. About eleven on the Sir Samuel, ordering him to maintain his 6th, he received orders to march to headposition, and remain on the defensive till quarters, and join the Commander in Chief. he joined him in the morning. Capt. Whit- He accordingly marched to the Miserari, tingham and I were walking, together with where he renained the whole of the 7th. some officers of the staff, on the Coral, and On the 8th, he received orders to join Gen. General Whitelocke came up a little after Whitelocke at the Plaza del Toros. Had two o'clock, and said he did not like to or- he known the distressed state of the army, der any of us, but would feel obliged to any he could have co-operated with it on the offi er that would go to the left, and bring night of the 5th. information relative to Sir Samuel Auch- Capt. Foster, aid-de-camp to Gen, Whitemuty's situation. Capt. Whittingham im- locke, gave evidence as to his having gone mediately offered his services, and was de- to the town on the 5th, and made reports sired to select a sufficient escort. He took to the General of the little information tbat len or twelve dragoons, and thirty or for- from circumsances he was able to get at. ty infantry. I understood he proceeded to During the time that he was with the Gethe Recolita, as a marked point, and faund neral on the 5th, the latter did not persona bis way to the Plaza del Toros, through a ally make any attempt to ascertain the pogreat many armed people, who repeatedly sition of the attacking columns. In answer fired, but having cleared she hedges with to a question from Gen. Whitelocke, he bis infantry, there was no further difficulty said, he went into the town on the 6th and to his progress. Capt. Whittingham thought 7th of July, in execution of Gen. Whiteit so essential to bring a report without loss locke's orders. He proceeded On the afof time, that he left the infantry at the ternoon of the 7th, I was ordered by Gen. Plaza del Toros, and galloped back with White locke, in consequence of the reprethe dragoons. He seported Sir Samuel sensations he had received from Gen. Lia


niers, that the British posts within the made by the General, personally or othertown had fired, and actually shot two Spa- wise, to communicate with the attacking niards. This representation was brought columns, excepe those stated by the above by a Spanish officer to the Plaza del Toros, witness, whose evidence was read over in when I was walking with Gen. Whitelocke. Court to Capt. W. The Spanish General complained of this Lieut.-Colonels Bourke and Bradford breach of the cruce, and said he would not were the last witnesses examined for the be answerable for the lives of the British prosecution. It is unnecessary to enter inprisoners. I returned with the Spanish of- to any detail of their evidence, as it was to ficer, taking with me an escort and a flag the same effect as that of the other officers of truce, with an assurance that what had who were with General Whitelocke arisen was unknown at our head-quarters, the 5th of July. They were both of opiand must have arisen from some inistake. nion that the General, at the head of the On arriving at the great square leading to forces under Colonel Mahon, and those ac the fort, I found it occupied by about three head-quarters, could have penetrated to the thousand of the armed rabble, who, in the centre of Buenos Ayres on the 5th of July, , most insuking way, refused to acknowledge and that the co-operation of that force the flag, or allow me to pass. They at would have afforded the best prospect of the same time insalted the escort, by spit- success, and of restoring the fortune of the ting at us, and firing over our heads, with day. Of the General's reasons for remaina view to intimidate us, as I suppose ; and ing stationary in the rear, separated from we were detained in this way for nearly his army, instead of forcing his way to join half an hour, when two Spanish officers it, and direct its future operations, they and some dragoons mounted, came, and were unable to give any account. conducted me to the barrier of the fort, into which, on being opened, the rabble for

DEFENCE. ced their way. I was with some difficulty conducted to the room wbere Gen. Liniers The evidence on the part of the prosecuwas, the avenues of which were at that tion being closed, General Whitelocke, on time filled with an armed rabble, who the Soth day of the trial, (March 14.) bewere calling out for Col. Pack, or “ Signi- gan his defence, of which the substance or Pack," as they called him. General follows: Liniers was at this time addressing him- He began by stating the satisfaction self to a numerous body of the rabble, who which he felt in being at length permitted had forced their way into the room where to claim the attention and indulgence or he was with several British officers, who the Court. He had long looked forward were prisoners, and at that moment had to this opportunity of explaining his conseized on the most turbulent by the neck. duct in South America, and the causes I delivered to Gen. Liniers the orders | which led to the result which constituhad received from Gen. Whitelocke, which ted the subject of the investigation in queshe apparently explained to the mob, and tion. The disappointment of his hopes they seemed in some measure tranquillized. had prepared him to meet a strong and ge

There were at this time one or two priests neral feeling corresponding with his own, behind Col. Pack's chair, with a view to the natural and almost necessary attendant protect him, as I should suppose--they had upon public disappointment. But feeling been all dining, the cloth was on the table. conscious that he had zealously endeavourI then asked for a Spanish escort, and ob. ed to perform his duty, it was with surtained one, in addition to my own, for this prise and mortification that he found opibecame absolutely necessary. On going nions to his prejudice entertained in higher out of the fort into the great square, i quarters, and that calumnies injurious to found the violence of the mob had very his character had been made the subject of much increased--they offered the same official discussion. And when the editors violence to me. I was detained by them of the daily papers, on hearing that Governmore than an hour, during which time I was mert had determined on an investigation of appreheusive we should have fallen a sacri- his conduct, actuated by a sense of decent. fice ; and it was an hour before we got propriety and common justice, immediatethrough them to the Plaza del Toros, ly forbore any further comments, a subal. where I made the same report I have done tern officer employed on the expedition,

with the knowledge of his being under arCapt. Whittingham's evidence was to the rest, had published a libel upon the conduce same effect as that of the preceding wit- of himself and others, which libel had been ness. He was of opinion that a communi- patronized and distributed by a Field Officer cation might have been opened with the of another reginient. Irritated by the se Residencia on the 5th ; but no aitempe was attacks, he still abstained from answering

an y


any of the calumnies which had been enterprise, and opening new sources of treapropagated against him, and awaited his sure, although every information as to the day of trial for his justification. This he state of South America, and the hostile and mentioned, lest it should be conceived that implacable spirit of its inhabitants towards he had councenanced a vindication of his us, had proved that those hopes were comcooduct which had been published by some plecely fallacious. He repeated his regret person unknown to him. He considered that the Judge-Advocate had not abstained his trial as an appeal from popular clamour from calling in aid of those charges the ato to hodourable and candid minds; and he tempts daily made to exclude our trade Airtered himself that he should, in this res. from the Continent of Europe. Well might peci, have found a protector even in his reports to his (the General's) prejudice surprosecutor; and that, considering his ano. vive and continue, if, in a Court of Justice, malous, he hoped he might say, without these topics could be enforced with such offence, his almost incompatible duties, he studied strength of expression, by a person, would have divested himself of every feel- whose rank, and station in life, and public ing connected with public prejudice; and character, could not but stimulate the alhave permitted his trial to have conimen- ready too much exasperated state of the ved at last, without the extraordinary com- public mind upon the transactions now ment which had excited so much surprise in question. in all who heard it“ á comment,” said A great and important expedition had General Whitelocke," which, in the situ- failed, and as no difficulty could have existation he fills, and considering the last cha- ed as to the selection of particular events Tacter he is to sustain after the proceedings and facts which led to this failure, little are completed, and your deliberations com. did he expect that he should have been mence, of an adviser on points on which called upon to recollect and defend every you may require his assistance, I can hard- act, every order, every expression, and aljy think, could be deemed justifiable at any most every thought, not of himself only, perind of such a trial, after any evidence, but of others-every detail, however mihowever strong, had been adduced.” nute-in short, as the prosecutor had avow

The Judge- Advocate had stated, indeed, ed and stated, not merely the causes which that he should follow the example of his prevented the reduction of Buenos Ayres, predecessors upon similar occasions, by ab- but his whole conduct in the expedition. staining, in this stage of the proceedings, Still less conld he have supposed that the from any detailed observations upon the protection of the Court was necessary, to charges. The only case of importance, he prevent å prosecutor, educated in legal ha. believed, in which a Judge- Advocate had bits, from pursuing him even to his private stood in a similar situation to the present, moments, and requiring his secretary to was on the trial of the lace Lord Sackville, state all the conversations that, in the conon which occasion the late Sir Charles Moré fidence of their relative situations, had pasgan, then Mr Gould, made no address sed between them : and yet it was at this whatever to the Court on opening the pro. ' point only that, through the interposition secution; and, in his reply, most studiously of the Court, the prosecutor had stopped avoided offering a single observation that his inquiries. could in the most distant way be consider- He entreated the Court calmly to review ed as addressed to the passions of the Court, the evidence, and to separate and throw aalthough the circumstances which gave rise side the opinions as to his operations foundto that trial had excited more of popular ed upon the experience acquired by misfeeling than any which had before occur- fortune, and not upon any thing that was sed; so much so as to leave it, possibly for or could be previously known, up on which ever, a subject of historical dispute, whe- alone he could have acted, and upon which ther the judgment of the Court was not in he was to be judged. He would put it lo some manner infuenced by that feeling. the Menibers of the Court, who had com

He put it to the liberality and candour manded importana expeditions, whether of the Right Honourable the Judge-Advo- any long train of military operations, howcate, whether he had not some little right ever successfally terminated, could stand fo complain, and cause to lament, that he the test of such an inquiry as had been in. had not followed the example of his pre- stituted into the present. He most eardecessor, and abstained from stating to the nestly entreated the attention of the Court public (for such an address could not be in- to these and a variety of other less importended for the Court) that hopes had been tant general observations; that they would (as he was pleas to say) justly as well as bear them in mind, as ap cable to many generally entertained of discovering new observations which he should have to make markets for our manufactures, and giving upon the evidence in detail. a wider scope to the spirit of mercantile He then proceeded to the subject of in.

If we

quiry. He maintained, that he should prove the whole population to partake, who had false information to have been given to Go- been inflamed against the English, by every vernment, both by his instructions, and the species of exaggeration and falsehood. The evidence produced and to be produced. natives of the country were indeed disposed This was necessary to his defence; for un. to follow the steps of the North Americans, less the political situation of that country, and io erect an independent scate. and the dispositions of the inhabitants tó. could promise them independence, they wards us, were fully understood, no judg- would instantly revolt against the Government could be formed upon the propriety ment; but though nothing but independence of his conduct ; and the fallacy, and corise- would perfectly satisfy them, they would quent disappointment of our hopes, had prefer our Government, either to their pregiven rise to the greater part of the exus- sent anarchy, or the Spanish yoke, provid. perated feeling which had been excited. It ed we would promise not to give up the had been conceived, that the dissatisfaction country to Spain at a peace; but, until such which had been excited in South America, a promise was made, we must expect to by the restrictive jealousy of the Spanish find them open or secret enemies. The Government, had rendered that country truth of this information, received from Sir ripe for revolt from the parent state. It Samuel Auchmuty, was confirmed by evewas never conceived that such a rooted an- ry day's experience. They were unable to tipathy could exist against us as their delic procure intelligence upon which they could verers, as to justify the assertion that we place the least reliance. They could neither had not, when we arrived in America, one procure guides, nor accurate accounts of single friend in the whole country: little the country. Force procured them all they was it conceived that the whole population possessed, good-will nothing. Having gone were originally hostile to us; still less that through this second serious of preliminary they had become hostile from any thing remarks, the General chen replied more that had occurred in the capture of Buenos particularly to the charges. Ayres, or while we recained possession of Before proceeding to give a detailed narit. The first admission would have con- rative of the proceedings against Buenos demned the original attack; and the last Ayres, he would call the serious attention would have implicated the conduct of those of the Court to the manner in which the who took, and for a short time retained prosecution had been conducted against the possession of Buenos Ayres.

him. He meant nothing personal with resMonte Video had been represented as pect to the learned and respectable Gentlecontaining a small garrison of disaffected man, whose high official situation naturally troops ; and his instruccions actually sup- intrusted him with this department of the posed, that after effecting his first object, trial: he had no hesitation in ascribing 5000 men would, in any case, in addition this to the Honourable Gentleman's zeal to the troops he might raise in the country, for the service of his country. be amply sufficient to retain and keep pos. The charges had been attempted to be session of the settlement. He was directed made out in a most unprecedented manner to use precaution as to the forming this lo- not by direct, nor even by circumstantial cal force-and it was stated in his instruc- evidence only, but witnesses were repeattions," that much aid might be derived edly invited to give their opinions, who in from this source towards securing bis Ma. most instances had not even the sanction of jesty's possessions, and avoiding the neces- experience to entitle them co form correct sity of too large a demand on the regular notions of the particular service upon which forces of the country.” Such was the in- they were acting : it was also peculiarly pression of this country and Goveroment unfair, he thought, to put questions tendon his accession to the command. The ing to produce a recital of conversations able officer who commanded at Monte Vin which the witnesses either overheard or deo had discovered the reverse of this to were parties to, and which sometimes they be true, that they were equally inimical to could only decail from hearsay; and what us and their own Goveromeni; and on a made the inconsistency of this kind of prodisorder arising, in which the Viceroy was cedure more seriking, many of the conversaid to have been made prisoner by his own sations alluded co had taken place among people, Sir Samuel Auchmuty wrote to persons not at all implicated, either as wit. ihose who possessed the supreme govern- nesses or parties. The defence then stated, ment in Buenos Ayres, making them an of- at full length, from the instructions given fer of British proiection. His letter was by Ministers at his setting out, the reasons answered by Gen. Liniers, the Audienza, which induced them to fit out an additionand the Cabildo, all of whom treated his alarmamege for the complete subjugation offer with indignation and contempt ; and of that country. in this sentiment Sis Sam. Auchmuty found The defence then went into a parrative



of the measures taken by Gen. Whitelocke, ter into his hands, to carry it to Gen. from the period of his landing al Monte Whitelocke. Video, to enswe the success of the expedie General White was then called; and, tion. The great exertions he made to pro- in the opinion of this witness, no officer cure horses for mounting the cavalry had could have a higher character for gallantbeen proved by every witness examined, ry and personal bravery, or knowledge of and the difficulties atrending the procuring his duty as an officer, than Gen. Whitelocke. of guides, or accurate information respec. This evidence alluded io Gen. Whitelocke's ting the country, were grtat beyond all services when a Lieut.- Colonel in the year

These difficulties arose partly 1794, and when engaged in the attack of from a want of confidence of the inhabi- Port-au Prince in St Domingo. tants in the British army, and partly from General Whitelocke having then intithe immoral and unprincipled dispositions of mated that his defence was concluded, the natives themselves. Our readers will The Judge Advocate then addressed the find the General's narrative of the march

Court at great length. Before he made zo Buenos Ayres at full length in our ac- any observations on the charges themcount of the evidence. When he came to selves, he should, he said, take notice of the speak of the mistakes that had arisen from very unexpected attack made on him by his not effecting a junction with Gen. Gower Gen. Whitelocke in the opening of his de. at the Chuelo, the defence entered at great fence, in which the General complained of length into this branch of the evidence, tend- the manner in which he had conducted ing to attach the blame to Gen. Gower. the prosecution. He therefore felt himWith respect to the attack itself upon the self called to vindicate his own character, town, and the circumstances which led to and the Court was also called to maintain the adoption of the plan, the defence endea- its own dignity. The conduct of the provoured to prove that it was the best which secution fell upon him, who was wholly could have been adopted under similar cir- unacquainted with military operations.-cumstances; although he hoped the Court General Whitelocke, in his defence, com. would recollect that it was proved, by al. plained of the Judge Advocate's endeavourmost all the witnesses, that it seemed to be ing to iniame the popular prejudice against a pian extremely repugnant to his feelings. him, when, on the contrary, he did unneThe defence concluded with a solemn and cessarily go out of his way to impress the impressive appeal to the Court; what was Court with the necessity of attending to cearer to him than his life was in their the evidence, and that only; and to divest hands, and he fully relied upon their can- their minds of all prejudices and opinions ; dour and justice.

and he appealed to the judgment of the The General's counsel then proceeded to Court, how far he deserved that such imread to the Court extracts of letters from putations should be thrown out against Sir Samuel Auchmuty, while at Monte

him. Video, detailing the peculiar difficulties at. The next point the General complained tending the subjugation of the country. of was, his calling evidence, and examinTwo parties Sir Samuel stated to exist in ing then by narration, in which he intimaSouth America : one was ready for revole ted much illegal evidence was admitted. at all times, and the other only waited for The Court, however, was aware how nean opportunity of joining the strongest par. cessary it was that the statement of transacty, whether British or Spaniards.

tions was before them, to enable them to The public dispatches from the West In- form a just judgınent. dies, in the year 1794, in which Lieut.-Col. Gen. Whicelocke next complained that Whitelocke is mentioned as having dis- the original charges were altered. It was played the greatest possible gallantry and well known, that in cases like these the were then read.

charges are not made public, until the The General proceeded next day to call, King has signed the warrant for holding as witnesses, Lieut-Col. Burke and Gen, the Court Martial; but when he sent å White. Col. Burke spoke to the hand- copy of the uriginal charges to Gen. Whitewriting of Gen. Gower, in a letter writ- locke, previous to the warrant being issued, ten by him to Gen. Whitelocke on the he expressly and decidedly stated, that it morning of the 3d of July, in which Gen. was prubable some alterations might be Gower espresses it to be his intention to made in them. But Gen. Whitelocke had turn the head of the Chuelo, and not to advanced another point, which obliged him ford the river at the Chico pass; and Col. to state a circumstance not before reserred Burke also swore, chat this was the sub- 10; Gen. Whitelocke asserted, that the evistance of the conversation he had with Gen. dence had been collected to convert public Wower at the moment he delivered the let: report and public clamour into matters of



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