Obrazy na stronie

quantity of artillery, and the foundery and depot at Seville are perhaps the lar. gest in Spain. The insurrection commenced almost at the same moment in every part of Spain, and numerous small detachments of the enemy, and many officers, had been cut off. The Gibraltar' letters say, the French armies are completely insulated and cut off from each other; all their couriers have been intercepted by the peasantry, and the dispatches taken, which give the most melancholy accounts of their situation. Sir H. Dalrymple, the deputy-governor of Gibraltar, on the first application of the Spanish patriots, without waiting for orders from home, immediately sup. plied them with 10,0co muskets, 3000 barrels of gun-powder, a variety of en. trenching tools, and 100,000 dollars in money. All the letters from our fleets on the Spanish coasts are filled with ac. counts of the cordiality with which they are received by the Spaniards; every port is open to them, and they receive the most hearty and friendly invitations to enter, but hatred and detestation of the French are universal. Sir Thomas Dyer, in letters to his friends, expresses himself in the most sanguine manner as to the ultimate success of the Spaniards in this glorious struggle.


By the vessel which brought over the dispatches, we learn that Sir Thomas Dyer and Major Roche, sent over by our Government, had arrived at Gijon, and were immediately waited upon by a deputation from the provisional Government at Oviedo, and afterwards attended a meeting of the Supreme Council, by whom they were received with a degree of pomp and enthusiasm difficult to describe. A letter from Mr Canning, which they carried over, was immediately published; it contained the warmest assurances of the cordial co-operation of the British Government, and had raised the minds of the Spaniards to a frenzy of joy. Sir Thomas and the Major were lodged in the palace of the Prince of Asturias at Oviedo; their table, and the general attention paid them, proved the gratitude of the Spanish nation. The great square in front of the palace was crowded day and night with all the males in the city, men and boys, in arms, exclaiming, "Long

live the King of England-Long live the King of Spain -Long live George the Third-Long live Ferdinand the Seventh!--Perdition to the French and Bonaparte! The deputies were soon to proceed to join the armies--Sir Thomas Dyer to the Gallician army, and Major Roche to the frontier army of Asturias ;' but they were previously to be introduced to the provincial Assembly of Gallicia. Two English ships had arrived at Gijon, with an immense quantity of muskets, pikes, artillery, and ammunition.

The Revenge, Sir J. Gore, is arrived at Spithead, with the Spanish commissioners from Cadiz on board. They landed amidst the acclamations of the populace, and the ringing of bells. The Revenge was decorated with the Spa. nish flag, and Sir John and all his officers wore the cockade of the patriots-red— with the inscription, "Long live Ferdinand VII." The commissioners are Admiral Apodaca, and General Jacomie, who was formerly commander at St Roche, but dismissed for his known intimacy with the Duke of Kent, when his Royal Highness was governor of Gibraltar. They have full powers to negotiate and conclude a treaty of peace and alliance with this country. We have a number of additional addresses and edicts issued by the provisional goverments, &c. Among these is an edict declaring that all Frenchmen who shall take the oath of allegiance to the pres sent government, shall enjoy all their privileges unmolested; but, if they fail to do so within four days, their property shall be confiscated. There are also two proclamations by the governor of Cadiz, who, after announcing the surrender of the French squadron, with the loss, on the part of the Spaniards, of only four men, and doing justice to the pas triotic spirit of the people, has very properly adopted the necessary measures for restraining popular violence, and ensuring due respect to the laws. Among those killed on board the French squa dron at Cadiz, was Captain Martinique, of the Algesiras, formerly the Hannibal. The French consul at Cadiz sought protection on board the French squadron, and has not since been heard of. All the Spanish prisoners, nearly 5000 in number, sailed from Plymouth on the 13th of July, pouring forth the warmest wish


es for the happiness of this country. Many of them took up the sand from the beach, kissed it, and put it in their pockets," as a sacred relic of part of the earth of the land of true liberty!"

Respecting the real state of the French armies in Spain, there are so many various and contradictory accounts, that we are still at a loss for the truth. It seems, however, certain, that Gen. Murat,about the end of May, dispatched Gen. Dupont from Madrid, with a force of about 14,000 men, in order to take possession of Cadiz and Seville. Dupont arrived at the passes of the Sierra Morena about the 2d of June, where he halted for some days. On the 6th, he renewed his march, and descended from the heights with great rapidity, when near Cordova, on the 7th, he was attacked by an irre gular body of Spaniards, under Gen. Eschavarri, whom he defeated with the loss of 1000 men. The Spaniards retreated southward to Ecija, and Dupont entered Cordova the same evening. The Spanish accounts say that this fine city was most cruelly ransacked by the French. On the 10th, however, Gen. Castanos, Gov. of Andalusia, and commander of the camp at St Roque, who had been appointed General of the army of Andalusia by the Supreme Junta of Seville, arrived at Ecija, and took the command of the Spanish army, consisting, with his own forces which he brought with him, of 21,000 infantry, about Sooo cavalry, and an excellent train of artillery, which had been drafted from the camp of St Roque.

Provisions began to fail Dupont soon after he reached Cordova. On the 13th he pushed his advanced corps beyond the town to get provisions, but was disappointed. On this occasion three officers, some cadets, and 200 of the Swiss troops quitted him, and went over to the patriots at Carmona. General Castanos began now to press upon Cordova, and Dupont, on the 16th, fell back six leagues from that town. An officer was then sent to the Spanish General with a letter from Dupont, proposing to capitulate, upon condition of being allowed to retire to France without molestation. Castanos replied shortly but strongly, that nothing short of unconditional surrender would be accepted. Dupont fell back to Andujar, and Castanos advanced Aldea, where his outposts were on

the 16th, is midway between Cordova and Andujar, and about two miles distant from the position occupied by Dupont's rear. Dupont had been disappointed of receiving the supplies which had been sent him from Madrid. An escort of about 800 men had been dis. patched by Murat, with between 100 and 200 waggons of provisions and other articles. At Manzanares, in La Mancha, on the other side of the Morena, they were attacked by the patriots-two hundred were killed, six hundred were made prisoners, and all the waggons. This will probably accelerate his surrender, for of his repassing the Morena there is little chance, all the passes having been seized by the Patriots, and the roads broken up so as to be impassable for heavy artillery.

From the East of Spain we have no very clear or official accounts. Those from Barcelona all agree in stating that there had been fighting in that town, on the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 9th--and that the French had been severely handled. But they possess the fort of Monjuic, which commands the harbour, and is a place of very great strength.

In the province of Arragon, the success of the Spanish patriots is stated to be more complete. It appears that a body of 10,000 French under Gen. Lefevre, had marched from Navarre to take possession of Saragossa. They had been attacked several times on their march by the Spaniards, and lost many men; but when within two leagues of Saragossa, on the 16th of June, they were met by the main army of Arragon, under Gen. Palafox, Governor of that province, when after a severe battle of four hours, the French army surrendered prisoners of war.

We regret to learn, that the patriotic revolution in Spain has been attended with some excesses on the part of the people, which must shock the feelings of our readers.

It appears that about the 20th of May, when the universal hatred the of French took place among the Spaniards at Cadiz, Gen. Solano, the Governor of the place, issued the furious Proclamation sent him by Murat from Madrid, (see p. 462.)— The populace, exasperated at the treacherous conduct of their Governor, in taking part against his own country, resolved upon his destruction, A be


ing further enraged at the reported ap-
proach of French troops, they assembled
and proceeded to the dwelling of Sola-
no, and demanded arms and animunition.
To prevent their entrance, Solano ap-
peared at the balcony, and admonished
them to submit to the Government of
Madrid, to disperse, and prepare for
the celebration of the entry into Spain
of their new King. The populace be-
came more than ever enraged at this
address, and repeated their demands.
Solano retired to consult with some of-
ficers then in his house; he shortly af
terwards returned to the balcony, and
again addressed the multitude, and con-
cluded by a peremptory refusal of their
request. Solano had pistols in his gir-
dle, and his guard of honour was on
duty. One person from the multitude
approached him, and demanded that their
request might be complied with. So-
lano drew one of his pistols from his
girdle, shot the man, and ordered his
guard to fire on and disperse the mob.
The guards fired, but without ball, of
oourse no mischief was done. They
were immediately surrounded, disarmed,
and afterwards joined the multitude,
who instantly entered the house. So.
Jano escaped through the roof, but was
found on the top of the adjoining house.
He was secured and brought down into
the street, and was adjudged to be
hanged in one of the squares.
being led to his execution, he was
stopped by the executioner, and asked
if he would have a confessor?.
Avant no confessor, and I shall die in
friendship with the French Emperor."
This declaration induced a person near
to him to give him a severe blow with
a cudgel on the head, which was fol-
Jowed up by others; his brains were
literally beat out by the mob, and his
body dissected as that of a traitor.


His Majesty having taken into his consideration the glorious exertions of the Spanish nation for the deliverance of their country from the tyranny and usurpation of France, and the assuran- ́ ces which his Majesty has received from several of the provinces of Spain, of their friendly disposition towards this kingwith the advice of his Privy Council, to dom; his Majesty is pleased, by and order, and it is hereby ordered:

First, That all hostilities against Spain, on the part of his Majesty, shall immediately cease.

Secondly, That the blockade of all the ports of Spain, except such as may be still in the possession or under controul of France, shall be forthwith raised.

Thirdly, That all ships and vessels belonging to Spain shall have free admission into the ports of his Majesty's dominions, as before the present hostilities.

Fourthly, That all ships and vessels belonging to Spain, which shall be met at sea by his Majesty's ships and cruisers, shall be treated in the same manner as the ships of states in amity with his Majesty, and shall be suffered to carry on any trade now considered by his Majesty to be lawfully carried on by neutral ships.

Fifthly, That all vessels and goods belonging to persons residing in the Spanish colonies, which shall be detained by any of his Majesty's cruizers after the date hereof, shall be brought into port, and shall be carefully preserved in safe custody to await his Majesty's further pleasure, until it shall be known whether the said colonies, or any of them, in which the owners of such ships and goods reside, shall have made common cause with Spain against the power of France.

Don Thomas Morla, an officer of much skill and experience, and strongly attached to the cause of his country, was then appointed Governor of Cadiz.

A Spanish Grandee, the Marquis de Helos, having refused to become a member of the new government, was ordered to be put to death, and the sentence was immediately carried into execution, allowing him only a few minutes for confession.

And the Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury, his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty, are to take such measures herein as to them may res pectively appertain.

STEPH. COTTRELL. Queen's Palace, July 4. 1808.


TRIAL OF LIEUT.-GEN. WHITELOCKE. (Concluded from p. 472.)

LIEUT-Col. Cadogan examined.-"Icommanded a division of the left wing of the light brigade on the morning of the attack. When I separated from Lieut.-Col. Pack, I proceeded as far as the west side of the Jesuits' College, without any consider. able loss of men. When in bringing up the light three-pounder attached to my column, in order to force an entrance into the principal gateway, the enemy suddenly appeared in great numbers at every win. dow, and on the top of this building, and from the barracks on the opposite side of the street, and at the end of the street, with some ordnance. On a sudden, the whole of the leading company of my column, and the men and horses at the gun, were killed or disabled. It was absolutely impossible to possess ourselves of this very eligible sicuation, and to penetrate farther up the street, I was therefore obliged to fall back, and throw myself, and about 140 men, into a house about 140 yards from the Jesuits' College. The remaining part of the column dispersed into several houses adjoining; and those that were unable to enter were in ge neral either killed or wounded. After hav

when we surrendered. I have before stated, that about 140 men also came into the house with me-of these 100 were killed or wounded."

Lieut. Col. Gard examined.-He described the march of the 45th under himself and Col. Nichols, and then occupying the Residencia, and some adjoining houses, with some trifling loss. He then proceeded :"Hearing a considerable firing on our left, I desired Col. Nichols to make the necessary arrangements for the occupation of the Residencia, and acquainted him that I would take the grenadier company with me, and reconnoitre the position of Gen. Craufurd's brigade, and return to him immediately. I accordingly set out by the street by which I had entered the town, and turning to my right, came into one that led directly to the great square. I proceeded about 30 or 40 yards, and came to a very large house, which I thought it would be prudent to occupy with my small detachment. I therefore proceeded to break open the door, and finding it very difficult to effect, I sent back my Adjutant with a few files to the Residencia, for the purpose of obtaining the assistance of tools. He had scarcely returned, when I was joined by a piquet of the riflemen which had left me in the morning, and had entered the town with the light battalion. The officer commanding them brought me Gen. Craufurd's or ders to charge down the street with the grenadier company, supported by this piquet. I accordingly did so, and met for some little time with no other opposition than the discharge of a heavy piece of ord nance twice which had been posted at the other end of the street. i advanced, however, towards the centre of the town, and I found the tops of the houses crowded with the enemy, who opened a smart fire of musketry on us as we passed. When I had got about half a mile, finding the men considerably out of breath, and the great difficulty of our moving forward from the increased fire, I drew off my men to a street on the right. Seeing Col. Pack with some of the light battalion approaching towards the church of St Domingo, I crossed the street on purpose to consult him, as, from his local knowledge, he was perfectly acquainted with our situation, as to the practicability of any further advance thro' the streets leading towards the square. He told me, that it would be impossible for me to reach the square without the loss of the greater part of my detachment; I therefore returned back, and found Gen. Craufurd, with several companies of light infantry and riflemen, together with a fieldpiece, in the same street with my detach


ing held some conference with Lieut.-Col.
Pack respecting my remaining in so bad a
post, I thought it my duty to detach an of-
ficer and ten men to communicate to Ge-
neral Craufurd respecting the post I then
occupied, and the consequence that might
result from his approaching the town in
the same manner. I have since learned,
that every man of this detachment was ei-
ther killed or wounded in opening this
communication, and that the officer with
great difficulty escaped. I defended this
post for nearly three hours, with the loss of
a serjeant and 15 men killed, and five offi-
ters and 82 wounded. An officer from the
enemy then appeared with a flag of truce,
as I conceived, with no other object than
a summons to me to surrender the troops
immediately opposed to him; and, having
consulted the other officers of my division,
I agreed to give him a parley. The firing
from the top of my post was ordered to
cease, and, availing themselves of this cir-
cumstance, the enemy poured in numbers
around my post, when finding the few men
1 had effective, and finding further resist-
ance in vain, I surrendered with the con-
currence of the rest of the officers. The
officers were then marched under an escort
to the citadel, and the men carried off to
some prison. I think about 250 of my di-
vision only were up at the Jesuits' College,
and about 40 only were able to march
July 1808.


I remained under his orders during the rest of the day. I had no intention of joung him until I received his orders to that effect. I received no instructions as to any future operations after I had occupied the Residencia. I conceived I was to maintain that post.

Lieut.-Col. Nichols examined." I commanded the left wing of the 45th regiment. The wings of the regiment never joined, after leaving our ground, until the arrival of both at the Residencia. Qf the operations until the middle of the following day (the 6th) my public letter to Gen. Whitelocke will give an account. (This letter was read. It gave a very flattering account of the success of Col. Nichols' operations against the enemy, who had filed from him in all directions, leaving him in possession of the Residencia, with a great number of brass guns, ammunition, &c. with two or three days provision.) This letter was sent by Capt. Whittingham. In about half an hour after his departure, the enemy collected again, and threatened a second attack, but their own cannon being discharged upon them, they retired. A bout four in the evening, Gen. Gower sent me two lines to inform me that hostilities had been suspended until further orders.”--The rest of Col. N.'s narrative is immaterial. In reply to several questions, he described the position and strength of the Residencia; he said a communication with the beach might have been easily opened from it; that, if he had had artillery, he could have dislodged some of the parties that pressed upon Gen. Craufurd; that a reinforcement from the troops under General Whitelocke or Col. Mahon would have enabled him to communicate with Gen. Craufurd, and that he knew of no serious obstacle to prevent such a reinforcement reaching him, had orders for that purpose been given.

Admiral Murray examined. He was of opinion that a combined attack by the army and navy would have been practicable and expedient, but no such plan was ever pro posed, nor was he ever consulted, nor had he any knowledge of the plan of attack.Six gun-boats and two schooners of easy draught of water might have been employed against the town. He believed that Gen. Whitelocke had not the most distant idea of any assistance from the navy, except in supplying the army with provisions, if in want of them. The witness went ashore on the morning of the 7th, when Gen. Whitelocke informed him of the disasters of the army, and described the terms offered by Liniers as extremely advanta geous. He also asked if he could have any co-operation from the fleet. The Admiral

said he could, but the General answered, that it would serve no purpose to go on with any operations in South America, as they had not a single friend in the country, and the prisoners would be all cut to pieces, if any thing further were attempted against the town. The Admiral said, he thought they could do something more, and hesitated for some time; but, upon the situation of affairs being more fully explained to him by Gen. Gower, who assured him that better terms could not be obtained, he consented to sign the treaty.

Capt. Davenport, of the 6th Dragoon Guards, described the advance of that regiment, and its being obliged to retreat with considerable loss. Col. Kingston was killed in leading them on.

Captain Frazer, of the artillery, stated, that, by Gen. Whitelocke's desire, he remained by his person the whole day. The General was at the Coral the whole of the 5th, except when he went to White's house for about half an hour. It was impossible, from the spot on which the General walked, to see any thing of the town or its entrances. The General employed himself in giving orders to the few mounted dragoons that were around him to gallop after a few miserable individuals, who were flying out of the town to escape the assault. With the exception of the few scattered shots occasioned by the execution of these orders, there was nothing like an alarm in the post occupied by Gen. Whitelocke and his reserve that day. On the General's proceeding to White's house about dusk, he gave orders for a strong guard to be posted on the roof and around the house, in order to protect his person, and then went to sleep. The wtiness thought the General was very silent and reserved. In reply to several questions, Captain F. stated that he expressed it as his opinion that the Plaza afforded every facility for the erection of batteries against Buenos Ayres. The most eligible situation was marked out by himself and Capt. Squires. At the Plaza, Gen. Whitelocke asked him in a general way as to the possibility of erecting batteries? He replied, that there was abundance of ammunition and stores, and he pledged himself that they should succeed, and bring 36 pieces of artillery to play upon the town next morning. Objections were started, that some of the heaviest guns were spiked. He replied, that he would be responsible that they should soon be unspiked. It was observed, that the citadel could not be set fire to, he replied, that the experiment might be made, and that at all events the enemy must be dislodged from that quarter of the city. The dis tance from the Plaza to the citadel was about

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