Obrazy na stronie

that the great distance which separates Portugal from the seat of government in France, does not permit his watch ing over the concerns of our country with the same care and solicitude as over the interests of his other subjects, and that he knew the difficulty of intrusting a great power over distant countries to other hands. His Majesty spoke to us with some displeasure, but without any great warmth, of the Prince who governed us, and of his Royal race. He principally treated of the means of raising us to our due station among the powers of the Continent of Europe, and of delivering us from the yoke of British influence, under which we had.during so many years suffered. His Majesty said, that he would endure no English colony on the Continent. Finally, be declared, that our fate was in our own hands; that it depended on the disposition which we should manifest to the world, the uprightness with which we should embrace the general cause of the Continent of Europe, and the firm ness with which we should resist temptations to mislead us from the objects in view. See, these are the tokens by which his Imperial and Royal Majesty will recognise whether you are worthy to constitute a nation, support a throne, and have a Prince who will govern you, and fill a rank among the powers of Europe."

The Portuguese Deputations have repaired from Bayonne to Bourdeaux, with the exception of M. de Lima, Ambassador of Portugal in France, who has remained at Bayonne, in order to give his Majesty information concerning the establishments of the country.


Published by the Patriotic Chiefs. The first is an address, dated Corunma, June 4. 18ǝs, and signed Don Matuel Acha, as Secretary of the kingdom of Gallicia, and the Council.General of Government; in which, after describing the treachery of the French in introduding their troops even into their capital, and taking possession of their fortresses, in the quality of an intimate friend and ally, it continues

"Shall a cultivated, brave, and gene. rous nation, bend its neck under the Toke of perfidy?-Shall it allow itself July 1808.

to be insulted by injuries-the most perfidious, immoral, and disgraceful; committed in the face of the whole world, and submit to the most humiliating slavery prepared for it? No, noble Gallicians, such are not the dictates of your noble minds. Glowing with the most virtuous ardour and noblest enthusiasm, you have already expressed your sentiments, worthy of the praise and imitation of all Spaniards. You rather wish to die, than to see your independence trampled under foot, your religion de stroyed, your King in captivity, and your country threatened with a yoke equally burdensome and unjust. Quicken the generous sentiments of your noble minds. Fly to arms, not like that monster, to indulge an inordinate ambition; not like him, to violate the rights of hu manity and the law of nations; not to render us odious to mankind, not to offend a generous and friendly nation, ruled by a monster already become insufferable upon earth. Fly to arms, to assist your countrymen; to rescue your King from captivity; to restore to our Government liberty, energy, and vigour; to preserve your lives and those of your children; to maintain the uncontrouled right of enjoying and disposing of your property; to assert the independence. of your native soil; and, above all, to defend your sacred religion. Employ the arms which she tenders; arm your minds with the fear of God; implore the aid of the immaculate conception, and the glorious apostle St James, our patron; and, confident of success in so glorious a cause, rush forth to grasp the victory which is prepared for you by their intercession, and the justice of

your cause.

"The Council General of the Principality must not lose a moment to publish the following letter, which has been just received from their King Ferdinand VII. and the authenticity of which is ascertained by one of the Members of the Council, who possesses the most unquestionable knowledge thereof. On the first cover is the superscription"To the Royal Assemblage of Oviedo." The second is superscribed-" To the Chief of Arms of Asturias."

"Noble Asturians-I am surrounded on all sides, and a victim of perfidy.You saved Spain under worse circumstances than the present. Being now


prisoner, I demand not from you the Crown, but I require that, concerting a well digested plan with the neighbouring provinces, you do assert your liberty, and not submit to a foreign yoke, nor subject yourselves to the treache. rous enemy, who despoils of his rights your unfortunate


"Bayonne, May 8. 1808."

"To expressions so energetic and impressive the Council ought not to add any observation; but with the most poignant grief they mingle their tears with those of their beloved and faithful

countrymen, to whom the letter is com-

Acting Sec.

"Oviedo, May 26. 1808."

Proclamation of the Council General of the

Loyal Asturians!-Beloved Countrymen, your first wishes are already ful. filled. The principality, discharging those duties which are most sacred to men, has already formally declared war against France. You may perhaps dread this vigorous resolution. But what other measure could or ought we to adopt? Shall there be found one single man among us who prefers the vile and ignominious death of slaves, to the glory of dying on the field of honour, with arms in his hand, defending our unfortunate Monarch, our homes, our children, and our wives? If the very moment when those bands of banditti were receiving the kindest offices and favours from the inhabitants of our capital, they murdered in cold blood upwards of 2000 people, for no other reason than their having defended their insulted brethren, what could we expect from them, had we submitted to their dominion? Their perfidious conduct towards our King and his whole family, whom they deceived and carried into France, under the promise of an eternal armistice, in order to chain them all, has no precedent in history. Their conduct towards the whole nation is more iniquitous than we had a right to expect from a horde of Hottentots. They have profaned our temples: they have insulted our religion; they have assailed our wives; in fine, they have broken all

their promises, and there exists no right which they have not violated. To arms, Asturians, to arms! Let us not forget, that Asturias, at the time of another invasion, which undoubtedly was less unjust, restored the monarchy. Let us aspire to the same glory on the present occasion. Let us recollect, that no foreign nation could ever lord over us, whatever exertion it may have made for that purpose. Let us offer up our prayers to the God of Hosts. Let us implore the intercession of our lady of battles, whose image is worshipped in the most ancient temple of Covadonga; and, perfectly sure that she cannot forsake us in so just a cause, let us rush upon our detestable enemy, and annihilate and drive out of our peninsula a people so base and treacherous. This demand is addressed to you, in the name of your representatives, by the Procurator General of the Principality,


Then follows a Manifesto from the province of Arragon, signed by Palafox, the Captain-General, and Governor of the province, it which it is stated, that, "Providence has preserved in Arragon an immense quantity of muskets, ammunition, and artillery, which have not treacherously been sold, or delivered to the enemies of our repose." It then proceeds-"Fear not, Arragonians; let us defend the most just of causes, and we shall be invincible. The enemy's troops now in Spain are not able to withWo betide them, stand our efforts. should they ever dare to repeat in any other Spanish town what they did in Madrid on the 2d May, sacrificing without pity, and calling those seditious and assassins, of whom they had but very lately received honours and favours, which they did not deserve. Bayonne has witnessed and will remember the acts of violence, which, after a long series of treacheries and frauds, have been committed."-It concludes by declar

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King, the nation will make use of their elective right in favour of the Archduke Charles, as nephew of Charles III. in case that the Frince of Sicily, or the Infant Don Pedro, and the other heirs, should not be able to concur.

3. That, should the French army commit any robberies, devastation, and murders, either in Madrid or any other town invaded by the French troops, they shall be considered as guilty of high treason, and no quarter shall be given to any of them.

4. That whatever may hereafter be done in Bayonne, shall also be considered as null and void; and all who shall take an active part in the like transactions, shall be deemed traitors to their country.

5. That all the transactions which have hitherto taken place shall be considered as illegal, void, and extorted by violence, which is known to be practi. sed in both places.

6. That all deserters of the French aray, who shall present themselves, shall be admitted in Arragon, and treated with that generosity which forms a prominent feature of the Spanish nation al character; they shall be disarmed and conducted to this capital, where they may enlist with our troops.

7. All other provinces and kingdoms of Spain, not yet invaded by the enemy, are invited to meet by deputies at Termal, or any other suitable place, to nominate a Lieutenant General, whose orders shall be obeyed by the particular chiefs of the different kingdoms.

8. The foregoing Manifesto shall be printed and published in the whole kingdom of Arragon, and it shall also be circalated in the capitals and principal Faces of all the provinces and kingdoms et Spain.

Given at the Head-quarters of Saragossa, the 31st May 1808.

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address of Seville will probably be the cry and watchword of all the Patriots, "Vengeance for the Spanish blood spilt at Madrid!"

The following spirited Declaration of War against France, has been issued by the Junta at Seville.

Declaration of War against the Emperor of France, Napoleon the First.

FERDINAND the SEVENTH, King of Spain and the Indies, and in his name, the Supreme Junta of both.

France, under the government of the Emperor Napoleon the First, has violated towards Spain the most sacred compacts-has arrested her Monarchsobliged them to a forced and manifestly void abdication and renunciation; has behaved with the samé violence towards the Spanish Nobles, whom he keeps in his power-has declared that he will elect a King of Spain, the most horrible attempt that is recorded in historyhas sent his troops into Spain, seized her fortresses and her capital, and scattered his troops throughout the countryhas committed against Spain all sorts of assassinations, robberies, and unheard-of cruelties: and this he has done with the most enormous ingratitude to the services which the Spanish nation has rendered to France, to the friendship it has shewn her, thus treating it with the most dreadful perfidy, fraud, and treachery, such as was never committed against any nation or monarch by the most barbarous or ambitious king of people. He has, in fine, declared, that he will trample down our Monarchy, our fundamental laws, and bring about the ruin of our holy Catholic religion.The only remedy, therefore, for such grievous ills, which are so manifest to all Europe, is in war, which we declare against him.

In the name therefore of our King, Ferdinand the Seventh. and of all the Spanish nation, we declare war by sca and land against the Emperor Napoleon the First, and against France; we are determined to throw off her domination and tyranny, and command all Spaniards to act hostilely against her, to do her all possible damage, according to the laws of war, to place an embargo upon all French ships in our ports, and all property and effects, in whatever


part of Spain they may be, whether belonging to the Government, or to the individuals of that nation. In the same manner, we command, that no embarrassment nor molestation be done to the English nation, nor its Government, nor its ships, property, or effects, nor any individual of that nation. We declare that there shall be an open and free communication with England; that we have contracted, and will keep an armistice with her, and that we hope to conclude a durable and lasting peace.

Moreover, we protest, we will not lay down our arms till the Emperor Napoleon the First has restored to Spain our King Ferdinand the Seventh, and the rest of the Royal Family; has respected the sacred rights of the nation which he has violated, and her liberty, integrity, and independence. With the same understanding, and accordance with the Spanish nation, we command that the present solemn declaration be printed, posted, and circulated among all the people and provinces of Spain and America, that it may be known in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Given in the royal palace of Alcazar, at Seville, this 6th of June 1808.


Don Alvaro Florez Estrada, Procurator General of the Principality of Asturias, made the following proposition to the Supreme Council:

The General Council of the Principality of Asturias do not delay a moment in making known to the public the daily proofs they receive of the friendship of the English Government and nation, who, in order the better to enable it to supply all our wants, have promptly sent to this capital a military Committee, composed of three officers of distinction, who, this morning, presented themselves before the Supreme Council, not only to assure us that all the supplies and succour which we pointed out to them might be daily expected in our ports; but also to offer, in the name of their Government, to this principality, and to the rest of the Spanish nation, all other assistance we might stand in need of; to send us troops, money, arms, and ammunition, and other warlike stores, and to make a common cause with us, in order that we might be able to repel and destroy the common enemy. That generous

By order of the Supreme Junta of nation deserves the utmost gratitude on Government,



His Majesty Don Fernando, the King of Spain and of the Indies, and in his royal name, the General Assembly of this principality (Asturias,) proclaims a peace with England, and a close alliance with that generous nation, which has offered to us all the assistance we require to support us in the war with France; and we assure his Britannic Majesty, that we consider ours a common cause with his own, to destroy the tyranny of Napoleon. We also proclaim peace with Sweden; and we command that all our ports be opened to the vessels of either nation, and that notice be transmitted to all the public functionaries, and be published by proclamation, with all due solemnity, in this capital. By order of the Supreme Council of Asturias,

Representative and Secretary.

Oviedo, June 21. 1808.

our part; but as it offers its protection to all the provinces which defend the good cause, it will know, on the other hand, how to employ all its power against those provinces, which, guided by a pernicious selfishness or apparent timidity, are forgetful of their duty, in the present critical circumstances in which the country is placed, do not endeavour, in imitation of the real Patriots, to defend the glorious cause, and shake off a disgraceful yoke. The Supreme Council think it right to declare to the public that they felt the liveliest emotions of gratitude and respect, when they heard the Commissioners give them the assurance, that it was their anxious wish to shed the last drop of their blood fighting with our brethren in defence of the common cause.

ALVARO FLOREZ ESTRADA. Oviedo, the 30th June 1808.

And it having been resolved, that the preceding proposition be printed and circulated through all the districts of the principality, we communicate it also


to you for your information. God keep you many years in his holy guard.


JUAN ARGUELLER TORAL, Representative and Secretary. Oviedo, the 30th June 1808.

The British dispatches, which were published in the London Gazette of the 12th, consist of extracts of letters from General Spencer, dated off Ayamonte, June 17th, and off Lagos, June 21st;— from Lord Collingwood, dated off Cadiz, June 14th and 15th;-from Captain Digby, of the Cossack, dated off St Andero, June 25th ;—and from Captain Creyke, of the Eclipse, dated off Opor. to, June zoth. Before we proceed to analyze their contents, we shall present our readers with the information, such as it is, to be found in the French and Dutch papers:

The French scribes modestly admit that some disturbances did lately exist in Spain, but they were merely popular excesses, in which the respectable inha. bitants took no share, and tranquillity is completely restored in the districts of Segovia, Valladolid, Placentia, Valencia, and in part of Navarre and Arragon. The Government at Madrid was acknowledged throughout all the provinces, and its proclamations duly promulgated, and every where received with rapture. King Joseph was about to make his public entry, and the day of his coronation would be speedily announced! As for Cadiz, never was the public tranquillity disturbed there for even a moment! Such was the enthusiasm of their attachment to the French, and such their deadly detestation of the English, that nothing would satisfy them short of their going out, in concert with that of Admiral Rossily, to fight and beat the English fleet!! This clumsy liar, however, adds, that strong divisions of French troops are daily passing thro' Bourdeaux, and proceeding by forced marches to join the army in Spain! A mong other similar expedients to deceive the French, and intimidate the Spaniards, an official note, bearing the signature of Champagny, the Minister of the Intenor, has been circulated at Bayonne, and inserted in all the French papers, stating that the King of England was dead, that his successor has dismissed the Ministry, and that France would soon

have that peace, and that renunciation of the sovereignty of the seas, for which they had been so long contending!!

So much for the French accounts.The contents of the dispatches of our commanders will be found incorporated with the accounts received thro' other channels, in the following general view of the events that have occurred in the several provinces, and of their situation at the date of the latest advices, in which we shall carefully distinguish what is, from what is not, official.

ANDALUSIA.--Lord Collingwood's dispatches announce, as might be expected, the surrender of the French squadron at Cadiz, consisting of two ships of 84 and three of 74 guns, and a frigate. "The Spaniards having constructed an additional battery of 30 heavy guns, and numerous gun and bomb vessels having taken their stations, the French ships struck their colours on the morning of the 14th June, and those of Spain were immediately hoisted. The French ships were not at all injured, as the Spaniards wanted them for their own use, nor had there been much loss of men on either side. The French crews were immediately sent to prison. The Spanish Admiral and another commissioner, appointed by the Council of Seville, to go to England, were embarked on board the Revenge, Sir J. Gore, who having been stationed near the shore, and having had much intercourse with the chiefs during the late operations, could give ample information respecting the state of affairs. The Council had also applied to Lord Collingwood for passports for a Spanish frigate and four dispatch vessels, to carry information and instructions to the several governments and presidencies in the West Indies; they also requested that a sloop of war might take out officers to that country, whose presence there was important; they preferred this to their going in a Spanish vessel, as it would convey a proof of their connexion with Great Bri


General Spencer, in his last dispatch, gives a brief recapitulation of the events which led to the present state of affairs in Spain, but there is nothing new in it. The regular troops in Andalusia he states to have been long ago from 15 to 20,000, and 60,000 aimed peasants.They had nearly 4000 cavalry and a large


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