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sits were designed to extend. The term ly to be in time completely filled up by fixed tor the transmission of these ques- the accumulations of tiith thrown into it. tions was till the end of February last, M. Michaux, whose travels through and before Christmas he had received the United States are not unknowa to five hundred. Among the learned bo. the English reader, has recently been dies by whom they were sent, were the sent a second time by the French goacademies of Petersburgh, Copenhagen, vernment to explore the forests of the and Turin, with several universities of vast American continent. He is activeRussia, Germany, Holland, and Italy. ly engaged in fulfilling the objects of Several statesmen had also contributed his mission, and has transmitted to is their inquiries.
Professors of Natural History in rne The first volume of a Dictionary of French Institute, severai specimers of the Teutonic language has lately been seeds, with a view to the cultivation in published by M. le Camp. It forms France of the American oak, and other more than one thousand pages in quar-, useful trees. to, containing 26,735 articles, and yet includes only the first five letters of ihe alphabet. The author adnuits all the dialects of the Teutonic tongue, and Memoirs of the Progress of MANUthe technical terms of every art.
FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, Among the new works published at
and the FINE ARTS. Munich, one, entitled, Gemahlde aus dem Nonnenleben, Pictures of Monastic Life, has lately excited considerable sensation. MR Davy, in the concluding LecIt is compiled by M. Linpowsky, from
tures of his Course at the Royal the archives of the suppressed nunneries Institution, gave a distinct and very in Bavaria.
luminous exhibition of his grand disA projector at Paris has offere’ to
covery, the decomposition of the alkaconstruct a press capable of printing, in lies. His first experiments were with twelve hours, 1200 copies of a work, potash and soda, which, in their dry pot exceeding twenty forur sheets, either in the common way, or in stereotype. state, are non-conductors, but when He further announces a press capable of moistened, have the property of conworking 30,000 sheets, with ordinary ducting clectricity. In both instartypes, in twelve hours, and also a new ces, he clearly produced metalline method of composition, much more ex. substances, by bringing them within peditious than that now in use.
the action of the Voltaic battery The Abbe Gaetano Marini, first li Oxygen was given out at the positive brarian of the Vatican, bas lately pub- side of the battery, and at the negakished at Rome 140 documents of the tive liltle globules of the metallic base middle ages, written on papyrus, accom. panied with historical and diplomatical were instantly formed. The metaline illustrations. The first is a bull of Pope bases of the alkalies, he named potasJohn III. for finishing the church of the sium and sodaium, chusing the termiApostles, about the year. 570. It ap. nation um, in compliance with the pears, that to the end of the uth century, the papal bulls were always writ- der that they might agree with plati
present nomenclature of metals, in orten upon papyrus.
Don Juan Manuel de Arejula has num, plumbum, &c. &c. These new lately published, at Madrid, a stort De. metals, to appearance, are precisely scription of the Yellow Fever, which like mercury, but very
different from reigned some time since in Andalusia. that metal in their various properties, He considers it as highly contagious. A which he enumerated and demonstratcontrary opinion is maintained by Don ed to the satisfaction of every one preFrancisco Salva, who studied the disease at Barcelona, and describes it as not
sent. He showed the great inflammacontagious, but attributes it to exhala. bility of the new metals, by touching țions from the port of that city, which them with the smallest quantity of wais daily becoming shallower, and is like. ter, when they instantly took fire.
They are both malleable at the com- bright light: alkali was likewise form Taon temperature, and may be spread ed on the ice. These metals unite into very thin leaves on a plate of with mercury and form solids : thus, glass, by mere pressure. So great, one part of sodaium and three of merhowever, is their attraction for the cury being mixed, the two fluids unit- . oxygen of the atmosphere, that they ed in a state of solidity. Several other almost instantly became tarnished. experiments were made, and the proBefore the discovery of these new me. fessor felt no hesitation in giving his tais, only two bodies of this class, opinion as to the great importance of aiz. iron and platinum, were capable these discoveries in their application of being welded, and that at a very to the arts; and even to an art, which great heat ; whereas separate parts of he doubted if he should venture to the potassium and sodaium, can be mention, the art of war, as the desunited readily at the common tempe- truction occasioned by these metals, if rature of the atmosphere. The speci- they could be brought into action, fic gravity of the potassium is to that would be incontestibly greater than by of water as about six to ten ; in the those now in use. In reference to the case of sodaium, it is as ninety-three detail of his own discoveries, he said to one hundred. Mr Davy showed, the present state of knowledge was that the metals which he had spread more likely to produce in him humilion glass were easily fusible again by ty than exultation. The experimenthe heat of a spirit laimp, by the ap- talist was not the liero of his own tale, plication of which they almost in- but he could not avoid being the substantiy ran into globules. The attrac- ject of it; and he hoped the experition of these new metals for oxygen, ments and facts exhibited, would be was shewn by their burning at a red considered independently of any opiheat, when the alkalies were again re- nion which he had divulged in convived. In analyzing them with great vection with them. In the present accuracy, he found the potash con- imperfect state of enquiry, it would be tained fourteen parts of oxygen, and presumption to expect that any thing tighty-four of metalline base, but the would be permanently established.com soda contained twenty parts of oxygen Alluding to the great powers of the to eighty of base. These metals in- Voltaic battery *, he said, some might troduced into a jar of oxymuriatic gas imagine that the desideratum of the spontaneously took fire, and the white alchemists was accomplished, and that fume collected on the glass, was in the the delusive hopes of those visionaries one case muriate of potash, in the trere, at length, realized: but it ought other, muriate of soda, or common cu
to be remembered, there was an imlinary salt. Particles of the new me- mense interval between the processes tals put into water, decomposed the of combination and decomposition, water, and gave out a brilliant light. that the proper province of chemistry The water used was pure
distilled wa- extended but to inorganic matter, that ter, which instantly after the decom- in the powers of combination other position of the metals, shewed by means agents were employed, with whose naof turmeric paper, that it was become ture we were wholly unacquainted, highly alkaline. The same sort of ac- and to whose operation we right for tion was exhibited by the nitric acid; ever remain strangers.
Mr Davy, and the potassium acted also on the having shown his experiments on the sulphuric and other strong acids. Mi
fixed Davy placed small particles of the me.
* Mr Davy's battery contains thirtytals on ice, and they immediately de- eight thousand square inches of metal composed the water and gave out a plaies.
fixed alkalies, proceeded to ammonia, seemed to suspect that the two great which, from the inanipulations of principles operating in nature, were Priestley and Steele, was regarded as the principle of intlammability and a a compound of lıydrogen and nitro- meialline principle. gen: he had do doubt in his mind, Dr Joseph Reade has published an. that it contained also a portion of Account of an Experiment, the reoxygen. This he attempted to de- sult of which is in direct contradiction monstrate by experiments, particular- to the received opinion, that the agily by passing some ainmonia, in a state tation or friction of Huids cannot exof gas, through a porcelain tube, heat- cite sensible heat. It is as follows:ed to a white heat; the hydrogen and The temperature of the apartment benitrogen were collected, and in the ing 40°, half a pint of water, at a siglass vessel through which they pas- milar heat, was poured into a tin botsed, moisture was very apparent, which tle-shaped vessel, into the aperture of he felt satisfied was water, formed by which was inserted a thermometer the
oxygen contained in the ammonia, surrounded with chamois leather, and Hence he inferred, that though oxy- made to fit accurately, with its bulb gen had hitherto been considered as nearly in the axis. After briskly agithe acidifiable principle only, it would tating the vessel for a few minutes, to be found to be the alkalizing principle his great surprise he found that the likewise. From the alkalies, he pro- temperature of the water rose eight ceeded to the carths, which he enu- degrees : and, even after the apparamerated and described, and which he tus was uncovered and laid at rest ory considered as the link between the al- the table, the water continued to rise kalies and metallic oxides, and he had for several minutes ; proving the orino doubt that they would hereafter gin of the heat to be inherent in the yield to some higher powers of the Huid, and independent of any external Voltaic battery, and exhibit the parts causes. Anxious to obviate every of which they were composed. On source of fallacy or objection, Dr Barytes he then made an experiment, Reade prevented the communicatiort shewing very decisively that it con- of caloric by his hands, or of radiatained an inflammable principle. He tion from his body, by coating the tin was next led to consider the phenomes vessel with many layers of woollen na of Meteoric Stones, and the light cloth carefully wrapped round it, over occasioned by them ? which, Mr Da- which there was a tin case, the entire vy said, were now perfectly explicable nearly two inches in thickness, and by the facts just discovered; but as to covered externally with three wet the place whence these bodies came, towels. In the course of the experihe gave no opimion, only that from ment he dipped his hands frequently the curves which they described, it in snow water, and also sprinkled the was certain that they came from some towels. The Rev. Mr Hincks, lectuother world, and were travellers only rer on chemistry in the Cork Instituin our atmosphere; for if they had tion, to whom the experiment was been formed there, their descent must conímunicated, on repeating it in a be perpendicular to the surface of the glass bottle, found the heat of the vesearth, which, it was known, was not sel, by means of a thermometer placed the case. The professor then referred between it and the covering, to be into the several substances that had hi- ferior to that of the inclosed fluid, and, therto been deemed simple, supposing on a par with the atmosphere, which that all might, hereafter, be decompo- proves in a most satisfactory manner, sed. In sulphur and charcoal, it was that there could be no communication *CW known there was hydrogen i kc of caloric from the hand.
Experiments lately made at Venice moderate size at half-tide, when laden, shew that the oil of the Chinese radisha and the largest trading ships at high is preferable to any other kind known, water. Houses, of large dimensions, not only for culinary purposes, and are erecting on the pier, the lower giving light, but also as a medicine. part of whieh to be occupied as wareFrom the experiments lately made by houses for merchandize in general, and Dr Oliviero, it is found to be extreme- the upper stories as extensive granaly useful in rheumatic and pulmonary ries. There is also a turnpike road affections, and has been employed with iminediately to be completed, from the much success in convulsive coughs. harbour, to the great road leading beIt is not liable to spoil by keeping, tween Elgin and Forres, by which the like other oils, nor is the plant injured town of Elgin, and that populous and by the hardest frosts. The seed, which highly-cultivated country in its vici
very abundant, is gathered in May nity, will be most materially benefiand June.
ted. Several inost respectable and patriotic gentlemen in that neighbourhood have already advanced large sums
of money for this harbour, and they Improvements in Aberdeenshire.
are in expectation of considerable asA commodious harbour has been e
sistance from the reversion of monies, rected at Burghead, of which a gen- still in the hands of the trustees for the ileman, travelling through the county forfeited estates: this they are well enof Moray, observes, “ I was conduct- titled to ; such a harbour having been ed to the new Harbour of Burghead, much wanted on the coast, is of gewhere I had the pleasure of seeing the neral utility, and in such a state of forvery best situation for a harbour, upon wardness as now to admit vessels with the whole range of the south coast of perfect safety. It is situated on the the Murray Frith. Its piers are built east side of a clear and spacious bay, of large blocks of fine freestone, admi- of easy access with any wind, and cacably calculated for such an underta. pable of containing, when completed, king, and, in the erection of which, a sixty or seventy sail.” sufficient attention has been paid to A set of baths has been recently elegance as well as durability. As it erected at Fraserburgh, and their comfrequently happens, during the boiste- pletion is announced. They consist tous winter months, and where the of two cold baths, cut out of the sonortherly gales blow right on shore, lid rock, filled every tide from the sea; that vessels are compelled to run for four warm baths, and a shower bath, Cromarty Frith, but, from the long with drawing-rooms ar d pump-room. narrow formation of that Frith, and The mineral water at Fraserburgh is the stupendous mountains surrounding said to have all the qualities or the it, the winds are often drawn so much chalybente springs, and to be lighter from the west, that after entering the than most springs of that quality in bay, many ships have again been for this country. ced into the Moray Frith, exposed The Aberdeen bridewell will, it is to the greatest danger, and no place expected, be fit for the reception of of safety was to be looked for nearer delinquents against the month of Dethan Peterhead or Aberdeen: but now, cember next. in all such cases, they will have Burg- The foundation stone has been laid head harbour completely in their power, of a new bridge over the Dee at Bal. and where every sinall vessel may ap- later.
Aberdeen Journal. proach, even at low water, those of a
Here shall the studious mind be richly fedi,
And sweet enchantment close around his Spoken at the Roral Acarlemır, InvzRNISS,
head. 4th JUNE, 1808.
Or, eager still in nature's book to pry, It'r tten by Mr David CAREY, Author of Wilt thou the Astronomic tube arply,
the “ Pleasures of Nature," " Reign of And trace with Fancy thro' the wide iriane Fancy,” &c. &c.
The Comet's blaze and planetary train ?
Here shalt thou mark the various systems HIRK! ye who Genius love, from Learn- roil, ning's fane,
And learn the laws which regulate the Symphonius bursts the rapt unbidden strain:
whole. " Come to these shades and Academic bowers,
« Do Nature's fairest charms, in summer And iwine the garland of unfading flowers, bower, Ye in whose ear, as dawn'd Youth's smil. Sweet task! awake the Pencil's mimic ing day,
power? Prophetic llope has sung her wirning lay. Thyscenes, o Ness ! shall prompt the pleaLo! sudden bursting o'er your native north, sing toil, The young Auroras fling their radiance So oft hy Beauty view'd with raptur'd smile.
Or wake sublimer transports in thy soul So by thy banks, o Nese, and silver streams, To trace her mountain walks when torrents The sun of Science sheds his brightening roll? beams.
Bennevis' pomp shall swell the bold design, Sons of the rugged North, sedate and brave, And all Salvator's daring scenes be chine. For you the prospect wakes as from the grave.
" Does Valour fire thee? In this calm O'er all your fields, no more the haunts of abode strife,
Shall War's dread arts to glory point the "The liberal spirit breathes creative life ;
road. Wealth's ample cide flows fraught with And still may never Scottish blood run cold blameless spoils,
When Freedom calls to guard her little fold; And Fame applauding waits to crown your But Oh! while Honour's generous stream toils.
flows warm, There busy industry his labour plies, May Scotia's weal still nerve thy dauntless And rears the lofty fabric to the skies.Or bids the waste in new-born beauey shine, Firm as that band, who late on Maida's Or forns the long Canal's unrivall'd line; field, Here in the shade which hallow'd hands Gain'd high renown, and taught the foe to have rear'd,
yield; To Virtue’s sous by no vain charms endear’d, Or that bold arm, unconquerably brave, Young Genius sits and culls the seeds of "That snatch'd a wreath to deck his desert thought,
grave, Withstruggling energies sublimelywrought, When Scotia's bleeding sons on Egypt's And meditates with rapt aspiring mind
shore The deeds that shed a lustre on mankind. Fell— nobly fell--and grasp'd their dread
claymore: “ Does Fame enchant thee with the
So firm, so bold, the patriotic band smiles of Peace ?
That form " a wall of fire to guard theit Thy honours, Rome! and thine, unrivall'd
native land;'' Greece!
Who round Britannia's coast her flag disShall bid che smiling Arts go hand in hand
play, And bloom on Caledonia's farthest strand.
And bless with votive strains her GEORGE'S Has Science trimm'd her lamp at mid
natal day. night hour To watch o’er Mind's illimitable power, “ Hail to the morn whose orient splenOr fondly mark, by chemic art rein'd,
dours gleam, New scenes that claim the wonder of man- With bounties fraught, by Ness's favoured kind?