Obrazy na stronie

grovel not here below: live as a son of God: tave thy conversation in heaven. Nothing earthly can fill thy vast de sires: only the infinite God can fill them; only he who is blessed for ever, can bless thee with life and joy everlasting.Lute joy everlasting the mere hope of this, white man is here,-while he is nothing more than man, the mere hope of this, is his dearest portion. It inspires and solaces the heaven-born pilgrit: It gives health to the frame, and ange-vigour to the mind-Like the fair summer-evening, it beams sweetness and serenity. It is man's most es. mable joy it is his paradise below.

P. 265.

II. Indian Recreations; consisting of Thoughts on the Effects of the British Government on the State of India: accompanied with Hints concerning the Means of Improving the condition of the natives of that country. By the Rev. Wm. Tennant A. M. L. L. D. &c. Vol, III. 8vo. 9s. Longman & Co. London; Anderson, Edinburgh. 1808.

THE HE two first volumes of this work appeared some years ago, and have been well received by the public, as containing a variety of useful information respecting the situation and character of the natives of India. The present is upon a subject still more immediately interesting, and which has of late attracted a large share of public attention. The author is a zealous advocate for the system which has, for some time past, been pursued by the British government in India. He conceives it to be not only strictly conformable to astice, but eminently conducive to he interests both of the mother country and of the natives. We shall ot enter at present into the discusson of a question to determine which with certainty would require a extent of study which few are able to bestow upon it. Those, however, ho wish to hear this side of the ques

tion will probably find the present work as satisfactory as any which has been published upon it with the same view. It shews good sense, and pretty extensive views; and though it does not enter quite so much into detail as might be wished, contains, on the whole, a good deal of information.-The style is simple and perspicuous, and not devoid of elegance. As a specímen of the work, we shall give some of our author's observations on a subject which of late has been much agi. tated, that of the attempts recently made to introduce Christianity into India by means of missions. In this view, he considers preaching as likely to be altogether ineffectual. He says,

Among the Hindoos, no collision of opinion has awakened the curiosity of the people, or roused the human intellect: no books have ever reached their hands to convey information, nor has native language. Of all abstract ideas, even a newspaper been printed in the the multitude in India is almost entirely destitute. To a people in this state, it is in vain that you propose any system of doctrines for their discussion: there can hardly be any sufficiently simple for their understanding; and perhaps none too gross for their belief.

Unfortunately for the Hindoos, their Brahmins will not permit them to exercise the small portion of intellect which departure from the customary rites is they are known to possess; since every held up by them as of all things the most sinful, and not to be expiated but by the severest penalties. Thus the attachment of an Hindoo to his faith and worship, is guarded equally by his igpriesthood, who among them are the sole guides of opinion, to keep him constantly under the dominion of both. They watch and labour to preserve ignorance, not to disseminate knowledge, every inlet to which is guarded as closely as the avenues of death*.

norance and fear. It is the care of the


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These causes alone, without any violent opposition on the part of the Hindoos, have hitherto prevented any considerable degree of success from ever signalising the labours of our missionaries in India. At different times, as well as the present, the fervor of zeal, or the efforts of humanity, have produced various exertions in favour of the natives; but as all these plans have borne the same aspect, and have embraced similar means, the causes of disappointment have remained strong and permanent; their efforts have proved almost uniformly fruitless. In the province of Madura, and afterwards in the Mysore, some of the lower classes have attended the discourses of missionaries, and yielding a kind of assent to their doctrines, if assent can be given to what is not understood, they have been enrolled in their catalogue of believers, although more than a nominal Christianity has never yet been found in these parts: a church and teachers have been established in Delhi for near two hundred years, and still subsists there; it has, however, received no increase of converts to afford any hope of final success. The missionaries of the Propaganda have lately been depressed, and either seem weary of so fruitless a task, or carry it on with a feebleness which gives little countenance to the hopes of their employers. P. 275.

But a method, he conceives, by which the same object might be gradually but effectually accomplished, would be the establishment of schools, and it would appear that the avidity of the natives for this species of instruction is equal to the aversion which they entertain for the other. Our au thor says,

Happily for the execution of this mea

*First planted by Portuguese Jesuits, according to Thevenot. The labours of this Order were spread through almost every country in the Eastern world. Vide Lettres edifiantes et curi. euses. They boast of having performed miracles, and to have made numerous converts but these narratives were not believed, even by the natives, and have thrown discredit on the whole of their exertions.

sure, the natives have no aversion to commit their children to the tuition of Europeans; they are rather ambitious that their offspring should acquire the accomplishment of reading and writing the English, though a foreign language, as the means of enabling them to prosecute successfully some lucrative branch of trade, and of introducing them as clerks and agents into the employment of the British. An Hindoo of rank will not, it is confessed, allow his children either to eat or sleep in the same apartment with Europeans, but he is known to permit them freely to remain at a day school, which for the abovenamed branches of education is suffici ent.

It is asserted by persons practically acquainted with this subject, that the desire of the people after education is so strong, that several have at present, with much expence, placed their children under the tuition of Europeans: and that there are many more taught by such of the natives themselves as understand the English language. Where neither of these means of instruction can be afforded, there have been many instances of spelling books, and copies for learning to write, being purchased by such as have supposed that they might acquire these branches of knowledge by their own private application*.

There are at present residing in Cally witnessed these several facts, but cutta two gentlemen, who have not onwho have themselves been engaged in the tuition of some natives of distinction, and who have been able to communicate to them much useful instruction. The parsimonious habits of an


*From Volume I. of this work, it appears that schools for the instruction of the natives are already pretty general in many parts of India: it is probable too, that such institutions are of very old standing in that country. Their method of teaching to read, write, and spell, by a single process, is at once expeditious and unexpensive. It is accomplished by forming the letters on sand, spread either upon the ground or on a table; and one lesson is no sooner finished, than the characters are efface to make room for another,

Hindoo, almost of every rank, rendering him averse to part with money on any occasion, unless to his Brahmin, the institution of schools here proposed ought to be attended with an established salary, as a provision for the teachers: this provision might be occasionally increased, by the contribution of such wealthy natives as are able to afford a liberal assistance to the instruction of their children. In other cases, the benefit of knowledge would be more acceptable to the natives by being conferred gratuitously. P. 280.

In reply to the obvious question as to the difficulty of procuring teachers, Dr T. replies, that there is now in India a very numerous mixed race, produced by the intercourse of European settlers with Indian women, who would be willing and even happy to undertake the employment for a moderate salary. Being excluded from offices in the service of the East India company, they are frequently brought to poverty, arising from the absolute want of employment.

tion of the works of Thomson, in three volumes octavo. It will be accompanied by a life of the author, of which little seems hitherto to have been discovered, and which Mr Scott's local connections may be supposed to render him well qualified for illustrating. In particular, it will contain a number of original letters hitherto unknown to the public, which we understand he has been fortunate enough to procure.

Mr Scott is also about to publish a new edition of the works of the celebrated Lord Somers, accompanied by a life of the author, and historical notes.

The University of Edinburgh has lately received a splendid acquisition in the magnificent Collection of Minerals bequeathed to it by the late Dr Thomson, of Naples. That celebrated mineralogist, during a long residence in a country extremely fertile in the most interesting products of the mineral kingdom, lost no opportunity of forming a most splendid collection, which, having fortunately escaped eve

New Works published in Edinburgh. ry danger, has arrived at Edinburgh

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uninjured. This bequest Dr Thomson accompanied with the endowment of One thousand five hundred pounds, the interest of which he has destined for the payment of a lecturer on mi neralogy and the support of the cabinet. The latter is contained in forsited in the museum of the University, ty very large boxes, which are depoand proper cases are making for the reception of the specimens. The interesting and valuable collection of the late ingenious Dr Hutton, of Edinburgh, has also been deposited in the museum.

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work which he had finished but the week previous to his death, and part of the manuscripts of which was in the hands of the printer. It consists of a Series of Letters to his Son, on Taste, Literature, and Criticism. Perhaps a more correct idea cannot be given of it, than in the words of the author con tained in a Letter to his publisher on its completion; he there remarked, “that this work contained the result of the observations of his whole life, on every subject of taste and literature, and that, whatever might be the ultimate opinion of its merits, his reputation in the republic of letters would in a great degree depend on it." The work is print. ing in two volumes, corresponding with the Lectures of the same author, oa Experimental Philosophy, and it will be published early in July.

A volume of recent Travels, through Spain and Portugal, is announced for immediate publication, and such a work cannot fail to be generally interesting at the present moment.

In the course of next winter, will be published, (to be continued quarterly,) the first Number of a Classical Journal, consisting of Classical and Biblical Cri. ticisms, and of Academical Frize Poems and Dissertations. The work will be conducted by members of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and will admit analagous communications from every part of the world, in Latin, French, and English.

Dr Watkins is printing two new editions of his Scripture Biography, with considerable improvements and addi. fons; one of them is in duodecimo, for schools, as before, and the other a handsome octavo volume, printed in a large type for the use of families.

Mr Grant, of Crouch-End, will publish, in a few days, a work, entitled "Institutes of Latin Grammar." This work is intended chiefly for the higher classes of an academy, or a grammar school, With this view, the author has not only endeavoured to supply the deficiencies, and correct the errors of our common grammars, but has likewise introduced a variety of critical and explanatory obser. vations. By exhibiting an ample and accurate digest of the rules and principles of the Latin language, and by a copious enumeration of anomalies and ex. ceptions, he has laboured to furnish not

only the senior scholar, but also the master, with a useful book of occasional reference.

Dr Williams's long promised Essay on the Equity of Divine Government, and the Sovereignty of Divine Grace, is expected to make its appearance in July or August.

Several republications are announced, as, 1. Shuckford's Sacred and Profane History of the World, revised and cor. rected by James Creighton, A. B. with notes, by Adam Clarke, L.L.D. 2. Nature of Imposture, fully displayed.3. Prideaux's Lite of Mahomet. 4. Baxter's Reformed Pastor, abridged and improved, by the Rev. Samuel Paimer.5. Dr Dodd's Comfort for the aflicted. 6. Gambado's Academy for Grown Horsemen. And, 7. Ludlam's Introduc. tion to the Mathematics, with an appendix, by Mr W. Fryer.

Dr Glasse is about to publish another edition of the New Testament, with Burkitt's Observations, to be comprised in a large volume octavo. This edition will contain such parts of the commentary as are most necessary for the explanation of the text, with short usefut and practical annotations thereon. By this farther abridgment, the editor hopes to bring this valuable work into more general circulation.

Mr Parkes has for some time been engaged in revising the Chemical Catechism, in order to accommodate every part of that work to the new facts lately developed by the highly interesting and truly important discoveries of Mr Davy. A new edition (being the third) thus "amended, and with other very consider able additions, is in the press, and will be ready for publication in the course of the

uext week..

Mr Jones has in the press, a work illustrative of the Four Gospels.

A supplementary volume is about to appear of Birds to Barr's Edition of Buffon. The proprietors of that work have engaged a literary gentleman to collect all that has been discovered in ornithology of an interesting nature, since the death of the illustrious Buf. fon; and, for that purpose, have procured the splendid edition of his works, lately published by Sonnini, in 114 volumes, and selected from it every artiie of importance.

Mr Southey is engaged upon a History

tory of Brazil, which will be immediately put to press. It forms a part of the History of Portugal, on which he has been employed during the last eight years. The best native historians of that kingdom have perceived the necessity of arranging their national history under three distinct heads; Portugal, Portuguese Asia, and Brazil. These perts have no farther connection, than that of relating to the same people, each forming in itself a complete whole. According to chronological order, the History of Brazil would have been the last in the series, but as public curiosity is particularly directed towards that counery, it has been thought proper to lay it before the world with as little delay as possible. A critical catalogue of all the authorities, printed or manuscript, in the possession of the author, or to which he has had access, will be annexed to the work.

A new Translation of the Venerable Bede's Ecclesiastical History is preparing for the press, by the Rev. J. Evans, author of two Tours through North and South Wales. The work will be preceded by an introductory Chapter on the State of Religion from the earliest Period in Britain, anterior to the commencement of Bede's æra, and a continuation from authentic documents down to the Norman conquest, so as to comprise a complete view of the AngloSaxon church.

Proposals have been distributed for pablishing by subscription, a new edi. tion of Ames's Typographical Antiquities, by Herbert, greatly enlarged and corrected, in five quarto volumes, by the Rev. T. F. Dibdin. In this work, the whole of Herbert will be reprinted, and his corrections and additions inserted in their proper places. A great number of books will be mentioned which were unknown to him, and of those that he has briefly and imperfectly noticed, the description will, in general, be more ample and accurate. The notes, biographical and bibliographical, are intended to be copious. Anecdotes relative to the authors of books, as well as to the books themselves, will be occasionally given. Information on these subjects will be collected chiefly from the writ ings of Wood, Nicholson, Hearne, Tanner, Bagford, Warton, Ritson, Bishop Percy, Pinkerton, G. Ellis, Todd, and July 1808.

Brydges. Many interesting remarks will also be inserted from the communications of eminent modern bibliographers; and the public libraries of Oxford, Cambridge, and London, will be carefully consulted. It is intended to omit the prologues of Caxton, Wynkyn de Worde, &c. in the first volume, and to throw them into the fifth by way of supplement. By this method, the account of the books will be less interrupted, and the object specified by Ames and Herbert equally attained namely, that of supplying materials for filling up imperfect copies of our early printers. Almost all the plates of Ames, which Herbert has indiscriminately admitted, are not only destitute of taste and skill, but are incorrect representations of the originals. Fac-similes of the types and devices of printers, are crowded together in a minute and irregular manner, and printers' portraits are gi ven with little fidelity or elegance. In the present edition, it is proposed to remedy these defects, and to give ac curate and well-executed copies of originals. As a number of curious wood cuts are intended to be engraved, it is presumed that this edition of British Typographical Antiquities will afford an illustration of the progress of engraving, as well as of the History of Printing in Great Britain and Ireland. The fifth volume will comprehend :—-1. An Account of the Private Presses in England, including a complete Catalogue Raisonne of the works printed at Strawberry-hill. 2. A List of Books printed at the University Presses of Oxford and Cambridge. 3. A List of Books printed by Ruddiman, Bower, and Baskerville, with Biographical Memoranda and Portraits of those Printers. 4. The Prologues of our early English Printers.---5. A Printer's Grammar upon a Plan entirely new, with Flates by way of illustrations. 6. Two Indexes; the one an Analytical Index, comprehending all the books enumerated in the body of the work, arranged according to their respective classes; the other a complete general index of persons and things.

We have already had occasion to notice the intended travels into the East, of Captain Hogelmuller, under the auspices of the Archduke Charles of Austria, and his invitation of questions respecting the countries to which his vi


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