Obrazy na stronie

of the Greek Testament, Lucian, and Xenophon, construed and explained,Belles Lettres, or first class of Greek and Latin, Greek Gospel of St Luke, Acts of the Apostles, Epistles of St Paul, Homer, Epictetus, Xenophon, explained, &c. Latin-Cicero's Orations, Offices, Livy, part of Seneca, Pliny's Letters, Horace, explained, &c.-Rules of Latin versification. Philosophy.-Logic, Metaphysics, and Ethics. The Professor is obliged, through paucity of books, to compile a treatise, and dictate it to his scholars. The authors to whom reference is given, are, Seguy, philosophy, and Locke. Natural and Experimental philosophy, different branches of Elementary Mathematics, Algebra, Geometry, Conic Sections, Astronomy, Mechanics, Optics, Hydraulics, &c. Chemistry-Various English authors, Divinity-Dogmatical, 1st course, de Religione; 2d course, de Incarnatione et Ecclesia; 3d course, de Sacramentis in genere, de Eucharista. The Professor is obliged to compile these treatises, which are chiefly taken from the following books: Hooke, Bailly, Duvoisin, Le Grand, Tournely, N. Alexander, P. Collet, Co. Tour. Moral.-1st course, de actibus humanis, de conscientia, de peccatis, de matrimonio; 2d course, de legibus, de virtutibus theol. et moral, de sacramento pænitentiæ; 3d course, de jure et justicia, de contradictibus, de obligatione statuum, de ceneuris, &c. Authors, Paul Antoine, P. Collet, Continuator Tournelii. There is at present no regular Professor of sacred scriptures, but a portion of the New Testament is committed to memory every week, the Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles are explained, the epistles from Dom. Calmet, Maldonatus, Esthius, Synopsis criticorum, and other biblical expounders. The modern langua

and Greek, Sallust, Virgil, and Ho-ges which are taught, are English,

native Irish, and French.

race explained, select passages of Goldsmith's Roman History occasionally translated into Latin,-portions July 1808.

established for the purpose of removing the difficulty of procuring a suitable education, to which students intended for the Catholic Ministry in Ireland were subject, in consequence of the suspension of intercourse between that country and the continent, occasioned by the late war. It was supported by an annual parliamentary grant, aided in some degree by private donations and legacies, which have amounted, since the commencement of the institution, to upwards of eight thousand pounds. In the present state, the establishment is not considered as adequate to the wants of the Irish Church. The buildings are extensive, as 32,000/. have been expended on them, and they are not yet complete. The number of students for the present year is about two hundred. They are provided with lodging, commons, and instruction, from the funds of the establishment, but each student pays 91. 2s. entrance money, and his personal expences through the year are calculated at 20/. There is a recess during the months of July and August, and a recess for a few days at the festivals of Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost. As it is requisite, even during the time of vacation, for students, who wish to be absent from college, to obtain the permission of their respective prelates, they, for the most part, remain during the whole year, and are employed in study, composition, and preparation for the ensuing course. During term, the obligation of residence imposed by the statutes is religiously enforced. For the admission of a student, besides other conditions, the recommendation of his prelate is required. He is to be examined in the classics, and admitted by the majority of examiners. The following is an outline of the course of studies: Humanity, under class, Latin

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

It will be readily perceived that the lectures retain much of that old scho


lastic form, which is little calculated scrinia et chartas."-The 5th and 6th
for the promotion of true knowledge. chapter of the Statutes relate to the
The classical instructions are very -

Professors and Lecturers; the 7th to
the choice of Professors; the 8th to
the students. The districts of Armagh
and Cashel, furnish 60 each; those of
Dublin and Tuam, 40 each. The 9th
chapter respects public examinations
of which four are held in the course of
the year; the 10th and 11th describe
the duties of the Librarian and Bur-
sar:-The following are the present
Rev. Pat. J. Byrne, D.D. President.
Rev. R. F. Power, A. M. Vice Presi-

The bye-laws chiefly relate to internal regulations, enforcing much of the discipline and formality of monachism, and tending to train up the students to that habitual observance of exterior decorum, which is usually to be remarked in the performance of Catholic rites. During meals, the scriptures and other profitable books, selected by the President, are to be read. Constant employment is recommended. The students are to be obedient to their President, not to yield too far to the dictates of their own understanding, and to use only such books as shall be recommended by the President and Professors. The follow. ing is the general order of each day: The students are summoned by a bell at 5; at 54 they meet for public prayer; from 6 they study in the public halls; at 74 mass is performed; at 8 they breakfast; 9 study in public halls; 10 attend class; 11 recreation; 12 study in public halls; 1 attend class; 3 dinner; 5 class for modern languages; 6 study in public halls; 8 supper; 9 common prayer; 9; all retire in silence to their cham


The statutes are employed in describing the duties and qualifications of the members of the Institution. The President must be a native subject of the British Empire, not under thirty years of age, in priest's orders, and must have passed through a complete course of academical learning. It is his duty to superintend the general discipline of the college. In the performance of his office he is assisted by a Vice-President. The Dean, who is likewise styled Magister Officii, in spects manners and morals, and is to be of the same order, age, country, &c. as the President. "Libros curiose inspicito, et si justissima suspicio præiyerit, ipsa quoque, annuente præside,

[ocr errors]

Rev. Tho. Coen, Dean.
Rev. E. Montague, Burs.
Rev. E. Delahogae, D. D. Prof. Dog-

Rev. L. Ferris, D. D. Prof. Moral matum Theologicorum.


Rev. A. Darre, A. M. Natural and
Rev. Fr. Anlade, Logic.
Experim. Philosophy.
Rev. Charles Lovelock, A. M. Belles

Rev. Pat. M'Nichols, Greek and La-

Rev. M. Crowley, Lect. Dogm. Theol.
Rev. D. Sinnot, Lect. Mor. Theol.
Rev. W. Crolley, Lect. Logic.
Mr M. Usher, Professor of English


Rev. P. O'Brien, Prof. of Irish Lan

Rev. A. Dunne, Treasurer.

The emoluments of the Professors are very moderate. The President has L. 227..10s. The Vice-President, and two Theological Professors, L.106; the other Professors, L.75 to L.85.— They derive also some advantages from residing in the house.

The allegiance of the members of the institution to the government from which they derive their support, is testified in various ways. Each student, on his admission, takes an oath, that he is and will remain, unconnected with any conspiracy. The duty of fideli ty

with the talents and virtues which have influenced the destiny of nations. We see their birth, their education, their manners. Sometimes a number of great men come forward at once, meet and struggle against each other; at other times great men appear insulated, thrown, as it were, out of the order of nature, into periods of weak. ness and languishing. We see the struggles of a great character against the degenerate manners of a sinking people; the rapid progress of a rising nation which receives strength from a a man of genius; the impulse given to nations by laws, by conquest, by eloquence; great virtues always rarer than talents, the one powerful and impetuous, the other calm and deliberate; plans sometimes deeply laid and ripened by years, sometimes inspired, conceived, executed almost at once, with that vigour which carries every thing before it, because it leaves no room for foresight and precaution. We see, in short, splendid lives, deaths illustrious and almost always violent; for by an inevitable law, the action of those men who set the world in mo

On the Characters of PLUTARCH and tion, produces an equal resistance in


all that surrounds them; they press against the universe and the universe against them; and behind glory, exile, the sword, or poison, is almost always concealed.

delity to the civil government is to be strongly inculcated by the theological professors. Prayers are to be offered on Sundays and Holidays for the King in a prescribed form.

Masters, Scholars.


Paris, College des Lom-14
--Community Rue .3 80

Cheval vert,






Total in France,











[ocr errors]






17 348







Total on the Continent, 27 478

From the French of Thomas.


"CALL up before me great men ; I wish to see and converse with them," said a young prince to a celebrated priestess of the east, who pretended to raise the dead. A retired sage, who stood by, approached and said: "I will perform what you ask. Hold, take this book; read over attentively the characters which are written in it: as you read, you will see the shades of great men rising around you." This book was the "Lives of illustrious men" by the philosopher of Cheronea. There in fact we find all antiquity. There men in succession appear in their real character,

Such is nearly the spectacle which Plutarch presents. With regard to his style and manner, they are well known. They are those of an old man full of good sense, habituated to the spectacles presented by human things, who is not warmed, is not dát zled; admires with tranquillity, and blames without indignation. His pace is moderate, and never becomes hurried. Like a calm river, he stops; he re turns, he suspends his course; he slowly embraces a vast extent of ground. He spreads out tranquillity, and by chance, as it were, as he goes along, all that his memory retains. Every where,

where, in short, he converses with his reader; he is the Montagne of the Greeks; but he has not, like him, that picturesque and bold manner of painting his ideas. Like him, however, he attaches and interests, without appearing to aim at doing so. Above all, his great art consists in painting men by minute details. He draws none of those brilliant portraits, of which Sallust first set the example, and which Cardinal de Retz, by his memoirs, has brought so much into vogue among us; he does better, he paints in action. We think we see all these great men act and converse. All his figures are genuine, and have the exact proportions of nature. Some persons think this to be the style in which all panegyrics ought to be written. We should be less dazzling, say they, but more satisfactory; and admiration must sometimes be renounced for the sake of esteem,


The order of time, the connection of ideas, the merit of this great man, and the particular character of his works, seem to require that we should speak of him here. At the name of Tacitus, every man of the least sensibility feels his imagination warmed, and his soul raised to a higher tone. If you ask, who has better exposed vices and crimes ;-better inspired indignation and contempt for all who brought misery upon mankind? I will say, Tacitus. Who inspires a more sacred respect for virtue in misfortune,* who makes her appear more august, in chains, or under the stroke of the executioner? it is Tacitus. Who has thrown the most sovereign contempt on parasites and slaves, on all who cringed, flattered, pillaged, and corrupted at the court of the emperors? again it is Tacitus. Name to me a man who ever gave a more commanding character to history, a more terrible aspect to posterity. Philip II. Henry


VIII. and Louis XI. ought never tohave seen Tacitus in a library, without a species of terror.

If from the department of morals we pass to that of genius, who has drawn characters more strongly? Who has descended further into the depths of policy;-has drawn greater results from the smallest events;-has better, at every line in the history of a man, given the history of the human mind and of all ages? Who has better detected meanness under every fold in which it could hide itself;-has better discriminated all the species of fear, all the species of courage, all the secret workings of the passions, all the motives of men's discourses, all the contrasts between their sentiments and actions, all the movements which the mind will not own to itself? Who has better traced the singular mixture of virtues and vices, the assemblage of different and sometimes opposite qualities;-ferocity cold and gloomy in Tiberius, ardent in Caligula, stupid in Claudius, without restraint as without shame in Nero, tinid and hypocritical in Domitian?-the crimes of tyranny and of slavery ;-pride humbling itself on one side, to command on another; corruption either tranquil and slow, or bold and impetuous; the revolutionary character and spirit, the opposite views of the chiefs; instinct, fierce and rapacious in the soldier, tumultuous and feeble in the multitude? In Rome, we see the stupidity of a great people, to whom the conqueror and the conquered are alike indifferent, who, without choice, without regret, and without desire, sit at the public shews, and coldly wait till their master is announced; are ready to clap their hands by chance to whoever shall arrive, whom, if another had prevailed, they would have trampled under foot. In short, ten pages of Tacitus teach us better the knowledge of mankind, than threefourths of modern histories put together. It is the book of old men, of

philosophers, of citizens, of courtiers, of princes. It consoles him who is placed in solitude, for the absence of the society of men; it enlightens him who is forced to live with them. It is too true, that it does not teach us to esteem them; but we should be too happy if their intercourse were not, in this respect, more dangerous still

than Tacitus.

I have spoken of his eloquence; it is well known. In general, it is not an eloquence of words and of harmony; it is an eloquence of ideas which follow and strike against each other.His thoughts seem every where to concentrate themselves in order to occupy less space. We never foresee, we only follow it. Often it is not brought forth entire, and is hid, as it were, under a veil. Imagine a language, rapid as the movements of the soul; a language which, in order to express a sentiment, should never require to be divided into words; a language, every sound of which should express a collection of ideas; such almost is the perfection of the Roman language in Tacitus. No superuous sign, no useless pageantry The thoughts press upon each other, and crowd into the imagination; but they fill, without ever fatiguing it. In regard to the style, it is bold, rapid, often abrupt, always vigorous. It paints by one stroke. The connection is more between the ideas than the words. Muscles and nerves predominate rather than grace. He is the Michel Angelo of writers; he has the same depth, the same strength, and perhaps a little also of the same rudeness.

Observations on the Introduction of MOONLIGHT SCENERY into POETRY, and the Effects the Contemplation of Nature by night has on the human mind.

To the Editor.


IT appears not a little surprising, that among the numerous illustrations of

the pleasing effects arising from the perusal of poetry, none have ever treated of the introduction of Moon-light Scenery. In most of the principal poems, both ancient and modern, we find that frequently the most interesting, pleasing, and pathetic part, is that which treats of the various appearances of nature as then exhibited, or of the melancholy and tender emotions which the scenery is calculated to produce. To investigate to what lengths such descriptions should be protracted; to what species of poetry they should be confined; or to give a regu lar detail of them in every poem of merit, would lead into a field of discussion much beyond the limits of this essay, It is not so much my present object to enumerate and classify these descriptive parts of poetry, or to elucidate them by elaborate quotations, as to shew the pleasing influence they have on the human mind, and how they contribute to call forth and refine all the finer feelings of our nature. Withdrawn from the cares and bustle of the day, we contemplate by moonlight, nature displayed in one of her most enchanting forms; and while thus our attention is warped up in the grandeur of the scene, we experience that tranquillity of mind which we look for in vain in the busy theatre of life.

Accordingly we find, that every poet of taste has availed himself of such descriptions in almost every department of poetry. In day-light, when the whole face of nature is displayed at one view, and a boundless prospect opens to the sight, the mind is apt to be so much distracted, and the thoughts so dissipated by the multiplicity of objects, as to be rendered incapable of singling out any particu lar part, or of surveying it with attention. Hence, whenever the poet wishes to impress upon our minds any great or sublime object, or to melt us with any tender or pathetic description, he withdraws us from the tumult and bustle of the world to the tran

« PoprzedniaDalej »