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bird, particularly of the distribution and turbot; 2 Labrus, the wrasse and goldsinny; 1 Sparus, the toothed gilthead, (a rare fish, of which only two specimens have occurred in the Frith of Forth ;) 2 Perca, the perch and the basse; 3 Gasterosteus, the banstickle, and the fifteen and ten spined sticklebacks; with 1 Trigla, the grey gurnard. Of the Abdominales, he had ascertained fourteen species, belonging to seven genera: 1 Cobitis, the loche; 4 salmo, the salmon, sea-trout, common trout, and smelt or spirling; 3 Esox, the pike, gar-pike, and the saury or gandanook, (which last, though. rare in England, is not, he stated, un common at Edinburgh, but arrives in the Frith almost every autumn, in large shoals); 1 Atherina, the hepsetus; 3 Clupea, the herring, pilchard, and sprat or garvey-herring: Of the genus Cyprinus, of which no fewer than ten species inhabit the rivers and ponds of England, (including the carp, the tench, gudgeon, dace, roach, bream, &c.) only one insignificant species, the author remarked, is found near Edinburgh, viz. the common minow: Of the genus Scomber, the mackrel is got in the entrance of the Frith of Forth.-Mr Neill reserved the notice of the Amphibia Nantes of Linnæus, including the Ray-tribe and Shark, to a future meeting.
of its air-cells, which the ingenious author shewed to be admirably adapted to its mode of life and continued residence on the water, even in the most turbulent sea, and during the most rigorous seasons. The second communication was the description and drawing of a new genus of insect which inhabits the cellular membrane of the gannet, and to which Col. Mon. tague gives the name of Cellularia Bassani. At the same meeting, Mr P. Neill laid before the Society a list of such Fishes, belonging to the four Linnean orders, Apodes, Jugulares, Thoracici, and Abdominales, as he had ascertained to be natives of the waters in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, accompanied with remarks, and illustrated by specimens of some of the rarer species. Of the Apades, he enumerated four species, belonging to three genera, viz. 2 to Murena, the eel and conger; 1 Anarhichas, the wolf-fish; and 1 Ammodytes, the sand-launce. Of the Jugulares, he mentioned thirteen species, belonging to three genera: 1 Callionymus, the gemmeous dragonet, (for, from examining many specimens, Mr Neill is clearly of opinion, that the Sordid Dragonet of Mr Pennant and Dr Shaw, is not a distinct species, but merely the female of the gemmeous dragonet;) 9 Gadus, the haddock, ling, cod, dorse or codling, bib, whiting, coalfish or podley, green gadus, and weesel gadus of Dr Shaw; 2 Blennius, the spotted and viviparous blenny. Of the Thoracici, he stated twentytwo species, belonging to nine genera: 1 Gobius, the miller's-thumb, 2 Cottus, the pogge and fatherlasher; 2 Zeus, the doree and the opah, (a specimen of this last most resplendent fish, having been taken off Cramond, in the Frith of Forth, some years ago, and being still preserved in the museum of P. Walker, Esq.); 7 Pleuronectes, the holibut, plaise, fresh-water founder, dab, smear-dab, brill, sole,
Monthly Memoranda in Natural
July 1.-15.IF the past winter was
remarkable for its duration and severity, the summer has made ample amends, not merely by its usual genial warmth, but by maintaining a steady high temperature, to which, in this northern and variable climate, we have not for many years been accustomed.
GREAT HEAT. During the 13th, 14th, and 15th July, the heat at Edinburgh was excessive, the thermometer.
varying from 76° to 86° in the shade. In England, during the same period, it seems to have been still more intense, the public prints reporting the thermometer to have indicated from 840 to 920, and even 98° or bloodheat, in the shade. London is said to have resembled an oven, the brick walls of the houses tending to accumulate and give greater effect to the heat in the shady side of the street, the temperature, we are told, was 100°, or two degrees above bloodheat; in the sunny side, 147°, five degrees more than is requisite to melt bees-wax. From different counties of England, we have accounts of the fatal effects of these uncommon heats. Several labouring people have been cut off; some by the coup de soleil, having thoughtlessly exposed themselves to the sun's direct rays; others through lassitude and fatigue. Lambs, dogs, birds, were found lying dead in the fields, and on the high ways. On the great north road, between 40 and 50 post horses are said to have fallen a sacrifice to exposure to this extreme heat; some dropping down dead in the harness, and others expiring soon after they had completed their journey. Among the less la mentable effects, it is mentioned, that the flats of butter sent to the London market, (aflat containing many pounds, carefully packed,) were, in many instances, found to be converted into oil, before they reached their place of destination. Nay, the honeycomb in the bee-hives, was, in some places, melted, (if we can give credit to the newspapers,) so that the honey was observed running out from the bottom of the hives. In Scotland, as already remarked, the heat was more moderate; and it has not been attended with any remarkable effects.
July 16.-Some fine showers fell this day, and quickly reduced the temperature. 18.-A female Tope, Squalus Galeus, was brought into Newha
ven, having been accidentally entang led in the skate-nets.
July 19.-CUVIER'S RAY. Among the numerous fishes of the skate tribe, brought to market by the trawl-net fishers, it was interesting to find the rare species described by La Cepede, and named by him, Raia Cuvieri, after Cuvier, the celebrated anatomical professor at Paris. Unfortunately the specimen was mutilated before I had an opportunity of seeing it, it being the second day after it had come to market: but sufficient characters remained to ascertain the species; particularly the oval dorsal fin, which was left entire, having, by its singularity, attracted the notice of the fish-dealers; the angular pectoral fins; the double lobes of the ventral fins; and the traces of the spots upon the back. Owing to the hotness of the weather, the fish was already so much altered as to be unfit for preserving, and I was obliged to content myself with saving the dorsal fin.
POPULATION of the principal CITIES and Towns of SCOTLAND, according to the Return of 1801.
614 1,319 6 2,311 2,945 26 1,767 4,211 4,627 Ninians,............ 1,324 1,583 40 3,217 SUTHERLAND.
514 4,716 5,256 8,838 3,632 2,510 2,689 1,650 6,849
559 561 3 1,007 1,355 366
History and Description of the City of scenes which Nature has lavishly spread
(Concluded from p. 408.)
the year 1761, new works were established: a company from NewCastle began the calico printing, which has been progressively carried forward ever since. This was followed by an extensive manufactory, carried on by the ingenious Bernard Barton; whose premature death deprived the public of the abilities of an able and enterprising tradesman.
Thus the erecting of one manufactory was followed by that of another, till at present there are four printfields, which employ about one thousand people, and pay above L.20,000 annually to the revenue. Besides these there are eight more manufactories, some of which are very extensive in all the branches, from the raw materials to the finishing of checks, calicos, muslins, and all kinds of fancy-work.Here are also at present, four public breweries, which pay annually to the revenue upwards of L.6000; and a soapery, which pays a duty of about L.1500 a year: so that it is supposed Carlisle pays annually to the revenue, for exciseable articles manufactured there, licences, &c. above L.100,000.
Two banks were lately established here, and found of great service to trade.
The site of Carlisle is admirably fine; on a very gently rising ground, in the midst of an extensive and fertile plain, terminated on every side by distant lofty mountains, and surrounded with rivers, viz. the Eden on the north, Caldew on the west, and the Petteral on the east and south. The beautiful meadows and banks along the sides of the Eden and Caldew afford the pleasantest walks to the inhabitants of the city and its environs; who, unlike its turbulent, rough, and warlike occupiers in former ages, can enjoy in peace the rich and pleasing
In literature, and the arts and sciences, this city makes rather a conspi-, cuous figure than otherwise, having produced several men of letters of uncommon genius; some of whom have arrived at a degree of eminence. A spirit of industry appears to pervade the bulk of the inhabitants, by which many have placed themselves in easy, and a few in affluent circumstances.— And although they have on some occasions discovered much human weakness, by listening to the dictates of that demon, Party, yet we find that on any emergent occasion, when the cause of humanity demands their union, or national danger renders it necessary to call forth the strength and fidelity of the kingdom, the people of Carlisle have but one mind, and expressions of loyalty resound from every quarter.
REPORT concerning FORESTERIES, Sc.
in SCOTLAND, Anno 1680.
(From the Original.)
AT Edinburgh, the eight day of July, Sixteen hundred and eightie years, Anent the supplicatione presented to the Lords of Counsell and Sessione, by Alexander Robertson of Fascallie, shewing, that where the petitioner having obtaineat ane signature, superscrived by his Majesties royal hand, of his lands and barronie of Fascallie, containing an novodamus and errection of the outfield, woods, &c.; which the petitioner having presented to the Lords of Treasuric and Exchequer, to be past by them, after revising thereof; the same was taken up by the Marquis of Atholl, to see, and refused to be reproduced untill the Lords ordained him to do the same: and, after reproduction thereof, the petitioner having addressed himself by ane supplicatione to
That, by the lawes and acts of the Parliament of this kingdom, the priviledge and import of ane Forrestrie is, That it is a place appoynted for deer, and for hunting; and that any deer, or cattle, or other beasts that are found within the Forrestrie, are confiscable to the proprietor and keeper of the forrest: and that his Majesties, and his leidges interest is, That whereas, by the lawes and custome of this kingdom, no man is obliged to herd his catle, or other beasts, except when the corns are upon the ground, after qhuilk, the possessor of the ground may keep ther own ground, and turn off other folks cattle, but cannot ob lidge them to herd or keep their cattle, or pay for the transgressione, except in the case of inclosures, where violence is done to the dykes thereof; yet this forrestrie now craved, is not to be inclosed, as commonlie forrestries are open. And, by the erecting of new forrestries, all the neighbouring heritors must ether herd ther goods through the whole year, and keep them off these forresteries; or otherwayes suffer the loss of them, by being confiscate for pasturing upon these forresteries. And it is represented, that, in this particular case, ther is a forresterie of the King's foresaid, in which ther is a considerable stock of deer, as the report of the saids four Lords in the said matter at lenth bears: which being read in presence of, and considered by the saids Lords of Counsell and Sessione, this day, they have approved, and hereby approve thereof, and ordain the same to be reported to the saids Lords of his Majesties Exchequer. Extracted by me.
the said Lords of Exchequer, craving that the said signature might be past; the said Lords of Exchequer, by an act made by them thereanent, upon the eleventh day of February last by past, recommended to the Lords of Counsell and Sessione aforesaid, to consider the import and priviledge of a Forrestrie, and how far his Majesties interest might be concerned in the foresaid signature, or the lyke; craving, therefore, that the saids Lords of Sessione would appoint a tyme to the effect foresaid, as the said supplicatione at length bears: Which being read in presence of the saids Lords of Counsell and Sessione, they recommended to Sir Alexander Seatoun of Pitmedden, ane of the saids Lords ther own number, to call both parties before him, and to hear them, and ther Prors. upon the said matter, and to make report thereof to them. According whereunto the said Lord Pitmedden having called both parties, and ther Prörs. before him, and having heard them debait in the said matter, did make report of the same to the said Lords of Counsell and Sessione ; which report being considered by the said Lords, they appoynteat Charles Maitland of Hattoun Lord Treasurer Deput, Sir Thomas Murray Lord Regr. Sir David Falconer of Newtown, and the said Sir Alexander Seatoun of Pitmedden, four of the saids Lords, ther own number, to prepare ane report to the saids Lords of Exchequer, anent, the import and priviledge of ane Forrestrie, and how far his Majesties interest may be concerned in the foresaid signature, or the lyke. Lykeas, according to the foresaid recommendation, the saids Lords Treasurer Depute, Register, Newtoun and Pitmedden, having considered the debait in the said matter, betwixt the said supplicants Prör., and lykewayes the Prör. of the said Marquis of Atholl, heretable keeper of his Majesties Forrestrie in Atholl, neir adjacent to Fascallies estate, they fand,
Signed-THO. MURRAY, Cls. Reg. Edinburgh, 9th July, 1680. The Lords Commissioners having heard, and considered the above writ ten report, doe ordain and appoint, that before Fascallies signature, above mentioned, be past in Exchequer, the claus anent the forresterie, therein contained,