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July

High Water at Ler
For AUGUST 1808.

Morn. Even
Days. H. M. H. M
M. 1 9 36 10
Tu. 2 10 34 11
W, 3 11 32
Th. 4 0 1 02€
Fr. 5 0 55 1 21
Sa. 6 1 48 2 12
Su. 7 2 37 3 0
M. 8 3 24

30.

Barom. Thermom. Rain. Weather. June

M. N. In. Pts. 26 30. 52 62

Cloudy 27 30.1 52

67

Clear 28 30.2

52
72

Ditto 29 30.3 52 71

Ditto 30 30.25 55 71

Ditto
30.2
55 73

Ditto 2 30.15 56 67

Ditto
3 30.1
57 73

Ditto
30.
65

Ditto
5
30.02 50 67

Ditto 6 30.02 55 70

Ditto 60 65 0.01 Showers 8 30. 59 69

Clear 9 30.02 53 68

Ditto 10 30.03 56

71

Ditto li 30. 63

72

Ditto 12 30.1 60 78

Ditto 13

29.98 62 14 30.1 60 80

Ditto 15 30.11 58 73

Ditto 16 30.05 | 58 64

0.1 Rain 17 30. 58

77

Clear 18 30.1 59 77

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Ditto

3 46 Tu. 9 4 9 4 31 W. 10 4 53 5 14 Th.11 5 36 5 58 Fr. 12 6 20 6 42 Sa. 13

7 28 Su, 14 7 51

8 14 M. 15 8 38 9 2 Tu. 16 9 27 9 52 W. 17 10 18 10 43 Th. 18 11 9 11 35 Fr. 19

0 1 Sa. 20 0 27 0 54 Su. 21 1 20 1 46 M. 22 2 12

2 38
Tu, 23 3 4 3 30
W. 24 3 56 4 23
Th. 25 4 50 5 17
Fr. 26 5 44 6 12
Sa. 27 6 40 7 9
Su. 28 7 37 8 6
M. 29

8 35 9
Tu, 30 9 32 10 0
W, 31 10 27 10 55
MOON's PHASES
For AUGUST 1808.

Ditto
19 29.9 58 67 0.02 Showers
20

29.8. 59 70 0.5 Rain 21 29.75 55 71 0.01 Showers 22 29.8 52 70

Clear 23 29.9 59 74 0.01 Showers 24 29.95 55 60

1.56

Rain 25 29.84

58 71 (1.25 Rain

.

Apparent time at Edinburgt.

D. H. M,
Full Moon, 6. 9.53. morn.
Last Quart. 14. 8. 29. morn.
New Moon, 21. 9.58. even.
First Quart. 28. 3.28. even.

Quantity of Rain, 2.45

August 1. Lammas Day.

7. Princess Amelia born, 1783.
12. Prince of Wales born, 1762.
17. Duke of York born, 1763.
21. Duke of Clarence born, 1765.

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the nearest w LIIG arkuuawa.wav cumstances appear to be,-1. The face of the country.-2. The number of ion into Cataloniai

ses through Languedoc and Roussil. inhabitants. 3. The number and

From the Pyrenees, of the Spanish strength of its fortifications. We shall endeavour, therefore, to give a concise which traverse the kingdoma in two

side, immense chains take their rise, view of these from the best authori- directions. The first, beginning at ties.

Rouncevaux, im Navarre, passes thro'

Biscay, the Asturias, and Gallicia, alPlayfair's Geography. EncyclopedieMethodique, Ast. Geographie Moderne, Bu- most entirely covering the whole of sching.

these provinces, and joins the Atlan,

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THE

Scots magazine,

AND

EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,

For JULY 1808.

Sketch of the Military Geography of Next to the numbers and enthusiSpain.

asm of the people, the aspect of the S SPAIN and PORTUGAL at pre- promising circumstances:

country is certainly one of the znost AŞ

Spain is sent are, and seem destined for some time to be; the theatre of the Most of her provinces are filled and

completely a country of mountains. inost interesting events which can oc

encircled by them. cupy the attention of the civilized world, we have, instead of our usual of the Pyrenees, which reaches, with

The first and greatest chain is that plate, given a map of those countries; out interruption, from the Bay of Bisby which our readers may be enabled to follow the steps of the armies which cay to the Mediterranean, dividing

France from Spain. These afford onare now engaged in this eventful contest. We have delineated as aucurate- difficult. The first is from St Jean de

ly five pásses, and those narrow and ly as possible, chiefly from the itinerary given by Dr Playfair, the direction Luz, on the French side, to St Sebasof the principal roads by which these tian, in the province of Biscay, on the kingdoms are intersected.

Spanish; it is the nearest from Bay

onne; and conducts most directly to the Spanish patriots; while every heart Madrid. The second, farther to the glows at their name, no subject can be east, leads to Pampeluna, in Navarre.

The third, which is the grand road, so interesting as that which tends to throw light on the probable success of passes to Roncevaux, also in Navarre!

The fourth, from the province of Comthis gallant nation in their glorious warfare. Considering Spain in a military dom of Arragon; and the last, being

minge; in France, enters into the king, point of view, the most important cir- the nearest to the Mediterranean, pas cumstances appear to be,-1. The face of the country.-2. The number of

ses through Languedoc and Roussil

-Ion into Catalonia. inhabitants. 3. The number and

From the Pyrenees, on the Spanish strength of its fortifications. We shall endeavour, therefore, to give a concise side, immense chains take their rise,

which traverse the kingdom in two view of these from the best authori.

directions. The first, beginning at ties *.

Rouncevaut, itt Navarre, passes thro' * Playfair's Geography. EncyclopedieMe Biscay, the Asturias, and Gallicia, al

Playfair's Geography. Focyclopedie Me most entirely covering the whole of thodique, Art. Geographie Moderne. Busching.

these provinces, and joins the Atlan

HCM

tic, near Cape Ortegal. The highest indebted, partly to the bravery of its elevation of these mountains is at the inhabitants, and partly to the fright source of the Ebro, on the confines of ful mountains with which it is coverthe provinces of Biscay and Asturias. ed. Its inhabitants are more distin-At Pancorvo, near the source of this guished by their bravery than their river, there is a pass of a mile in numbers, the province containing onlength, and only 50 paces wide. From ly 150,000 inhabitants. Oviedo, the this quarter, another chain extends capital, is reckoned to contain 7000. under different names, along the whole It is defended by a castle. Gijon is a course of the Ebro, till it falls into small walled maritime town, but with the Mediterranean.

an insecure harbour. St Andero, a sea The second great chain of moun port, with an excellent and well-fortitains begins with a groap, called fied harbour, contains 4000 inhabitants. Mount Cayo, on the borders of Arra 2. Biscay, equally mountainous, exgon. It then extends S.S. E. to Mo- tends 45 miles along the coast, and lina d'Aragon, and south to Cape 10-23 miles from north to south. It Gates, dividing Arragon and Mur- has 200,000 inhabitants, who are reecia from New Castile and Andalusiai koned the bravest in Spain. Bilboa, It proceeds along the frontier of the the capital, a trading town, contains province of Granada, where it receives 800 houses. St Sebastian is fortified, as the name of the Sierra Nevada, from well as its harbour, and has 8000 inhathe perpetual snows with which it is co- bitants. It has a distant view of the vered ; and thence along the whole Pyrenean mountains. Fontarabia is a coast of the Mediterranean, till it ter. rieat and well-fortified town. Small minates with the rock of Gibraltar.- walled towns are also Castro de Ur. From this chain, the Sierra Morena diales, and Vermejo. breaks off at the north border of Ant 3. Gallicia, on the western extredalusia, which province it completely mity of Spain, is also very strong by encircles. It communicates with the nature. It is 30-35 miles in breadth, Castiles only by a single narrow pass. 40-45 in length, and contains 240,000

But not only is the kingdom girt families. Compostella; the capital, has round with these two great chains; 10,000 inhabitants. Ferrol, Corunthe centre is no less rugged. Thé ria and Vigo, are good and well-fortitwo Castiles are described as complete: fied sea poris. ly“ bristling with mountains *» The 4. Leon is 200 miles in length, 90 mountains of Toledo, the Sierras of in breadth, and contains 1,200,000 inCogolio, Bolbanera, &c. traverse them habitants. The capital, of the same in all directions.

name, is an old town, with only 6000). We shall now take a brief survey inhabitants. Other towns, are Benaof the different provinces, considering vente, Astorga, Salamanca, Ledesma, them chiefly in the two important cir- and Cividad Rodrigo. The two last cumstances of men and fortifications. are fortified:

1. Asturias, in length, 80-100 5. Estremadura is 140 miles in miles, and 50-65 in breadth. This length, 90-140 in breadth, and conprincipality is celebrated in Spanish tains 450,000 inhabitants. Badajoz, History, as having formed the last re the capital, is a small fortified town, fuge of national independence, when containing 8000 inhabitants. This proall the rest of the country was 'over- vince, being situated on the frontiers run by the Moors.

For this, it was of Portugal, has a number of fortified

places, as Placentia, Alcantara, Al* Herissees de Montagnesa Enc. buquerque, Truxillo, Xeres. Merida, Merk:

the ancient capital, is an openi town.

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