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AS

Sketch of the Military Geography of Next to the numbers and enthusi. SPAIN.

asm of the people, the aspect of the S SPAIŅ and PORTUGAL at pre promising circumstances. Spain is

country is certainly one of the most sent are, and seem destined for some time to be; the theatre of the Most of her provinces are filled and

completely a country of mountains. inost interesting events which can oc

encircled by them. cupy the attention of the civilized world, we have, instead of our usual of the Pyrenees, which reaches, with

The first and greatest chain is that plate, given a map of those countries, out interruption, from the Bay of Bisby which our readers may be enabled to follow the steps of the armies which cay to the Mediterranean, dividing

France from Spain. These afford onare now engaged in this eventful contest . We have delineated as aucurate- difficult. The first is from St Jean de

ly five pásses, and those narrow and as possible, chiefly from the itineray given by Dr Playfair, the direction Luz, on the French side, to St Sebasof the principal roads by which these tian, in the province of Biscay, on the kingdoms are intersected.

Spanish ; it is the nearest from BayWhile every eye is turned towards onne, and conducts most directly to the Spanish patriots ; while every heart Madrid. The second, farther to the glows at their name, no subject can be east, leads to Pampeluna, in Navarre. glows at their name, no subject can be The third, which is the grand road, so interesting as that which tends to throw light on the probable success of passes to Roncevaux, also in Navarre! this gallant nation in their glorious war- minge; in France, enters into the king,

The fourth, from the province of Comfare. Considering Spain in a military dom of Arragon; and the last

, being point of view, the most important cir- the nearest to the Mediterranean, pascumstances appear to be,-1. The face of the country.–2. The number of ses through Languedoc and Roussila

lon into Catalonia. inhabitants. 3. The number and

From the Pyrenees, on the Spanish strength of its fortifications. We shall endeavour, therefore, to give a concise which traverse the kingdom in two

side, immense 'chains take their rise, view of these from the best authori- directions. The first, beginning at ties.

Rouncevaux, im Navarre, passes thro'

Biscay, the Asturias, and Gallicia, alPlayfair's Geography. Focyclopedie Viethodique, Art. Geographie Moderne. Bu- most entirely covering the whole of sching.

these provinces, and joins the Atlana

tic, near Cape Ortegal. The highest indebted, partly to the bravery of its elevation of these mountains is at the inhabitants, and partly to the frighe source of the Ebro, on the confines of ful mountains with which it is coverthe provinces of Biscay and Asturias. ed. Its inhabitants are more distin-At Pancorvo, near the source of this guished by their bravery than their river, there is a pass of a mile in numbers, the province containing onlength, and only 50 paces wide. From ly 150,000 inhabitants. Oviedo, the this quarter, another chain extends capital, reckoned to contain 7000. under different names, along the whole It is defended by a castle. Gijon is a course of the Ebro, till it falls into small walled maritime town, but with the Mediterranean.

an insecure harbour. St Andero, a sea The second great chain of moun. port, with an excellent and well-fortitains begins with a group, called fied harbour, contains 1000 inhabitants. Mount Cayo, on the borders of Arra- 2. Biscay, equally mountainous, exgon. It then extends S.S. E. to Mo- tends 45 miles along the coast, and lina d'Aragon, and south to Cape 10-25 miles from north to south. It Gates, dividing Arragon md Mur- bas 200,000 inhabitants, who are ree cia from New Castile and Andalusiai koned the bravest in Spain. Bilboa, It proceeds along the frontier of the the capital, a trading town, contains province of Granada, where it receives 800 houses. St Sebastian is fortified, as the name of the Sierra Nevada, from well as its harbour, and has 8000 inha. the perpetual-snows with which it is co- bitants. It has a distant view of the vered ; and thence along the whole Pyrenean mountains. Fontarabia is a coast of the Mediterranean, till it ter- neat and well-fortified town. Small minates with the rock of Gibraltar.- walled towns are also Castro de Ur. From this chain; the Sierra Morena cales, and Vermejo. breaks off at the north border of Anu 3. Gallicia, on the western extredalusia, which province it completely mity of Spain, is also very strong by encircles. It communicates with the nature. It is 30-35 miles in breadth, Castiles only by a single narrow pas%. 40-45 in length, and contains 240,000

But not only is the kingdom girt families. Compostella; the capital, has round with these two great chains; 10,000 inhabitants. Ferrol, Corunthe centre is no less rugged. The sia and Vigo, are good and well-fortitwo Castiles are described as complete: fied sea poris. ly“ bristling with mountains *» The 4. Leon is 200 miles in length, 90 mountains of Toledo, the Sierras of in breadth, and contains 1,200,000 inCogolio, Bolbanera, &c. traverse them habitants. The capital, of the same in all directions.

name, is an old town, with only 6000. We shall now take a brief survey inhabitants. Other towns, are Benaof the different provinces, considering vente, Astorga, Salamanca, Ledesma, them chiefly in the two important cir- and Cividad Rodrigo. The two last Cumstances of men and fortifications. are fortified

1. Asturias, in length, 80-100 5. Estremadura is 140 miles in miles, and 50-65 in breadth. This length, 90-140 in breadth, and conprincipality is celebrated in Spanish tains 450,000 inhabitants. Badajoz, history, as having formed the last re- the capital, is a small fortified town, fuge of national independence, when containing 8000 inliabitants. This proall the rest of the country was over- vince, being situated on the frontiers run by the Moors. For this, it was of Portugal, has a number of fortified

places, as Placentia, Aleantara, Al* Herissees de Montagnesi Enc. "buquerque, Truxillo, Xeres. Merida, Merk:

the ancient capital, is an operi town.

6. Ant

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6. Andalusia is 80-320 miles in brated maritime town, stands on a Length, 70-150 in breadth, containing narrow neck of land running out into 1,270,000 inhabitants. This is the the sea. Its harbour is strongly fortifinest and richest province in Spain. fied; and its castle was reckoned im-. Seville, the capital, is the second city pregnable, till the English took it in in the kingdom, and contains 70,000 1706 : it was retaken by the French inhabitants. It is said that 300,000 and Spaniards after a siege of two Moors were expelled from this city. years. Elche and Orihuela are also Cordova contains 20,000 inhabitants. large towns. Its fortifications are not now forini- 10. New Castile, the principal prodable, many of the walls being just as vince of Spain, is- 60-80 leagues iiz the Romans left them. Cordova, in length, 50-80 in breadth, and contains the time of the Saracens, was a royal 1,200,000 inhabitants. It is divided residence; the seat of arts, learning, into three districts, La Sierra, La Manand splendour, but retains few traces cha, and Algaria. Madrid, the casf its ancient grandeur. Other towns, pital, reckoned to contain 130,000 are Cadiz, Xeres de la Frontera, people, is an open town, Toledo, anEcija, and Andcigar. This province ciently a town of great magnitude, is is completely encircled by the moun- now vastly decayed, and its populatains of Sierra Morena.

tion reduced from 200,000 to 18,000 7. Granada is 75 miles in length, inhabitants. Aranjuez and Escurial 8-35 in breadth, and contains 600,000 are royal palaces. inhabitants. This kingdom-possessed 11. Old Castile, a mountainous great splendour in the time of the country, of a triangular form, 70-75 Moors, under whom it was governed, iniles in length, 40-50 in breadthi. first by viceroys from the Caliphs, and but is thinly inhabited. The chief then by independent sovereigns. Gra- towns are Burgos, Valladolid, and nada, the capital, contains 50,000 in. Segovia, none of which are of any vehabitants. Its fortifications are de- ry great maguitude. molished. Antequera and Malaga are 12. Navarre. This little mountainalso large towns.

ous country contains. 180,000 inhabi8. Murcia, 100-150 miles from tants. Pampeluna is a considerable, north to south, and 60-90 from east well fortified town, containing above 1o west, contains 600,000 inhabitants. 9000 people. Tudela is also a city of The capital contains 38,000 inhabi- considerable magnitude. tants, and is defended by a castle. 13. Arragon, a kingdom of an oval Carthagena is inore noted from its ex. form, extending 180 miles in length, tensive trade, and historical distinc- 70-90 in breadth, contains 660,000 tion. It is well fortified, and contains inhabitants. Saragossa, the only very 23,000 inhabitants. Other towns, are large town, has 30,000 inhabicants, Lorca, Villena, Chinchilla, and Al- 14. Catalonia a rocky and mountainmansa.

ous territory, contains $60,000 inha9. Valencia, 160-200 miles in bitants. Barcelona, unhappily now in length, and 20-65 in breadth, vies the possession of France, is a place of with Andalusia in populousness and uncommon strength, particularly the feruility. It contains 716,000 inhabi- fort of Montjuick, by which it is comtants, and the capital, Valencia, has manded. Bath, however, were storm-. 180,000). This city was taken by the ed by the Earl of Peterborough in Earl of Peterborough in 1705, and the war of the succession. Lerida and lost two years after. Since that time, Tortosa are also considerable towns. its lofty walls and towers have been The whole population of Spain is almost demolished Alicant, a cele- computed at about eleven millions;

tha:

verse.

that of Portugal, at three ; in all four- passion is a continual source of prbdi: teen. At the lowest calculation, a gies, and converts a whole ariny into tenth of this number could certainly, Curtii, burning to sacrifice themselves in an extreme exigence, be brought for the cause they have embraced.into the field, and would thus produce Animated by this irresistible sentiment, nearly a million and a half, certainly combatants dart upon the hostile ranks, far superior to any number which rush into the waves, or upon flaming France could bring against them.- batteries, overturn all obstacles, disThe only doubt, we therefore conceive, concert all manæuvres, and annihilate which can exist with regard to their all the combinations of experience.ultimate success, is whether such nevy That passive subordination, that proinpt levies could be at all able to face in the and passive obedience which cements field those veteran arinies which have an army, and makes one force of a conquered Europe. The result of thousand arms, is also produced by ensuch a contest has been various, and thusiasm, much more entirely, more it cannot be denied, often unfavour- devotedly, than it could be by years able. The last war, however, has of the most rigorous discipline. furnished repeated instances of the re- Smith supports his opinion by the

of these, the greatest and example of the three great revolumost eventful, is that of the French tions, to which, before his time, the levy-en-masse, at the beginning of the universe had been witness. Had he revolution; and the Spaniards seen beheld the fourth, determined, like the to be placed very nearly in the same three others, by force of arins, he would circumstances. Like thein, they pos- have admitted that, even against troops sess a regular army, from whom they of the line, the most accustomed to may receive an example, and with war, and the best exercised, the imwhom they may amalgamate ; while pulse given by enthusiasm is always an they have an additional advantage in infallible earnest of victory the rugged and inaccessible nature of their country. The following reflexions, suggested to an intelligent

French: Proceedings of the WERNERIAN Natural man, by the event above alluded to,

History Society. may be interesting at the present moment.

AT the last meeting of the Wer“ Is it indeed true, that soldiers are nerian Natural History Society, valuable only in proportion as they (July 16.), the President laid before are exercised? Is it true, that experi- the Society three communications from ence in the profession of arms, the habit Col. George Montague, F. L. S. of of military manæuvres, and of the fa- Knowle-House, Devon. Two of these tigues of a caip, necessarily secures communications were read at this to troops of the line the advantage meeting. The first part of the first over national troops? In this heroic communication contained an interestoccupation, where contempt of death ing view of the natural habits and is the first lesson to be learned, what more striking external appearances of are not the effects of Enthusiasm.-- the Gannet, or Soland Goose, Peleca

This passion, which cannot be defined, nus Bassanus. The second part of which has no bounds because it has this communication contained an ac'no object, which intoxicates itself by count of the internal structure of this its own reveries, which is exalted by

bird the very confusion of its ideas, which fills the prospect of futurity with eve- * Notestu Garnier's edition of Smith's ry chimera of a glowing fancy; this Wealth of Nations, 3d edition.

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