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all the liturgies which Messrs. Kirke and Berrington have cited (in their late volume, entitled “The Faith of the Catholics,” Lond. 1830), amounting to eleven, only one is to be found, and that of the Nestorian heretics, containing an invocation to a saint for intercession. Thus showing how wide a distinction is to be drawn between the excited expressions of individual writers, and the authorized practice of the Church. All the other liturgies do no more than the Roman canon of the mass, given above, p. 400, namely, 1st, assume, generally, that the saints departed pray for the saints militant, and 2dly, pray to God to hear their intercessions. This is no more tantamount to an invocation of the saints, than a prayer to God for the assistance of the angels, would be tantamount to a prayer to the angels themselves.

Origen, Contra Celsum, V. $ 4, 5.—Edit. Wirceb. ii. p. 8.

Πάσαν μέν γάρ δέησιν, και προσευχήν, και έντευξιν, και ευχαριστίαν, αναπεμπτέον το επί πάσι θεώ .... 'Αγγέλους γαρ καλέσαι μη αναλαβόντας την υπερ ανθρώπους περί αυτών επιστήμην, ουκ εύλογον.

Contra Celsum, viii. 26. tom. ii. 438. Μόνω γαρ προσευκτέον το επί πάσι θεώ, και προσευκτέον γε το μονογενεί, και πρωτοτόκω πάσης κτίσεως, λόγω θεού, και αξιωτέον αυτόν, ως αρχιερέα, την επ' αυτόν φθάσασαν ημών ευχήν αναφέρεις επί τον θεόν αυτού και θεόν ημών, και πατέρα αυτού και πατέρα των βιούντων κατά τον λόγον του θεού.

Ibid. $ 57, p. 496. Kάν ίδωμεν δε μη δαίμονάς τινας, αγγέλους δε τεταγμένους επί των της γης καρπών, και επί της των ζώων γενέσεως, ευφημούμεν αυτους, και μακαρίζομεν, εγχειρισθέντας υπό του θεού τα χρήσιμα τη γένει ημών" ου μην την οφειλομένην προς θεον τιμήν τούτοις απονέμομεν.

Ibid. $ 67, p. 512. "Ύμνους γαρ εις μόνον τον επί πάσι λέγομεν θεόν, και τον μονογενή αυτού Λόγον και θεόν.

ATHANASIUS. Oral, Cont. Arian, jii. Paris, 1627, i. 394.

Πέτρος μεν ούν ο Απόστολος προσκυνήσαι θέλοντα Κορνήλιον: κωλεύει, λέγων, ότι καγώ άνθρωπός είμι. *Αγγελος δε θέλοντα προσκυνήσαι τον Ιωάννην εν τη 'Αποκαλύψει, κωλεύει, λέγων: "Ορα μή, σύνδουλός σου είμι, και των αδελφών σου των προφητών, και των τηρούντων τους λόγους του βιβλίου τούτου, τω θεώ προσκύνησον. ουκούν θεού έστι μόνου το προσκυνείσθαι, και τούτο ίσασι και αυτοί οι άγγελοι, ότι κάν αλλήλους δόξαις υπερέχωσιν, άλλα κτίσματα πάντα εισι, και ουκ εισί των προσκυνουμένων, αλλά των προσκυνούντων τον δεσπότην.

EPIPHANIUS, Adv. Hæres. lib. iii. tom. ij. Hæres. 59. sive 79.

Colyridianos. Edit. Petav. i. 1057. $ 1. .... εν ημέραις τισιν άρτον προτιθέασι, και αναφέρουσιν είς όνομα της Μαρίας .... θεών αιτησάμενοι, κατά το δυνατόν παραθησόμεθα, όπως της ειδωλοποιού ταύτης αιρέσεως τας ρίζας εκτεμόντες, από τινων την τοιαύτην λύσσαν καταλύσαι εν θεω δυνηθώμεν. 8 11. ήτοι γαρ ώς αυτήν προσκυνούντες την Μαρίαν, αυτή προσφέρουσι την κολλυρίδα αι αργαί αύται γυναίκες: ήτοι υπέρ αυτής προσφέρειν επιχειρούσι την προειρημένην ταύτην σαθραν κάρπωσιν. $ 4. ναι δη παρθένος ήν η Παρθένος, και τετιμημένη, αλλ' ουκ εις προσκύνησιν ημίν δοθείσα, αλλά προσκυνούσα τον εξ αυτής σαρκί γεγεννημένον. $ 5. ποίος προφητών επέτρεψεν άνθρωπον προσκυνείσθαι, ου μην γυναίκα λέγειν και εξαίρετον μεν γάρ έστι το σκεύος, αλλά γυνή, και ουδέν τήν φύσιν παρηλλαγμένη ... ει γαρ 'Αγγέλους προσκυνείσθαι ου θέλει, πόσο μάλλον την από "Αννης γεγεννημένην .... ου μεν ετέρως γεγεννημένην παρά την των ανθρώπων φύσιν, αλλά καθώς πάντες εκ σπέρματος ανδρός και μήτρας γυναικός. $ 7. έν τιμή έστω Mαρία, ο δε Πατήρ, και Υιός, και άγιον Πνεύμα προσκυνείσθω, την Μαρίαν μηδείς προσκυνείτω.

The British adherents to the Roman dominion, who, from their intercourse with the members of the English Church, have imbibed some regard for orthodoxy, are eager to disclaim all idea of offering divine honours to the Blessed Virgin. I should be sorry to doubt their sincerity. Some of their teachers have taken the same line. I do not doubt their wisdom. I should. be sorry to attempt to fasten upon the first anything which they disclaim ; nor would I wish, unnecessarily, to go out of my way to expose the inconsistency of the latter. But as it is a question of deep importance, in which, if possible, it is extremely desirable to arrive at the exact truth, I will venture to ask the persons of whom I have last spoken, (and I invite the others to observe the question, and the answer, if any, shall be forthcoming,) whether any competent authority in the Church of Rome has ever reprehended or stamped with any kind of disapproval, the Psalter of the Blessed Virgin, composed by Cardinal Bonaventure, heretofore in general use, and highly approved in the Roman communion, which, for ought that appears to the contrary, it still continues to be? This celebrated work consists of the Psalms of David, which have been altered in some respects. The chief object aimed at throughout, is to make each psalm an occasion of honouring the Virgin, which is effected by substituting Lady for Lord, in every passage which is applicable to our Saviour. Here then it is beyond the possibility of denial, that the selfsame worship is offered to the Virgin, which David, in Spirit, offered to the eternal Son of God. There is not a passage omitted. One might have thought that the text (Psalm cx. 1.) to which our Lord Himself referred the Jews, as an argument of His own divinity, (Matt. xxii, 43), might have staggered the seraphic Doctor, and that he would have shrunk from meddling with it. But no: in every edition which I have seen, there it stands, “ The Lord said unto my Lady, sit thou on my right hand.” I ask again, has Cardinal Bonaventure's Psalter of our Lady, been ever put in any Index prohibitorum or expurgandorum ? It can hardly be expected, when, so late as 1832, we find the present Pope Gregory XVI. in his encyclical Epistle, declaring that the preservation of the Catholic faith rests solely, and Christian hope entirely, upon the Virgin; as thus, " That all may have a successful and happy issue, let us raise our eyes

to the blessed Virgin Mary, who alone destroys heresies; who is our greatest hope, yea, the entire ground of our hope.” That the adherents to the Roman schism in England might not lose the benefit of this edifying Christian instruction, it was printed permissú superiorum, in the "Laity's Directory," from which I have copied it. I further ask, is not the guilt of the Collyridian heresy chargeable, directly, upon Cardinal Bonaventure, and Pope Gregory XVI., and, indirectly, upon the existing authorities of the Roman schism in England ? GREGORY OF Nyssa, Contra Eunomian. Orat. 4. vol. ii. p. 144.

Ουδέν των δια κτίσεως γεγονότων σεβάσμιον είναι τοίς ανθρώποις ο θείος ενομοθέτησε λόγος.

AUGUSTINE. In Ps. 64. Edit. Benedict. iv, 633. Ipse sacerdos est, qui nunc ingressus in interiora veli, solus ibi ex his qui carnem gestaverunt interpellat pro nobis.

In Ps. xcvi. iv. p. 1045. Respondent, non colimus mala dæmonia : angelos quos dicitis, ipsos et nos colimus, virtutes Dei magni, et ministeria Dei magni. Utinam ipsos colere velletis, facilè ab ipsis disceretis non illos colere ; audite angelum doctorem (Rev. xxi. 8.).

Ibid. vi. p. 11. The thirty-ninth heresy he mentions is that of the “ Angelici in Angelorum cultu inclinati.”

THEODORET, in Epist. Coloss. ii. 18. Edit. Hal. 1771. iii. p.

490. Οι τη νόμω συνηγορούντες, και τους αγγέλους σέβειν αυτοίς εισηγούντο, διά τούτων λέγοντες δεδόσθαι τον νόμον. έμεινε δε τούτο το πάθος εν τη Φρυγία και Πισιδία μέχρι πολλού. ού δή χάριν και συνελθούσα σύνοδος έν Λαοδικεία της Φρυγίας νόμω κεκώλυκε το τοις αγγέλοις προσεύχεσθαι' και μέχρι δε του νυν ευκτήρια του αγίου Μιχαήλ παρ' εκείνους και τους ομόροις εκείνων εστίν ιδείν.

Ibid. ii. 17, p. 496. Επειδή γαρ εκείνοι τους αγγέλους σέβειν εκέλευον, αυτός το εναντίον παρεγγυα, ώστε και τους λόγους, και τα έργα κοσμήσαι τη μνήμη του Δεσπότου Χριστού. και τω θεώ δε και Πατρί την ευχαριστίαν δι' αυτού, φησιν, αναπέμπετε, μη δια των αγγέλων.

Page 337.-(Not because it is supposed, fc.) The multiplied cautions and disclaimers which the Council has put forth upon this subject, are unexceptionable witnesses of the infinite hazard to men's souls resulting from the practice of imageworship, under whatever specious names it may be covered. They serve, therefore, in all reason to condemn the rulers of a Church who, unnecessarily, put such a stumbling block in the way of the faithful. It will be seen below, in the Appendix, that the plea by which it is sought to excuse image-worship in the Church of Rome, namely, that the honour paid to the image is referred to the prototype, is the very same that the heathens alleged in defence of their image-worship. Is it possible that pious and well-intentioned persons in the Church of Rome can know these things, and yet feel no misgivings as to the course which their Church has taken ?


Page 339.—(Use of Indulgences.) This word has a double meaning, and the claim here put forth is true or false, according to the sense in which it is understood. If by indulgences is only meant the power of remitting ecclesiastical censures, no question it has been used in all ages, and must be inherent in the commission to bind and loose. But if it means the power of remitting the fancied pains of purgatory, inflicted by God upon the souls of the departed, it rests, as is clear to all men, upon the fabrication of purgatory ; can date no higher than it; and must be rejected together with it, as “a fond thing,

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