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from the very beginning of the Church the names of the following orders, and the proper offices of each of them, are known to have been in use, namely, subdeacon, acolyth, exorcist, reader, and doorkeeper. Not that they are all of equal degree, for the subdeaconship is referred to the superior orders, by the Fathers and the sacred councils, in which we very frequently read of the inferior orders.

gravissimis verbis docent; et ab ipso Ecclesiæ initio sequentium ordinum nomina, atque uniuscujusque eorum propria ministeria, subdiaconi scilicet, acolyti, exorcistæ, lectoris, et ostiarii in usu fuisse cognoscuntur, quamvis non pari gradu. Nam subdiaconatus ad majores ordines a Patribus, et sacris conciliis refertur, in quibus, et de aliis inferioribus frequentissime legimus.

CHAPTER III.(That Ordination is truly and properly

a Sacrament.)

Since it is clear by the testimony of Scripture, Apostolical tradition, and the unanimous consent of the Fathers, that grace is conferred by holy ordination which is accomplished by words and outward signs; no one ought to doubt that ordination is truly and properly one of the seven sacraments of

Caput III. Cum, Scripturæ testimonio, Apostolica traditione, et Patrum unanimi consensu, perspicuum sit, per sacram ordinationem, quæ verbis, et signis exterioribus perficitur, gratiam conferri ; dubitare nemo debet, ordinem esse vere, et proprie unum ex septem sanctæ Ecclesiæ sacramentis : inquit enim Apostolus, “ Admoneo holy Church; for the Apostle saith, “I charge thee that thou stir up the grace of God which is in thee by the laying on of my hands;" for God hath not given us the spirit of fear, but of virtue, and of love, and of soberness.

te, ut resuscites gratiam Dei, quæ est in te per impositionem manuum mearum :" non enim dedit nobis Deus spiritum timoris, sed virtutis (et dilectionis), et sobrietatis.

CHAPTER IV.(Of the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy and

of Ordination.)

But since in the sacrament of ordination, as is the case also in baptism and confirmation, a character is impressed, which can neither be obliterated nor taken away; the holy Synod deservedly condemns the opinion of those who assert that the priests of the New Testament have only power for a time, and that they who have been once duly ordained can again become laymen, if they do not exercise the ministry of the Word. But if any one affirms that all Christians promiscuously are priests of the New Testament, or all endowed with equal spiritual power

Caput IV. Quoniam vero in sacramento ordinis, sicut et in baptismo, et confirmatione, character imprimitur, qui nec deleri, nec auferri potest ; merito sancta Synodus damnat eorum sententiam, qui asserunt Novi Testamenti sacerdotes temporariam tantummodo potestatem habere ; et semel rite ordinatos, iterum laicos effici posse, si verbi Dei ministerium non exerceant. Quod si quis omnes Christianos promiscue Novi Testamenti sacerdotes esse, one with another, he seems to do nothing else than confound the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is as it were, the first rank of the camp; as if, contrary to the teaching of St. Paul, all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all teachers. The holy Synod next declares that, above the other ecclesiastical degrees, the bishops who have succeeded into the place of the apostles, and are placed by the Holy Spirit, as the same apostle speaks, to govern the Church of God, chiefly appertain to this hierarchical ordination, and that they are superior to presbyters, and can confer the sacrament of confirmation, ordain the ministers of the Church, and perform many other offices, which the rest of the inferior order have no power to discharge. Moreover, the holy Synod teaches that in the ordination of bishops, of priests, and of the other orders, neither the consent, nor

aut omnes pari inter se potestate spirituali præditos affirmet ; nihil aliud facere videtur, quam ecclesiasticam hierarchiam, quæ est ut castrorum acies ordinata, confundere; perinde ac si contra beati Pauli doctrinam omnes apostoli, omnes prophetæ, omnes evangelistæ, omnes pastores, omnes sint doctores. Proinde sacrosancta Synodus declarat, præter cæteros ecclesiasticos gradus, episcopos qui in apostolorum locum successerunt, ad hunc hierarchicum ordinem præcipue pertinere ; et positos sicut idem Apostolus ait, a Spiritu Sancto regere Ecclesiam Dei, eosque presbyteris superiores esse, ac sacramentum confirmationis conferre, ministros Ecclesiæ ordinare, atque alia pleraque peragere ipsos posse ; quarum functionum potestatem reliqui inferioris ordinis nullam habent. Docet insuper sancta Synodus, in ordinatione episcoporum, sacerdotum, et ceterorum ordinum, nec populi, nec cujusvis sæcularis potestatis, et magistratus consen

calling, nor authority of the people, or any secular power or magistracy is requisite for the validity of the ordination. But it rather determines that all. they who approach to the exercise of these ministrations upon the mere calling and appointment of the people, or the secular power, or the magistracy; and also they who of their own rashness take these things upon themselves, are all to be accounted not ministers of the Church, but thieves and robbers, not having entered in by the door. These, to speak generally, are the things which it seemed good to the holy Synod to teach Christ's faithful ones concerning the sacrament of ordination. But it determined to condemn the opposite opinions by proper canons, after the following manner, that amidst the darkening shades of numerous errors, all who use the rule of faith may, under Christ's aid, be better able to discern and maintain the Catholic truth.

sum, sive vocationem, sive auctoritatem ita requiri, ut sine ea irrita sit ordinatio; quin potius decernit, eos, qui tantummodo a populo, aut sæculari potestate, ac magistratu vocati, et instituti, ad hæc ministeria exercenda ascendunt, et qui ea propria temeritate sibi sumunt; omnes non Ecclesiæ ministros, sed fures, et latrones, per ostium non ingressos, habendos esse. Hæc sunt, quæ generatim sacræ Synodo visum est, Christi fideles de sacramento Ordinis docere. His autem contraria, certis, et propriis canonibus in hunc, qui sequitur, modum damnare constituit ; ut omnes adjuvante Christo, fidei regula utentes, in tot errorum tenebris Catholicam veritatem facilius agnoscere, et tenere possint.


Canon I. If any shall say, that in the New Testament there is no visible and outward priesthood, or that it has not any power of consecrating and offering the true body and blood of the Lord, and of remitting and retaining sins; but that it is the mere office and bare ministry of preaching the Gospel ; or that they who do not preach are not priests; let him be accursed.

Canon I. Si quis dixerit, non esse in Novo Testamento sacerdotium visibile, et externum ; vel non esse potestatem aliquam consecrandi, et offerendi verum corpus, et sanguinem Domini, et peccata remittendi, et retinendi ; sed officium tantum, et nudum ministerium prædicandi Evangelium, vel eos, qui non prædicant, prorsus non esse sacerdotes ; anathema sit.

CANON II. If any shall say, that in the Catholic Church, besides the priesthood, there are not other orders both greater and lesser, by which, as by degrees, advance may be made in the priesthood; let him be accursed.

Canon II. Si quis dixerit, præter sacerdotium non esse in Ecclesia Catholica alios ordines, et majores, et minores, per quos, velut per gradus quosdam, in sacerdotium tendatur ; anathema sit.

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