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are the acts of the penitent himself, such as contrition, confession, and satisfaction. Which, inasmuch as they are required of the penitent by God's institution in order to the perfection of the sacrament, and a full and complete remission of sins, are, on this account, called parts of repentance. But, indeed, the substance and effect of this sacrament, as far as appertains to its force and efficacy, is the reconciliation with God, which sometimes in pious persons who receive this sacrament with devotion, is wont to be followed with peace of conscience and calmness, with vehement consolation of the spirit. The holy Synod at the same time that it delivers this sentence concerning the parts and effect of this sacrament, condemns the opinions of those who contend that repentance consists of impressed terrors of conscience, and faith.

materia hujus sacramenti ipsius pænitentis actus, nempe contritio, confessio, et satisfactio. Qui quatenus in pænitente ad integritatem sacramenti, ad plenamque et perfectam peccatorum remissionem ex Dei institutione requiruntur, hac ratione pænitentiæ partes dicuntur. Sane vero, res et effectus hujus sacramenti, quantum ad ejus vim et efficaciam pertinet, reconciliatio est cum Deo, quam interdum in viris piis, et cum devotione hoc sacramentum percipientibus, conscientiæ pax ac serenitas cum vehementi spiritus consolatione consequi solet. Hæc de partibus et effectu hujus sacramenti sancta Synodus tradens, simul eorum sententias damnat qui pænitentiæ partes incussos conscientiæ terrores, ct fidem esse contendunt.

CHAPTER IV.Of Contrition.

Contrition, which occupies the first place among the said acts of the penitent, is a grief of mind and detestation for past sin, with an intention of not sinning for the future. But this motion of contri, tion was at all times necessary for obtaining the pardon of sins; and in one who has lapsed after baptism, it then indeed disposes for the remission of sin, if it be joined with confidence in the divine mercy, and a wish of performing the other things which are requisite for the due receiving of this sacrament. The holy Synod therefore declares, that this contrition contains not only cessation from sin, and the intention and commencement of a new life, but also a hatred of the old one, according to that saying, “ Cast away from you all your transgressions

Caput IV.De Contritione. Contritio, quæ primum locum inter dictos pænitentis actus habet, animi dolor ac detestatio est de peccato commisso, cum proposito non peccandi de cætero. Fuit autem quovis tempore ad impetrandam veniam peccatorum hic contritionis motus necessarius ; et in homine post baptismum lapso, ita demum præparat ad remissionem peccatorum, si cum fiducia divinæ misericordiæ et voto præstandi reliqua conjunctus sit, quæ ad rite suscipiendum hoc sacramentum requiruntur. Declarat igitur sancta Synodus, hanc contritionem, non solum cessationem a peccato, et vitæ novæ propositum, et inchoationem, sed veteris etiam odium continere, juxta illud, “ Projicite a vobis omnes iniquitates

whereby ye have transgressed ; and make you a new heart, and a new spirit.” And certainly any one who shall consider the cries of the saints, “ Against Thee only have I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight,” “I am weary of my groaning, every night wash I my bed ;” “I will recall before thee all my years, in the bitterness of my soul;” and others of the same kind, will easily understand that they flowed from a vehement hatred of the past life, and a great detestation of sins. The Synod teaches, moreover, that although it may sometimes happen that this contrition is perfected by charity, and reconciles a man to God, before that this sacrament is actually received, nevertheless the reconciliation is not to be ascribed to the contrition without the wish of the sacrament, which is included in it. It declares also that that imperfect contrition which is called attrition, since it is commonly conceived either from a consideration of

vestras, in quibus prævaricati estis ; et facite vobis cor novum, et spiritum novum.” Et certe, qui illos sanctorum clamores consideraverit, “ Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci;" “ Laboravi in gemitu meo, lavabo per singulas noctes lectum meum;" “Recogitabo tibi omnes annos meos in amaritudine animæ meæ ;" et alios hujusmodi generis, facile intelliget eos ex vehementi quodam anteactæ vitæ odio, et ingenti peccatorum detestatione manasse. Docet præterea, etsi contritionem hanc aliquando charitate perfectam esse contingat, hominemque Deo reconciliare, priusquam hoc sacramentum actu suscipiatur, ipsam nihilominus reconciliationem ipsi contritioni, sine sacramenti voto, quod in illa includitur, non esse adscribendam. Illam vero contritionem imperfectam, quæ attritio dicitur, quoniam vel ex turpitudinis

the vileness of sin, or the fear of hell and punishment, if it excludes sinful will, and has hope of pardon, not only does not make a man a hypocrite, and increase his sin, but is indeed the gift of God, and the impulse of the Holy Ghost; not, indeed, as yet indwelling, but only moving, whereby the penitent is assisted to prepare for himself a way to righteousness. And although it be unable of itself to bring the sinner to justification, without the sacrament of repentance, yet does it dispose him to obtain the grace of God in that sacrament. For when the Ninevites at the preaching of Jonah were beneficially struck with this fear, they performed a repentance full of terrors, and obtained mercy from the Lord. Wherefore certain Catholic writers are falsely calumniated, as if they had taught that the sacrament of repentance conferred grace without

peccati consideratione, vel ex Gehennæ et pænarum metu communiter concipitur, si voluntatem peccandi excludat cum spe veniæ, declarat, non solum non facere hominem hypocritam, et magis peccatorem, verum etiam donum Dei esse et Spiritus Sancti impulsum; non adhuc quidem inhabitantis, sed tantum moventis, quo pænitens adjutus viam sibi ad justitiam parat. Et quam vis sine sacramento pænitentiæ per se ad justificationem perducere peccatorem nequeat, tamen eum ad Dei gratiam, in sacramento pænitentiæ impetrandam, disponit. Hoc enim timore utiliter concussi Ninivitæ, ad Jonæ prædicationem, plenam terroribus pænitentiam egerunt, et misericordiam a Domino impetrarunt. Quamobrem falso quidam calumniantur Catholicos scriptores, quasi tradiderint, sacramentum pænitentiæ absque bono motu suscipientium gratiam conferre ; quod numquam

good dispositions on the part of the receivers ; which the Church of God never taught or believed; moreover, they falsely teach that contrition is extorted and forced, not free and voluntary.

Ecclesia Dei docuit neque sensit; sed et falso docent, contritionem esse extortam et coactam, non liberam et voluntariam.

CHAPTER V.–Of Confession.

From the institution of the sacrament of repentance already set forth, the Church has always understood, that an entire confession of sins was also appointed by the Lord; and that it is of divine right necessary to all who have lapsed after baptism. Because our Lord Jesus Christ, when about to ascend from earth to heaven, left His priests, His vicars, to be as it were the presidents and judges, to whom all mortal sins, into which Christ's faithful people should fall, should be brought; in order that by the power of the keys they might pronounce sentence of remission or retention. For it is plain that the priests

Caput V.De Confessione. Ex institutione sacramenti pænitentiæ jam explicata, universa Ecclesia semper intellexit, institutam etiam esse a Domino integram peccatorum confessionem, et omnibus post baptismum lapsis jure divino necessariam existere. Quia Dominus noster Jesus Christus, e terris ascensurus ad cælos, sacerdotes sui ipsius vicarios reliquit, tanquam præsides et judices, ad quos omnia mortalia crimina deferantur, in quæ Christi fideles ceciderint ; quo pro potestate clavium, remissionis aut retentionis peccatorum

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