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of Rome the promise of obedience. But let them cause the banner of the Lord's cross to be always carried before them, unless it be in the city of Rome, and wherever the chief pontiff shall be present, or his legate with the ensigns of the apostolic dignity.

In all the provinces subject to their jurisdiction let appeals, if need be, be made to them; saving the interposition of appeals to the Apostolic See, to which appeals all must pay the utmost deference.

largiantur, recipientes pro se professionem canonicam, et pro Romana Ecclesia sponsionem obedientiæ ab eisdem. Dominicæ vero crucis vexillum ante se faciant ubique deferri, nisi in urbe Romana, et ubicumque summus pontifex præsens extiterit, vel ejus legatus utens insigniis apostolicæ dignitatis.

In omnibus autem provinciis eorum jurisdictioni subjectis, ad eos, cum necesse fuerit, provocetur ; salvis appellationibus ad Sedem Apostolicam interpositis, quibus est ab omnibus humiliter deferendum.—Conc. xi. 153.

Canon IX.-(Of administering the Service in a lan

guage understood by the People.)

Because in most parts there are within the same state or diocese people of different languages mixed together, having under one faith various rites and customs: we distinctly charge that the bishops of

Canon IX. Quoniam in plerisque partibus intra eamdem civitatem sive diæcesim permixti sunt populi diversarum linguarum, habentes sub una fide varios ritus et mores: districtè præcipimus, ut pontifices hujusmodi civitatum sive diæcesum provideant viros idoneos, these states or dioceses provide proper persons to celebrate the divine offices, and administer the sacraments of the Church according to the differences of rites and languages, instructing them both by word and by example.

qui secundum diversitates rituum et linguarum Divina officia illis celebrent, et Ecclesiastica sacramenta ministrent, instruendo eos verbo pariter et exemplo.—Conc. xi. 161.


SESSION VIII.—(Of Wickliff.) Moreover because by the authority of the sentence and decree of the Roman Council, and the commandment of the Apostolic Church and See, after the fitting delay had been made, there was a proceeding for the condemnation of the said John Wicleff and his memory; and, the edicts and declarations having been made to invite any who might wish to defend his memory, if indeed any such can exist, no one

Session VIII. Insuper quia auctoritate sententiæ et decreti Romani Concilii, mandatoque Ecclesiæ et Sedis Apostolicæ, datis dilationibus debitis, processum fuit super condemnatione dicti Joannis Wicleff, et suæ memoriæ, edictis propositis denuntiationibusque ad vocandum eos qui eumdem sive ejus memoriam defendere vellent, si qui penitus existerent. Nullus vero comparuit, qui eumdem


appeared who would defend either him or his memory. Moreover witnesses having been examined concerning the final impenitence and pertinacity of the said John Wicleff, by commissioners deputed by lord John, the present Pope, and this Council, and every thing being observed that should be, as the course of law requires in such a cause, we are lawfully assured, by evident signs approved of lawful witnesses, concerning his impenitence and final pertinacity. Wherefore the Procurator Fiscal being urgent, and the edict having been set forth for hearing sentence on this day; this holy Synod declares, defines, and records, that the same John Wicleff was a notorious and pertinacious heretic, and that he died in heresy, by anathematizing him and condemning his memory. And it decrees and ordains that his body and bones (if they can be distinguished from

sive ejus memoriam defensaret. Examinatis insuper testibus super impænitentia finali, pertinaciaque dicti Joannis Wicleff, per commissarios deputatos per dominum Joannem papam modernum, et hoc Concilium, servatisque servandis, prout in tali negotio postulat ordo juris, de ejus impænitentia ac finali pertinacia, per evidentia signa testibus legitimis comprobata, fuit legitime facta fides. Propterea instante procuratore fiscali, edictoque proposito ad audiendum sententiam ad hanc diem ; hæc sancta Synodus declarat, diffinit, et sententiat, eumdem Joannem Wicleff fuisse notorium hæreticum pertinacem, ac in hæresi decessisse, anathematizando ipsum pariter et suam memoriam condemnando. Decernitque et ordinat, corpus et ejus ossa (si ab aliis

other bodies of the faithful), be dug up, and cast away far from the Church's burying place, according to the canonical and legitimate appointments.

fidelibus corporibus discerni possunt) exhumari, et procul ab Ecclesiæ sepultura jactari, secundum canonicas et legitimas sanctiones.-Conc. xii. 49.

SESSION XIII.—(Communion in one kind.)


Whereas, in some parts of the world, certain persons rashly presume to assert, that the Christian people ought to receive the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist under both kinds of bread and wine; and do every where communicate the laity, not only in the bread, but also in the wine; and pertinaciously assert also, that they ought to communicate after supper, or else not fasting, doing this contrary to the laudable custom of the Church, which is agreeable to reason, which they damnably endeavour to reprobate as sacrilegious, this present holy General Council of


Sessio XIII. Cum in nonnullis mundi partibus quidam temerariè asserere præsumant, populum Christianum debere Sacrum Eucharistiæ Sacramentum sub utraque panis et vini specie suscipere ; et non solum sub specie panis, sed etiam sub specie vini populum laicum passim communicent; etiam post cænam, vel alias non jejunum, et communicandum esse pertinaciter asserant contra laudabilem Ecclesiæ consuetudinem rationabiliter approbatam, quam tanquam sacrilegam damnabiliter reprobare conantur ; hinc est, quod

Constance, lawfully assembled in the Holy Ghost, earnestly desiring to protect the safety of the faithful against this error, after much and mature deliberation had of many who are learned both in divine and human law, declares, decrees, and determines, that, although Christ instituted this venerable sacrament after supper, and administered it to His disciples under both kinds of bread and wine, yet, notwithstanding this, the laudable authority of the sacred canons, and the approved custom of the Church has observed, that this sacrament ought not to be performed after supper, nor be received by the faithful unless fasting, except in the case of sickness, or any other necessity, either duly conceded or admitted by the Church; and, in like manner, that although in the primitive Church this Sacrament was received of the faithful under both kinds, yet for the avoiding

hoc præsens Concilium sacrum Generale Constantiense, in Spiritu Sancto legitime congregatum, adversus hunc errorem saluti fidelium providere satagens, matura plurimum doctorum tam divini quam humani juris deliberatione præhabita, declarat, decernit, et diffinit, quod licet Christus post cænam instituerit, et suis discipulis administraverit sub utraque specie panis et vini hoc venerabile Sacramentum, tamen hoc non obstante, sacrorum canonum auctoritas laudabilis, et approbata consuetudo Ecclesiæ servavit et servat, quod hujusmodi sacramentum non debet confici post cenam, neque a fidelibus recipi non jejunis, nisi in casu infirmitatis, aut alterius necessitatis, a jure vel Ecclesia concesso, vel admisso ; et similiter, quod licet in primitiva Ecclesia hujusmodi Sacramentum reciperetur a fidelibus sub utraque specie, tamen hæc

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