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uoris displayed in the adoption of Moses, is also well accounted for by this date. Ramses, her father, had at this time finally left the Delta to her sole government, probably only returning thither afterwards on rare occasions : for we find that the great constructions of the following years of his reign were all in Upper Egypt and Nubia.

IV. The war of the 5th of Ramses (the first of his sole reign) was assuredly the great military exploit of his life: inasmuch as he has left three repetitions of it on three of his greatest constructions ; the first of which he did not begin to build until more than thirty years afterwards.

V. The same monumental facts reduce to a simple impossibility the statement of the Greek traditions, that they were prisoners of war who built the constructions of Ramses.

The condition of Israel in Egypt must necessarily have undergone considerable mitigation after the adoption of Moses by Pharaoh's daughter. The silence of the inspired historian implies this fact, which appears still more clearly in the constant murmurings of the entire body of the people while in the wilderness after the Exodus, and the frequent conspiracies among them to displace Moses and return to Egypt under the leadership of the heads of the tribes. Had the cruelties and horrors which marked the commencement and termination of the

captivity, been in no way mitigated in the interval of the century for which it lasted, surely the remnant of so unparalleled a persecution would never have conspired against their liberator, to return to the lash of the taskmaster and the house of bondage !

The fact thus strongly implied in the history of Israel, we now find to be rendered probable by the monumental history of Egypt. The government of the Delta seems at this time to have been a viceroyalty, administered from the throne of the kings who had known Joseph, and by a princess who had shown by her adoption of Moses, her sympathy with the sentiments of her predecessors. The immediate author of the captivity had left the Delta to her sole regency. So that, not only did the infanticidal edict fall into utter disuse, (we never hear of it again in the inspired narrative) but the circumstances of the Israelites would be similar to their condition under the Xoite kings, with the exception that they were now strangers in Egypt, and that their forced services were in constant requisition at the quarries, the temples, and other public works which were in progress in every city throughout the land of Egypt.

The date of the death of Ramses is the only particular concerning it, preserved in the history of Egypt, traditive or monumental. His successor was

named Amenemnes, or Amenephthis, in the lists. The monuments declare him to have been his thirteenth son. He wrote his name as king of Egypt


The monumental history of this monarch is very scanty. His traditive history is confined to a single fact. He reigned in Egypt for five years only. There is no evidence that the death of Ramses exercised any particular influence on the Delta, or that Amenephthis interfered at all with the viceroyalty of his sister. At his death, however, many changes took place, which brought the period now under review to its termination in the forty-second year of the age of Moses, which corresponds with the" full forty years old” of the inspired narrative.



“And it came to pass in those days when Moses was grown, that he went out unto his brethren and looked on their burdens.” Exod. ii. 1].

“And when [Moses] was cast out, Pharaoh's daughter took him up and nourished him for her own son. And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds. And when he was full forty years old it came into his heart to visit his brethren the children of Israel.” Acts vii. 21–23.

“ By faith Moses when he was come to years refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter ; chusing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season. Esteeming reproach for Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt, for he had respect unto the recompence of reward.” Heb. xi. 24-26.

This is the whole of the direct inspired history, and of the traditions which have had the subsequent sanction of inspiration regarding the life of Moses, at the epoch at which we have now arrived. These inspired writers throw, at the least, as much light on the cotemporary monumental history of Egypt, as they receive illustration from it. We do not hesitate to give it as a marvellous coincidence, that the death of Amenephthis took place when Moses was forty-two years old ; and that on this event the aged and childless princess, his fostermother, became Queen of all Egypt. So that the history of Egypt at this epoch—faintly traced upon its cotemporary monuments-renders not only possible, but highly probable, that which the Bible states to have been the fact. When Thouoris became queen of all Egypt, she proposed to inaugurate Moses her foster-son as her successor and coregent with her husband on her demise. But Moses refused to “ be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter," and thereby to be afterwards Pharaoh himself. We now understand at what a sacrifice of all the noblest and most exalting ties and ambitions of human nature, Moses chose the “reproach of Christ ;” and perceive the extent to which his refusal illustrates the power of the faith, which was his motive in doing so.

And he [Moses] spied an Egyptian smiting an

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