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taking of Memphis, and had also been among the first to make peace with the conqueror after its re-capture by Amosis, availed nothing. They were the hereditary enemies of Israel. They were of another race, and therefore they must depart to make room for the kindred of the reigning tribe, the children of Lot. This result of our inquiry furnishes, we submit, a proof neither wire-drawn nor weak, that we have interpreted aright, both the sacred text and the hieroglyphic inscriptions.

And the land was filled with them.” The entire extent of the kingdom in which Israel sojourned, is the obvious import of this phrase. We shall find no difficulty in demonstrating that Israel was scattered over the whole Delta, and that this district “ was filled with them,” when we come to consider the events of the Exodus.

“ Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.

And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we! Come on, let us deal subtilly with them, lest they multiply; and it come to pass, that when there falleth out any war, he also [Israel] be among those that hate us, and fight against us, and so get the ascendancy over the land.” Ver. 8—10.

Israel has now acquired great political influence in the Xoite kingdom. We have already detected

the clearly visible traces of it on the cotemporary monuments of Egypt. The present text would suggest the probability that it was the fear of the rapid increase of this influence, that had induced Si-phtha, or his council, to seek the alliance of the Theban Pharaoh, and to submit to the conditions of it.

When Ramses had annexed the Delta to his own monarchy, he found the process going on there, of which the annals of modern colonization furnish us with so many parallel examples. One of the two races that inhabited it was extinguishing the other. The sons of Mizraim were rapidly disappearing before the Abrahamic immigrants that thronged the Delta. Ramses dealt with both the intruding races. Moab, as we have seen, left Egypt under treaty. With Israel his mode of dealing was suggested by the antipathy of races in himself and in his subjects; a perfect hallucination of the mind, and one of all others the least under the control of reason, and the most difficult to assign to any rational cause. Yet has it been a most powerful motive at all periods of the history of man. Sparta and Messene is a familiar example of its prevalence in the days of old ; and, not to multiply modern instances, negro slavery in the present day.

“ Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their tasks. And they built for Pharaoh magazines, [fortresses] even Pithom and Rameses." Ver. 11.

This was the beginning of the captivity. The children of Israel have no more in Egypt the immunities which had been granted them by Aphophis in consideration of the counsels and services of Joseph, and which placed them exactly on a level with the native Egyptians. The decree of the 21st of Rameses, deprives them of all these, and places them in the position of sojourners there, as strangers within or without the gates of the cities; thereby rendering them liable to the forced services which were exacted of tribes so situated, according to the practice of the ancient world. The universality of this custom is so perfectly established by another place in the subsequent history of Israel, that we give the passage at length.

"And Hiram the king of Tyre answered in writing, which he sent to Solomon, * * * We will cut wood out of Lebanon, according to all thy need : and we will bring it to thee in floats by sea to Joppa ; and thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem.

“ And Solomon numbered all the strangers in the land of Israel, after the numbering wherewith David his father had numbered them; and they were found 153,600.

" And he set 70,000 of them to be bearers of burdens, and 80,000 to be hewers in the mountains,

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and 3600 overseers to set the people a work.” 2 Chron. ii. 11, 16–18.

It is surprising that the illustration of the bondage in Egypt afforded by this remarkable passage has not before been noticed.

The names of the two strongholds built by the Israelites will now require our attention.

Pithom, ona. We have elsewhere expressed our conviction that this was the city originally built by Sethos the father of Rameses on the easternmost branch of the Nile, which was named after it the Phathmetic, i. e. Pithometic branch ; in the same way as all the other branches took the names of the principal cities on their banks. The hieroglyphic names of this city was e p-stmei," the lock or seal of Egypt;" written in the Coptic texts, it was tamiati, omitting the p at the beginning, which is the definite article. It retains the same name to this day, Damietta. It is several years since we published this our conviction : * our present inquiry entirely confirms it. The constructions of Israel at Damietta would doubtless consist of extensive fortifications, walls, and other military works.

Ramses, ddays. It was the custom of the kings of Egypt, at all times and from the first, to call by their own names the districts or lands reclaimed

*“ Egypt, her testimony,” &c.

and added to the actual surface of Egypt Proper, by the engineering operations carried on during their reigns, either by themselves or their subjects. In the tombs of the earliest epochs, when the first colonization was yet in progress, the princes of Egypt paraded long lists of fields and plots of ground, all named after the reigning Pharaoh in the inventory of their properties.* Other plots of ground registered in their tombs were named after more ancient kings. By this means the hieroglyphic names of

Cechous

and Reophis

, both of the second

dynasty, have been preserved. This consideration establishes the high probability, that the localities in Egypt called Ramses in the books of Moses, were so named after the monarch who had first added them to Egypt. Now we have found that the Delta had been accounted a strange land, and the cities acquired there recorded as foreign conquests, by the Theban Pharaohs, the predecessors of Ramses. So that the act of the 21st of Ramses, whereby the whole of it was annexed to and made a part of Egypt, was in effect analogous to the reclamation of a patch of the desert by means of channels from the Nile. It made an actual addition to the soil of Egypt, and therefore, by invariable prescription,

* History of Egypt, Vol. i.

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