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naan ; then defeats the Zuzim, sacking Canaan or Kanah their chief city, and returns to Egypt on the eastern bank of Jordan, through the territories of the Jebusite and of Moab.
If the averments of this pictorial rhodomontade are to be literally received, the Xoite king purchased the aid of his Theban brother at a very costly price. Six cities or strongholds in the Delta were ceded by him to Sethos. The names of four of them are still legible: the other two have suffered mutilation. The legible names consist of Tanis, Bubastis, and Heliopolis, on the eastern border of the Delta, and Sais on its western boundary. Five stations in the desert of Suez are also included in the concessions of the Xoite king to Sethos. Of their three unmutilated names, one only (namely, Kadesh-Barnea in the Wilderness) is mentioned in the Bible.
This ancient war, the cotemporaneous record of which remains extant to this day, is important to the history of Israel in Egypt. The contingent of Israel to the army of the Xoite king would be very considerable; and when the war was carried into Canaan, doubtless they formed part of the invading force. This circumstance exactly harmonizes with the single fact which alone stands recorded in the inspired narrative, during this long interval which we are now endeavouring to fill up from the monuments of Ancient Egypt. It is the defeat of the Ephraimites by the Philistines of Gath, which is mentioned in the pedigree of Joshua. i Chron. vii. 20, 21. The clear inference from hence, that in this interval there were frequent wars with Canaan, is thus established by the monuments of Egypt.
Sethos I. reigned at Thebes for fifty-five years. There is no record of any war of his on the northern frontier of his kingdom afterwards. The beautiful obelisk now standing in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome informs us, in the hieroglyphic inscription engraven upon it, that it was erected by Sethos before the temple of Re-Athom at Heliopolis. Thus is the cession of this capital to Sethos, which is recorded at Thebes, confirmed by its own monuments. This, in common with the tomb of Sethos and all other monuments of his reign, which are very numerous, tell us unmistakeably that it was long, peaceful, and prosperous.
The son and successor of Sethos was for five years co-regent with his father. He is named in the stories related to the Greeks by the Egyptian priesthood, Sesostris. In the lists and on the monuments his name is Ramses. In the fifth year of his accession, (the first of his sole reign) there was again a war on the north-eastern frontier of Egypt. As we have three picture-records of this war on three of the greatest temples now remaining in Egypt, the
details of it are very amply chronicled. The motive of it was precisely the same as that of the former war. The pretensions of the Hittites and of Moab to possessions in Egypt had been revived. They confederated with other tribes of Canaan, and the dominions of the Xoite king in the Delta again suffered an invasion. He applied once more for aid to his haughty brother at Thebes. An alliance was formed between them, and the repulse of the invaders by their combined armies is the subject commemorated in these boastful pictures. Notwithstanding the amplitude of the space occupied by its details on the walls of the temples, the war of Ramses with Canaan was a very inferior affair, both in its prosecution and its results to Egypt, to that of Sethos his father.
The very intricate details of this war we have given elsewhere. They are neither important to the history of Israel, nor to any other history, because they are not true-save in one or two circumstances. The war issued in the cession of Hadasha and Phenne, or Punon in the peninsula of Sinai, to the Canaanites, whereby probably the claims of Heth to possessions in Egypt were compromised. In the war of Sethos, Hadasha had remained with the Xoite dynasty, and Phenne with the Theban at its termination. Both crowns therefore contributed to the concession by which the peace was purchased. Throughout the pictures of this war, the Xoite Pharaoh is invariably spoken of as Upper Arvad in the explanatory text that accompanies them, and his soldiers are represented as fighting in the ranks of Egypt, but with the helmet, arms, and costume of Tyre or Arvad, though in the cast of their countenances and their complexions they are decided Egyptians. The fact we have now ascertained, that the Upper Arvad of the hieroglyphics is a taunting epithet for the kingdom of the Xoites in the Delta, satisfactorily explains all these circumstances.
The copy from Ipsambul in Nubia, of the picture of one of these soldiers, will, we trust, not be without interest, now that it is understood that they represent the armies of the kings in whose dominions Israel sojourned in Egypt; and under whose
banners the fighting men of Israel de marched.
There is a tablet of Ramses, in which he is represented smiting his enemies, on a rock on the northern bank of the Nahr el Kelb, the ancient river Lycus, which was the boundary of Arvad in Canaan to the northward. This, however, must have been executed by his allies the Arvadites of Canaan, and at his command, for it does not appear from the hieroglyphics that he ever penetrated beyond Ha
dasha in the mountains of the Dead Sea, which is separated from the valley of the Lycus by the whole extent of the land.
How little this war, of which the hieroglyphics boast so loudly, really availed for the pacification of Egypt, appears abundantly in the sequel. Only four years afterwards, the Xoite kingdom was again invaded, and by the very Canaanite nation whose utter discomfiture is paraded in the temple-picture, namely, Sheth, or Moab and Ammon. The principal cities in the Delta were in the hands of Moab when Ramses arrived there. This is the evident tenor of the narrative of the war which still exists.* Israel, now very powerful in the Delta, would certainly take no part in a war against their kindred, the descendants of Lot :-a circumstance which amply accounts for the success of the invasion. Ramses came as a pacificator. One of the terms of it was, all but certainly, the marriage of the heir to the Xoite throne with a princess of Moab. This sufficiently appears in the hieroglyphic record of the next transaction, in which the Xoite king is no longer entitled King of Upper Arvad, but Prince of Moab.
This transaction is a memorable one in the annals, both of Israel and Egypt. It took place in the twenty-first year of the reign of Ramses,
* It is a Papyrus in the British Museum. The Salier Papyrus.