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author) that was the cause of the discontent in Egypt, in which the success of the Negroes originated. The new sectaries worshipped the disc of the sun only, renouncing most scrupulously all other idols. They however erased the names and pictures of Amun alone from the temples.* Amenophis Memnon, the son and successor of Armais, ended this schism at Thebes in the usual way. He married the Negro princess at the head of the other pretension. In Middle Egypt, nevertheless, these black sectaries continued for two or three descents longer to claim the sovereignty of Egypt.
These disasters to the rival throne would leave the southern frontier of the Xoite Pharaohs unmolested, and enable them once more to develope the policy of the great Apappus.t To this course they would, moreover, now be driven by another cause. The children of Israel had now greatly increased both in numbers, wealth, and influence in their kingdom. They had not adopted the language of Egypt, though they seem to have conformed gen
* History of Egypt, Vol. ii. + The remains of a temple of the Negro disc-worshippers is said to exist at Tanis, on the north-east of the Delta. The style of their constructions, which is extremely beautiful, yielding in artistic merit to the works of no other race or time in Egypt, is, nevertheless, so peculiar, that they are readily distinguished. Trans. R. S. L. Vol. i. pp. 76–92, 140— 148. This is a further illustration of the tolerant policy of the ShepherdPharaohs.
erally to its customs and institutions. Their sympathies would therefore naturally flow out towards the people across the desert, inhabiting the country to which they were one day to return, and speaking the same language with themselves : and in the councils of Pharaoh the voices of the princes of Israel would be in favour of alliances with the kings of Canaan; so that the general policy of the government of the Delta would be to encourage the settlement of the Canaanites in the cities and pasturages on its eastern border.
The same state of things continued during the reigns of the two remaining Theban Pharaohs, which brought the dynasty (the 18th of the lists) of which Amosis was the founder to its termination. Throughout them the Pharaohs of Thebes and the Delta were at peace.
The 18th dynasty consisted of ten successive monarchs, reigning at Thebes for about 200 years.
The short reign of Rameses the founder of the following Theban dynasty seems to have been occupied with the expulsion of the Negro disc-worshippers from the eastern bank of the Nile. This was probably the benefit conferred on Egypt, which procured for him from the priesthood the honour of being placed at the head of a new dynasty, though in fact he was the son of his predecessor.
Sethos the son and successor of Rameses, was, like his father, a fierce fanatic against the Negro disc-worshippers. He built the propyla of his palace-temple, at Karnak in Eastern Thebes, with the stones of one of their temples which had stood in the vicinity, and which he razed to the ground.* In the first year of his reign he boasts of a great and successful war against the Shepherds of Canaan, five actions of which he had recorded on the north external wall of the same palace-temple. The minute analysis of this vast picture we have given elsewhere.f The epitome of the history it embodies is all that belongs to this place.
The dominions of the Xoite Pharaoh are named here the land of Arvad, as on the granite shrine of Thothmosis : but the epithet Upper or Southern (Se abrtn-hr, the Upper Arvadites”) is added to distinguish Arvad in Egypt, from Arvad in Canaan, which Sethos also visited, and which is named smo “ the lower (northern) Arvadites."
As we have already stated, the bulk of the Canaanite settlers in the Delta were of the tribes of Arvad and Heth. No admixture, however, took place between the two tribes, even after they had embraced the religion of their new country, and
* Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit., U.S. + History of Egypt, Vol. ii.
were located in the cities of Middle Egypt and the Delta. They still remained Arvadites and Hittites. They dwelt in separate cities, and the national distinctions were as strictly kept up in Egypt as in Canaan. This was the universal custom in ancient times. It prevails to a considerable extent among the inhabitants of the East to the present day. In our western parts of the world, it is peculiar to one tribe only—the Jews. A very natural consequence of this distinction had evidently befallen Arvad and Heth in Egypt, during the interval between the reigns of Amosis and Sethos. There had been a war between them. Heth had been worsted and expelled from Egypt. The Xoite kings had taken the part of Arvad. The Hittites crossed the desert, and the story of their wrongs roused the vindictive passions of their brethren in Canaan. They confederated with other tribes, made war upon Arvad, and invaded his territory in Canaan, and those also of his ally the Xoite king of Egypt, under whom Arvad held possessions in suzereignty. In this emergency the king of Xois sought the aid of the Theban Pharaoh, Sethos I. These were the causes of the war, the results of which are embodied in the vast picture which surrounds the side portal in the north external wall of the palace of Karnak. The belligerents in this war were Sethos I. of Thebes, confederate with the Xoite king (or Upper Arvad, as his co-regent in Upper Egypt, who “bears no rival next the throne," names him by a haughty and insolent taunt), also with Lower Arvad (that is Arvad in Canaan) and Naharaim or Mesopotamia. On the other side Heth, with whose pretensions to possessions in Egypt the war had originated, was in league with the Amorites, the Zuzim of Kanah, Moab and Ammon, and the Jebusites, and had invaded the territories of the Xoite Pharaoh. The Zuzim and Moab were also claimants of strong-holds in Egypt as well as Heth. This was (as we have seen) the motive of the war, which, according to the picture of it, was wonderfully successful. After repelling the invaders from Egypt, Sethos pursues them into Canaan, dislodges them from Adasa in the mountains of Judea, routs them in battle after battle, and overruns the entire land as far as the foot of Hermon, which being then the name of the whole southern face of the mountain-ranges both of Libanus and Anti-Libanus, means of course that he marched through all Canaan or Phenicia. He then vindicates the claims of Arvad in Canaan, i. e. Lower Arvad, to the right of felling timber in the forests of Hermon for the supply of Egypt, where no timber grows. Having accomplished this, he receives an embassy of congratulation, with rich presents, from Tyre, the chief city of Arvad in Ca