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(which is the ancient Egyptian written with Greek characters) had rendered Champollion perfectly familiar with this fact. He therefore put down the fifth character in Ptolemy's name, a boat-stand for m, and the seventh, a crotchet or yoke, for s. Both were soon verified from other names, and the hieroglyphic transcription of the name PTOLEMÆUS was read Ptolmes.
The penultinate letter in Cleopatra is R, which does not occur in Ptolemy. The last character but one in the ring is not found in the hieroglyphic transcription of Ptolemy. It is a human mouth, o which we put down from hence, r.
One step only was now required to complete the analysis of both rings : but here again was a difficulty. The second letter in Ptolemy and the seventh in Cleopatra are both T, but the corresponding charàcters are altogether different. In Ptolemy it is represented by a small stone shaped like the segment of a sphere, and used for polishing, A; but in Cleopatra's ring a human hand has the power of t. This comparison suggested that the same sound had many representatives in hieroglyphicsthe system of homophons, as its discoverer well named it.
The key to the reading of these mysterious writings was now evidently recovered. There is no occasion to proceed further with its history. Its results will be far more likely to interest the reader.
NAMES OF THOSE WHO HAD BEEN SOVEREIGNS IN
EGYPT. These are always written in frames or cartouches.
ROMAN EMPERORS. Augustus Cæsar,
Tiberius Cæsar, (from Esneh.)
(from Philæ.) autkrtr
arsn. plipos. + alksantrs. For Ptolemy and Cleopatra see p. xii.
PERSIAN KINGDOM IN EGYPT. Cambyses. Darius. Xerxes. kmbat.
THE KINGDOM OF THE NATIVE PHARAOHS.
The 26th Dynasty, about 600 B. C. The royal names at this period are all written in two rings. The second ring contains the name, and that only we translate.
The 25th Dynasty about 700 B.C.
The 22nd Dynasty, about 800 B.C.
LXX. the son of Solomon. The picture Sesonchis. of his triumph afterwards, yet reshshnk. mains on the north external wall
of the palace of Karnak in eastern
Thebes. The 20th Dynasty, about the time of the Exodus. Sethos II.
his son, The Pharaoh
who perished M who perished in
with the the Red Sea.
The 19th Dynasty, about the time of Moses.
From this time the royal names, are often written in one ring only.
The 15th Dynasty, Canaanite Shepherds
(so called.) Aphophis the
Cool His capital was Heliopolis,
6 patron of Joseph.
U at the head of the Delta.
ramid of Abusir. Sephuris of the 3rd Dynasty, sanfru. The earliest of the kings of Egypt of whom any cotemporary monument has been found.
The Ist Dynasty. Menes, the
His name as king of Egypt ocprotomonarch curs in that of a prince of the of Egypt. mnei.rm court of Suphis, whose tomb is (Hieroglyphic at Ghizeh. Josephus says that genealogies.) Menes reigned many years be
fore the times of Abraham. The subjoined alphabet is strictly artificial. It gives the characters employed in the foregoing table of kings, arranged under their proper sounds, and no other. a eiou 2.4.1 Alinifts
h b . u or handbagh
sh YmYX ch(guttural)
The ring or frame a which incloses these names is the ground plot of a cattle-pen made of “hurdles," B. The first king of Egypt, the founder of Memphis, was named Menes. From mn-ei, which means “ hurdle-maker.” He first enclosed his name thus as an indication of its meaning. All the kings of Egypt after him were, or professed to be, his descendants, and they also assumed it in token of this consanguinity. So strong was the feeling under the native Pharaohs that every king of Egypt must of necessity be of the race of Menes, that the priests pretended that Cambyses was the natural son of Amasis II, whom he conquered, and Alexander the Great, of Nectanebo, the last native king of Egypt.
We have found the meaning of these characters by taking the names to pieces. In order to show how the system was invented, we must put it together again.