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ing, was seventy days, u.s. Diodorus says, that the time occupied by the process was upwards of thirty days. Our text by reconciling these two passages, seems to indicate, that the same prescription prevailed at both epochs. The forty days were occupied in the actual process, the remaining thirty in the swathing and decoration of the mummy, and the weeping lasted for the whole seventy days.
The customs that prevailed at this seventy days weeping for the dead, are so particularly specified by both authors, and are so remarkably illustrated by the paintings in the tomb of Sa-amun, at Gournou, that there can scarcely be a doubt, that in them we have the counterpart of that which took place on the death of Jacob.
Herodotus says, that on the death of an Egyptian, the females of the household covered their heads and faces with mud, and leaving the house, went about the streets uncinctured, and howling, and beating themselves. The men also beat themselves, but did not defile their persons nor wear their garments unbound. Lib. ii. 83. Diodorus repeats all these particulars, with the addition, that the family of the deceased neither used the bath, nor drank wine, nor changed their garments during this ceremony, which lasted the whole time that the body was in the embalmer's hands.
The mourning for the father of Sa-amun which
is represented on the wall of the tomb at Gournou, where his body was found, so remarkably illustrates these particulars, that we have great pleasure in introducing it. See Plate I.
The occurrence here depicted, must have taken place betwen six and seven hundred years before the times of Herodotus. So that it is not easy to conceive of any ancient fact receiving a more perfect illustration than is supplied by these ancient authorities to the mourning of the Egyptians for Jacob.
“And when the days of weeping for him [lit. his weeping] were past, Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh saying :" Gen. 1. 4.
By the house of Pharaoh we are to understand Pharaoh in council, that is, Pharaoh and the estates of Egypt. The word “house,” had in Egyptian a meaning very similar to that which we apply to it in the phrase "houses of Parliament," i. e., parliament. Thus the hieroglyphic group for a banquet or festal assemblage is litt, “a good house or apartment,” i. e., a room well garnished for the guests. In the same manner the group which exactly translates the expression before us, e lit. “the king's house” is frequently used in the texts with the sense of “council,” and even of “acts of council.” These figurative uses of the word or 01 “house or dwelling," are of importance in the
interpretation of the hieroglyphic texts. Our remarks upon them in this place are rendered necessary by the circumstance, that the phrase nynon'] with the import of “council, or entourage, of Pharaoh ” is scarcely Hebrew, though (as we have seen) it was a very common mode of expression in ancient Egypt.
“If now I have found grace in your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I die : in the grave which I have digged for me in the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me. Now therefore let me go up, I pray thee, and bury my father, and I will come again. And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy father, according as he made thee swear. And Joseph went up to bury his father, and with him went up all the court of Pharaoh, even the nobles of his palace, and all the nobles of the land of Egypt. And all the household of Joseph, and of his brethren, and his father's household. Only their little ones, their flocks and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen. And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen : and it was a very great company. And they came to the plain of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and there they lamented a great lamentation, and a heavy. And Joseph made the funeral abel 7 of his father for seven days. And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the
mourning in the plain of Atad, they said, This is a great funeral from Egypt. Therefore the name of it was called Abel Mizraim, “the funeral of Egypt.” Gen. 1. 4—-11.
Egypt mourned for Jacob with the mourning of a king. No more solemn pomp, no higher or more regal state could have followed the bier on which the mummy of Pharaoh journeyed to its long home. The sons of Pharaoh, the princes and the nobles, the commanders of the armies, the judges, all were there. The chariots and horses of Pharaoh and of the great ones of Egypt swelled the pomp of the procession. The scene before us was no ordinary one. It was not an event of frequent or even occasional occurrence, like the funeral of one of the kings or nobles of the country. The funeral rites which were celebrated for seven successive days on the plains of Atad, were sufficiently removed from either of these categories, to be recorded in the traditions of Canaan, and to give to the place where they were celebrated, a name commemorative of them, which it still retained in the days when Moses wrote, and long afterwards.
We can scarcely review the life of this patriarch thus associated with its closing scene, without calling to remembrance the promise of Him whom Jacob had served so perseveringly and so faithfully: “Them that honour me, I will honour.” i Sam. ii. 30.
The existing monuments of Ancient Egypt do not fail us here, any more than on those former occasions on which we have appealed to them. The word we render “noble,” is, in the original, the literal translation of a title whereby the collective nobility of Egypt is signified on monuments of all epochs. It This epithet was long ago detected by Champollion in the Greek transcription of the name of one of the gods of Egypt, Haroeris, i. e. “ Hor,” (Horus)-Oeris “the greater,” “the elder.” As a title of honor, it is of constant occurrence in the inscriptions on the tombs and coffins of princes. It was supposed to have vanished altogether from the Coptic texts, save in the reflex shadow of it, adumbrated by the interrogative pronoun OTEP, “ how great, quantus ? It was the sagacity of Samuel Birch, of the British Museum, that first pointed out its existence there, under the reduplicated form of hello “ old.” This was the primitive sense of the group which the inspired writer followed, translating it by 178 " elder.” Its determinative is a man bearing the staff with which age supports its tottering steps :
-Juvenal. Sat. III. This staff had become a symbol of office in Egypt altogether irrespective of age, long before the time