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white cloud; and upon the cloud one sitting like to the Son of man, having on his head a crown of gold, and in his hand a sharp sickle.

15 And another Angel came out from the temple crying with a loud voice to him that sat upon the cloud: Thrust in thy sickle, and reap, because the hour is come to reap, for the harvest of the earth is ripe.

16 And he that sat on the cloud, thrust his sickle into the earth, and the earth was reaped. 17 And another Angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle.

18 And another Angel came ut from the altar, who had power over fire: and he cried with a loud voice to him that had the sharp sickle, saying: Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vineyard of the earth: because the grapes thereof are ripe.

19 And the Angel thrust in his sharp sickle into the earth, and gathered the vineyard of the earth, and cast it into the great press of the wrath of God.

20 And the press was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the press, up to the horses' bridles for a thousand and six hundred furlongs.


They that have overcome the beast, glorify God. Of the seven anges with the seven vials.

AND saw another sign in

heaven great and wonderful: seven Angels having the seven last plagues. For in them is filled up the wrath of God.

Joel 3, 13. Matt. 13. 39. 422

2 And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire, and them that had overcome the beast and his image and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having the harps of God:

3 And singing the canticle of Moses the servant of God, and the canticle of the Lamb, saying: Great and wonderful are thy works, O Lord God Almighty⚫ just and true are thy ways, O King of ages.

4 Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and magnify thy name? For thou only art holy: for all nations shall come, and shall adore in thy sight, because thy judgments are manifest.

5 And after these things I looked, and behold the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened:

6 And the seven Angels came out of the temple having the seven plagues, clothed with clean and white linen, and girt about the breasts with golden girdles.

7 And one of the four living creatures gave to the seven Angels seven golden vials, full of the wrath of God, who livetb for ever and ever.

8 And the temple was filled with smoke from the majesty of God, and from his power: and no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven Angels were fulfilled.


The seven vials are poured out: the plagues that encue.

AND I heard a great voice out of the temple saying to the

Jer. 10. 7.

seven Angels: Go, and pour out | pains and wounds, and did not the seven vials of the wrath of penance for their works. God upon the earth.

2 And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth, and there fell a sore and grievous wound upon men, who had the character of the beast; and upon them that adored the image thereof.

3 And the second Angel poured out his vial upon the sea, and there came blood as it were of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea.

4 And the third poured out his vial upon the rivers and the fountains of waters: and there was made blood..

5 And I heard the Angel of the waters, saying: Thou art just, O Lord, who art, and who wast, the holy one, because thou hast judged these things:

6 For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy.

7 And I heard another, from the altar, saying: Yea, O Lord God Almighty, true and just are thy judgments.

8 And the fourth Angel poured out his vial upon the sun, and it was given unto him to afflict men with heat and fire.

9. And men were scorched with great heat, and they blasphemed the name of God, who hath power over these plagues, neither did they penance to give him glory.

10 And the fifth Angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast and his kingdom became dark, and they gnawed their tongues for pain.

11 And they blasphemed the God of heaven, because of their

12 And the sixth Angel poured out his vial upon that great river Euphrates: and dried up the water thereof, that a way might be prepared for the kings from the rising of the sun.

13 And I saw from the mouth of the dragon, and from the mouth of the beast, and from the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs.

14 For they are the spirits of devils working signs, and they go forth unto the kings of the whole earth to gather them to battle against the great day of the Almighty God.

15 Behold I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.

16 And he shall gather them together into a place, which in Hebrew is called Armagedon.

17 And the seventh Angel poured out his vial upon the air, and there came a great voice out of the temple from the throne, 'saying: It is done.

18 And there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders, and there was a great earthquake, such an one as never had been since men were upon the earth, such an earthquake, so great.

19 And the great city was divided into three parts: and the cities of the gentiles fell. And great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give her the cup of the wine of the indignation of his wrath.

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20 And every island fled of the fornications, and the away, and the mountains were abominations of the earth. not found.

21 And great hail like a talent came down from heaven upon men and men blasphemed God for the plague of the hail: because it was exceeding great.


The description of the great harlot, and of the beast upon which she sits.

AND there came one of the

seven Angels, who had the seven vials, and spoke with me, saying: Come, I will shew thee the condemnation of the great harlot, who sitteth upon many


2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed for nication: and they who inhabit the earth, have been made drunk with the wine of her whoredom.

3 And he took me away in spirit into the desert. And I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet-coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.

4 And the woman was clothed round about with purple and scarlet, and gilt with gold, and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand, full of the abomination and filthiness of her fornication. 5 And on her forehead a name was written: A mystery: Babylon the great, the mother

CHAP. XVII. Ver. 5. A mystery: That is, a secret, because what follows of the name and title of the great harlot is to be taken in a mystical sense.-Ibid. Babylon. Either the city of the devil

general; or, ifthis place be to be understood of any particular city, Pagan Rome, which then and for three hundred 424

6 And I saw the woman drunk with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of JESUS. And I wondered when I had seen her, with great admiration.

7 And the angel said to me: Why dost thou wonder? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast which carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.

8 The beast which thou sawest, was and is not, and shall come up out of the bottomless and the inhabitants on the pit, and go into destruction: earth (whose names are not the foundation of the world) written in the book of life from shall wonder, seeing the beast that was and is not.

9 And here is the understanding, that hath wisdom The seven heads are seven mountains, upon which the woman sitteth, and they are seven kings:

and the other is not yet come: 10 Five are fallen, one is, and when he is come, he must remain a short time.

years persecuted the church; and was the principal seat both of empire and idolatry.

This beast which supports Babylon, Ver. 8. The beast which thou sawest. may signify the power of the devil; which was and is not, being much limited by the coming of Christ, but christ. shall again exert itself under Antichrist. The seven heads of this beast are sever mountains or empires, in struments of his tyrammy: of which five were then fallen, as above chap. xiii. 1. The beast itself is said to be the eighth

by his instigation, so that his power is cause they all act under the devil, and were, an eighth empire, distinct from in them all, yet so as to make up, as it them all.

11 And the beast which was, and is not: the same also is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into destruction.

12 And the ten horns, which thou sawest, are ten kings, who have not yet received a kingdom, but shall receive power as kings one hour after the beast.

13 These have one design: and their strength and power they shall deliver to the beast. 14 These shall fight with the 14 These shall fight with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them, because he is Lord of lords, and King of kings, and they that are with him are called, and elect, and


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15 And he said to me: The waters which thou sawest, where the harlot sitteth, are peoples, and and nations, tongues.

16 And the ten horns, which thou sawest in the beast: these shall hate the harlot, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and shall burn her with fire.

17 For God hath given into their hearts, to do that which pleaseth him: that they give

their kingdom to the beast till the words of God be fulfilled.

18 And the woman which thou sawest, is the great city which hath kingdom over the kings of the earth.

1 Tim. 6. 15. Infra, 19. 16.

Ver. 12. Ten kings. Ten lesser kingdoms, enemies also of the church of Christ: which, nevertheless, shall be made instruments of the justice of God for the punishment of Babylon. Some understand this of the Goths, Vandals, Huns, and other barbarous nations, that destroyed the empire of Rome.


The fall of Babylon: kings and mer chants lament over her.

AND after these things I saw another angel come down. from heaven, having great power: and the earth was enlightened with his glory.

2 And he cried out with a strong voice, saying: Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen: and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every unclean spirit, and the hold of every unclean and hateful bird. 8 Because all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication: and the kings

of the earth have committed

fornication with her: and the merchants of the earth have been made rich by the power of her delicacies,

4 And I heard another voice

from heaven, saying: Go out from her, my people: that you be not partakers of her sins, and that you receive not of her plagues.

5 For her sins have reached

unto heaven, and the Lord hath remembered her iniquities. hath rendered to you and

6 Render to her as she also

double unto her double accord

ing to her works: in the cup, wherein she hath mingled, mingle ye double unto her.

7 As much as she hath glorified herself, and lived in delicacies, so much torment and sorrow give ye to her: because she saith in her heart: I sit a queen, and am no widow: and sorrow I shall not see.

8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and

b Isaias 21. 9. Jer. 51. 8. Supra, 14. 8.- Isaias 47. 8.

mourning, and famine, and she | with gold and precious stones shall be burned with the fire: and pearls. because God is strong, who shall judge her.

9 And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication, and lived in delicacies with her, shall weep, and bewail themselves over her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning:

10 Standing afar off for fear of her torments, saying: Alas! alas! that great city Babylon, that mighty city for in one hour is thy judgment come.

11 And the merchants of the earth shall weep, and mourn over her for no man shall buy their merchandise any more.

12 Merchandise of gold and silver and precious stones: and of pearls and fine linen and purple, and silk, and scarlet (and all thyine wood, and all manner of vessels of ivory, and all manner of vessels of precious stone, and of brass, and of iron, and of marble,

18 And cinnamon) and odours, and ointment, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.

17 For in one hour are so great riches come to nought: and every ship-master, and all that sail into the lake, and mariners, and as many as work in the sea, stood afar off,

18 And cried, seeing the place of her burning, saying: What city is like to this great city?

19 And they cast dust upon their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying: Alas! alas! that great city, wherein all were made rich, that had ships at sea, by reason of her prices: for in one hour she is made desolate.

20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets for God hath judged your judgment on her.

21 And a mighty Angel took up a stone as it were a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying: With such violence as this shall Babylon that great city be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.

22 And the voice of harpers, and of musicians, and of them that play on the pipe and on the trumpet, shall no more be heard at all in thee: and no craftsman

any art whatsoever shall be found any more at all in thee: and the sound of the mill shall be heard no more at all in thee:

14 And the fruits of the de-of sire of thy soul are departed from thee, and all fat and goodly things are perished from thee, and they shall find them no more at all.

15 The merchants of these things, who were made rich, shall stand afar off from her for fear of her torments, weeping and mourning,

16 And saying: Alas! alas ! that great city, which was clothed with fine linen and purple and scarlet, and was gilt

23 And the light of the lamp shall shine no more at all in thee: and the voice of the bridegroom and the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth, for all nations have been deceived by thy enchantments.

24 And in her was found the blood of prophets and of salats

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